289 Works

Data from: Dominant bee species and floral abundance drive parasite temporal dynamics in plant-pollinator communities

Peter Graystock, Wee Hao Ng, Kyle Parks, Amber D. Tripodi, Paige A. Muñiz, Ashley A. Fersch, Christopher R. Myers, Quinn S. McFrederick & Scott H. McArt
Pollinator declines can leave communities less diverse and potentially at increased risk to infectious diseases. Species-rich plant and bee communities have high species turnover, making the study of disease dynamics challenging. To address how temporal dynamics shape parasite prevalence in plant and bee communities, we screened >5,000 bees and flowers through an entire growing season for five common bee microparasites (Nosema ceranae, N. bombi, Crithidia bombi, C. expoeki and neogregarines). Over 110 bee species and...

Tracking invasions of a destructive defoliator, the gypsy moth (Erebidae: Lymantria dispar): population structure, origin of intercepted specimens, and Asian introgression into North America

Yunke Wu, Steven Bogdanowicz, Jose Andres, Kendra Vieira, Baode Wang, Allard Cossé & Scott Pfister
Genetic data can help elucidate the dynamics of biological invasions, which are fueled by the constant expansion of international trade. The introduction of European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) into North America is a classic example of human-aided invasion that has caused tremendous damage to North American temperate forests. Recently, the even more destructive Asian gypsy moth (mainly L. d. asiatica and L. d. japonica) has been intercepted in North America, mostly transported by cargo...

Genomics confirms surprising ecological divergence and isolation in an endangered butterfly

Julian Dupuis, Scott Geib, Kendall Osborne & Daniel Rubinoff
Phylogeographic patterns in phytophagous organisms are often contextualized in light of geographic isolation and ecological (host, habitat) specialization. However, assessing the relative impact of these phenomena is not straightforward, even in areas where phylogeography is well-studied, such as the California Floristic Province. Here, we use genome-wide markers to elucidate population genomic and phylgeographic patterns for a group of monophytophagous butterflies in southern California. This group is of high conservation interest because it includes the El...

Microclimate temperatures impact nesting preference in Megachile rotundata

Elisabeth Wilson, Claire Murphy, Joseph Rinehart, George Yocum & Julia Bowsher
The temperature of the nest influences fitness in cavity-nesting bees. Females may choose 14 nest cavities that mitigate their offspring’s exposure to stressful temperatures. This study aims to 15 understand how cavity temperature impacts the nesting preference of the solitary bee Megachile 16 rotundata under field conditions. We designed and 3D printed nest boxes that measured the 17 temperatures of 432 cavities. Nest boxes were four-sided with cavity entrances facing northeast, 18 northwest, southeast, and...

Lower soil carbon stocks in exotic vs. native grasslands are driven by carbonate losses

Brian J. Wilsey, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Kirsten Hofmockel & Steven J. Hall
Global change includes invasion by exotic (non-native) plant species and altered precipitation patterns, and these factors may affect terrestrial carbon (C) storage. We measured soil C changes in experimental mixtures of all exotic or all native grassland plant species under two levels of summer drought stress (0 and +128 mm). After eight years, soils were sampled in 10 cm increments to 100 cm depth to determine if soil C differed among treatments in deeper soils....

Conflicting signal in transcriptomic markers leads to a poorly resolved backbone phylogeny of Chalcidoid wasps

Junxia Zhang, Amelia R.I. Lindsey, Ralph S. Peters, John M. Heraty, Keith R. Hopper, John H. Werren, Ellen O. Martinson, James B. Woolley, Matt J. Yoder & Lars Krogmann
Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are a megadiverse superfamily of wasps with astounding variation in both morphology and biology. Most species are parasitoids and important natural enemies of insects in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we explored a transcriptome-based phylogeny of Chalcidoidea and found that poorly resolved relationships could only be marginally improved by adding more genes (a total of 5,591) and taxa (a total of 65), proof-checking for errors of homology and contamination, and decreasing missing data....

Data from: Corn stover removal responses on soil test P and K levels in Coastal Plain Ultisols

Jeffrey Novak, James Frederick, Donald Watts, Thomas Ducey & Douglas Karlen
This is digital research data corresponding to a published manuscript, Corn stover removal responses on soil test P and K levels in Coastal Plain Ultisols, in Sustainability. 2021. 13:4401. Corn (Zea mays L.) stover is used as a biofuel feedstock in the U.S. Selection of stover harvest rates for soils is problematic, however, because excessive stover removal may have consequences on plant available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations. Our objective was to quantify stover...

Data from: Phylogenetic marker development for target enrichment from transcriptome and genome skim data: the pipeline and its application in southern African Oxalis (Oxalidaceae)

Roswitha Schmickl, Aaron Liston, Vojtěch Zeisek, Kenneth Oberlander, Kevin Weitemier, Shannon C. K. Straub, Richard C. Cronn, Léanne L. Dreyer & Jan Suda
Phylogenetics benefits from using a large number of putatively independent nuclear loci and their combination with other sources of information, such as the plastid and mitochondrial genomes. To facilitate the selection of orthologous low-copy nuclear (LCN) loci for phylogenetics in nonmodel organisms, we created an automated and interactive script to select hundreds of LCN loci by a comparison between transcriptome and genome skim data. We used our script to obtain LCN genes for southern African...

Data from: Declining demographic performance and dispersal limitation influence the geographic distribution of the perennial forb, Astragalus utahensis (fabaceae)

Kathryn C. Baer & John L. Maron
1. A central goal of ecology is understanding the determinants of species’ distributions. ‘Metapopulation’ models for the existence of distributional boundaries predict that species’ geographic ranges arise from the landscape-scale deterioration of habitat suitability towards the range edge (i.e. niche mechanisms), which simultaneously hinders demographic performance and limits dispersal to suitable habitat beyond the edge (i.e. dispersal limitation). However, few studies have examined both of these mechanisms for the same species by examining abundance and...

Data from: Pest tradeoffs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids

Steffen Hagenbucher, Felix L. Wäckers, Felix E. Wettstein, Dawn M. Olson, John R. Ruberson, Jörg Romeis & F. L. Wackers
The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target...

Data from: Global invasion history of the Tropical Fire Ant: a stowaway on the first global trade routes

Dietrich Gotzek, Heather Axen, Andrew Suarez, Sara Helms Cahan, D. DeWayne Shoemaker, Andrew V. Suarez & Heather J. Axen
Biological invasions are largely thought to be contemporary, having recently increased sharply in the wake of globalization. However, human commerce had already become global by the mid-16th century when the Spanish connected the New World with Europe and Asia via their Manila galleon and West Indies trade routes. We use genetic data to trace the global invasion of one of the world's most widespread and invasive pest ants, the Tropical Fire Ant, Solenopsis geminata. Our...

Data from: Native grass ground covers provide multiple ecosystem services in Californian vineyards

Kent M. Daane, Brian N. Hogg, Houston Wilson & Glenn Y. Yokota
1. The mechanisms responsible for the success or failure of agricultural diversification are often unknown. Most studies of arthropod pest management focus on enhancing the effectiveness of natural enemies, but non-crop plants can also improve or hamper pest suppression by changing the host quality of crop plants by reducing or adding available soil nutrients or water. Native perennial ground covers may provide resources and long-term habitat to resident natural enemies and be more compatible than...

Data from: Studying long-term, large-scale grassland restoration outcomes to improve seeding methods and reveal knowledge gaps

Matthew J. Rinella, Erin K. Espeland & Bruce J. Moffatt
Studies are increasingly investigating effects of large-scale management activities on grassland restoration outcomes. These studies are providing useful comparisons among currently used management strategies, but not the novel strategies needed to rapidly improve restoration efforts. Here we illustrate how managing restoration projects adaptively can allow promising management innovations to be identified and tested. We studied 327 Great Plains fields seeded after coal mining. We modelled plant responses to management strategies to identify the most effective...

Data from: Long-term agroecosystem research in the Central Mississippi River Basin: Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed and regional herbicide water quality data

R. N. Lerch, C. Baffaut, E. J. Sadler & R. J. Kremer
PLEASE NOTE, THESE DATA ARE ALSO REFERRED TO IN ANOTHER PUBLICATION. PLEASE SEE http://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2013.12.0518. Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) has been the focus area of a long-term effort to document the extent of and to understand the factors controlling herbicide transport. We document the datasets generated in the 20-yr-long research effort to study the transport of herbicides to surface and groundwater in the GCEW. This long-term effort was augmented with a spatially broad effort within...

Data from: Disruption of gene expression in hybrids of the fire ants Solenopsis invicta and Solenopsis richteri

Lino Ometto, Kenneth G. Ross, D. DeWayne Shoemaker & Laurent Keller
Transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool for unveiling the distribution and magnitude of genetic incompatibilities between hybridizing taxa. The nature of such incompatibilities is closely associated with the evolutionary histories of the parental species and may differ across tissues and between the sexes. In eusocial insects, the presence of castes that experience divergent selection regimes may result in additional distinct patterns of caste-specific hybrid incompatibilities. We analyzed levels of expression of >14,000 genes in two...

Data from: Multilocus analyses reveal little evidence for lineage wide adaptive evolution within major clades of soft pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus)

Andrew J. Eckert, Andrew D. Bower, Kathleen D. Jermstad, Jill L. Wegrzyn, Brian J. Knaus, John V. Syring & David B. Neale
Estimates from molecular data for the fraction of new nonsynonymous mutations that are adaptive vary strongly across plant species. Much of this variation is due to differences in life-history strategies as they influence the effective population size (Ne). Ample variation for these estimates, however, remains even when comparisons are made across species with similar values of Ne. An open question thus remains as to why the large disparity for estimates of adaptive evolution exists among...

Data from: Thermal history of alfalfa leafcutting bees affects nesting and diapause incidence

Kayla Earls, Kendra Greenlee, Monique Porter & Joseph Rinehart
Variable spring temperatures may expose developing insects to sublethal conditions, resulting in long-term consequences. The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata, overwinters as a prepupa inside a brood cell, resuming development in spring. During these immobile stages of development, bees must tolerate unfavourable temperatures. In this study, we test how exposure to low temperature stress during development affects subsequent reproduction and characteristics of the F1 generation. Developing male and female M. rotundata were exposed to either...

Correlation and co-localization of QTLs for stomatal density, canopy temperature, and productivity with and without drought stress in Setaria

Parthiban Thathapalli Prakash, Darshi Banan, Rachel Paul, Maximilian Feldman, Dan Xie, Luke Freyfogle, Ivan Baxter & Andrew Leakey
Mechanistic modeling indicates that stomatal conductance could be reduced to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in C4 crops. Genetic variation in stomatal density and canopy temperature was evaluated in the model C4 genus, Setaria. Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a Setaria italica × Setaria viridis cross were grown with ample or limiting water supply under field conditions in Illinois. An optical profilometer was used to rapidly assess stomatal patterning, and canopy temperature was measured...

Tree species of wet tropical forests differ in their tissue biochemistry and effects on soil carbon dynamics

Ann Russell, Rachel Marek & Daniel Olk
Given the hypothesized effects on soil organic matter (SOM) of polyphenols in plant tissues, differences among tree species in their biochemical composition could influence the turnover and accrual of SOM in various ways. The extent to which the biochemical composition of leaf and fine-root tissues differ among tropical tree species, and the effects on soil dynamics, are largely undocumented, however. We used cupric oxide analyses of plant tissues and soil in long-term, replicated, mono-dominant 15-yr-old...

Data from: Wild bees as winners and losers: relative impacts of landscape composition, quality, and climate

Melanie Kammerer, Sarah Goslee, Margaret Douglas, John Tooker & Christina Grozinger
Wild bees, like many other taxa, are threatened by land use and climate change, which in turn jeopardizes pollination of crops and wild plants. Understanding how land-use and climate factors interact is critical to predicting and managing pollinator populations and ensuring adequate pollination services, but most studies have evaluated either land-use or climate effects, not both. Further, bee species are incredibly variable, spanning an array of behavioral, physiological and life history traits that can increase...

Data from: Latitudinal patterns of alien plant invasions

Qinfeng Guo, Brian Cade, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Holger Kreft, Jan Jan Pergl, Mark Van Kleunen, Patrick Weigelt, Marten Winter & Petr Pysek
Latitudinal patterns of biodiversity have long been a central topic in ecology and evolutionary biology. However, while most previous studies have focused on native species, little effort has been devoted to latitudinal patterns of plant invasions (with a few exceptions based on data from sparse locations). Using the most up-to-date worldwide native and alien plant distribution data from 801 regions (including islands), we compared invasion levels (i.e. alien richness/total richness) in the Northern and Southern...

Data from: Introduced beaver improve growth of non–native trout in Tierra del Fuego, South America

Ivan Arismendi, Brooke Penaluna & Carlos Jara
Species introductions threaten ecosystem function worldwide and interactions among introduced species may amplify their impacts. Effects of multiple invasions are still poorly studied and often the mechanisms underlying potential interactions among invaders are unknown. Despite being a remote and well–conserved area, the southern portion of South America has been greatly impacted by invasions of both the American Beaver (Castor canadensis) and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta fario). Here, we compared growth, condition, diet, and stable isotopes...

Data from: Evidence for spatial clines and mixed geographic modes of speciation for North American cherry-infesting Rhagoletis (Diptera:Tephritidae) flies

Meredith Doellman, Gilbert Saint Jean, Scott Egan, Thomas Powell, Glen Hood, Hannes Schuler, Daniel Bruzzese, Mary Glover, James Smith, Wee Yee, Robert Goughnour, Juan Rull, Martin Aluja & Jeffrey Feder
An important criterion for understanding speciation is the geographic context of population divergence. Three major modes of allopatric, parapatric, and sympatric speciation define the extent of spatial overlap and gene flow between diverging populations. However, mixed modes of speciation are also possible, whereby populations experience periods of allopatry, parapatry, and/or sympatry at different times as they diverge. Here, we report clinal patterns of variation for 21 nuclear-encoded microsatellites and a wing spot phenotype for cherry-infesting...

Trade-offs between seed size and biotic interactions contribute to coexistence of co-occurring species that vary in fecundity

John Maron, Philip Hahn, Kayrn Hajek & Dean Pearson
Despite theoretical advances, the ecological factors and functional traits that enable species varying in seed size and fecundity to coexist remain unclear. Given inherent fecundity advantages, why don’t small-seeded species dominate communities? In perennial grasslands, we evaluated whether small-seeded species are less tolerant of competition from the community dominant bunchgrass than large-seeded species but also less vulnerable to seed predation by mice. We also explored whether trade-offs involving competitive tolerance include two other functional traits,...

Omnivory in predatory ladybird beetles is widespread and driven by an appetite for sterols

Todd Ugine, Stuart Krasnoff & Spencer Behmer
1. Animals maintain physiological and behavioral systems that allow them to detect and consume specific macro- and micronutrients to maximize their fitness. One common physiological system is the nutrient-state-dependent or demand-driven appetite. These systems are well described for macronutrient regulation, but not for micronutrients. 2. Sterols are essential micronutrients that all animals need to survive. They are the backbone of many hormones, important in cell signaling, and an integral component of cell membranes. 3. Lady...

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