280 Works

Data from: Variability in community productivity: mediating effects of vegetation attributes

Wayne H. Polley & Brian J. Wilsey
1. Plant productivity varies though time in response to environmental fluctuations. Reducing variability in productivity requires an improved understanding of how plant community attributes interact with environmental fluctuations to influence plant growth dynamics. We evaluated links between two community attributes, species diversity and abundance-weighted values of specific leaf area (SLA), and temporal variability in grassland productivity at patch (local) and aggregate (multi-patch) spatial scales. 2. Aggregate communities were created by combining patches of spatially-distinct communities...

Data from: Emergence timing and fitness consequences of variation in seed oil composition in Arabidopsis thaliana

Sandra E. Pelc & C. Randal Linder
Early seedling emergence can increase plant fitness under competition. Seed oil composition (the types and relative amounts of fatty acids in the oils) may play an important role in determining emergence timing and early growth rate in oilseeds. Saturated fatty acids provide more energy per carbon atom than unsaturated fatty acids but have substantially higher melting points (when chain length is held constant). This characteristic forms the basis of an adaptive hypothesis that lower melting...

Data from: Risk taking of educated nematodes

Denis S. Willett, Hans T. Alborn, Lukasz L. Stelinski & David I. Shapiro-Ilan
Nematode parasites rely on successful host infection to perpetuate their species. Infection by individual nematode parasites can be risky, however; any one individual could be killed by the host's immune response. Here we use a model system to show that environmental cues and parasite past experience can be used by entomopathogenic nematodes to reduce individual risk of infection. Past parasite experience can more than double the infective virulence (number of host invaders) of a given...

Data from: An integrated occupancy and space-use model to predict abundance of imperfectly detected, territorial vertebrates

Morgan W. Tingley, Robert L. Wilkerson, Christine A. Howell & Rodney B. Siegel
It is often highly desirable to know not only where species are likely to occur (i.e., occupancy) but also how many individuals are supported by a given habitat (i.e., density). For many animals, occupancy and density may be determined by distinct ecological processes. Here we develop a novel abundance model as the product of landscape-scale occupancy probability and habitat-scale density given occupancy. One can conceptualize our model as fully packing a landscape with home ranges...

Data from: Cross-scale occupancy dynamics of a post-fire specialist in response to variation across a fire regime

Morgan W. Tingley, Andrew N. Stillman, Robert L. Wilkerson, Christine A. Howell, Sarah C. Sawyer & Rodney B. Siegel
1. Fire creates challenges and opportunities for wildlife through rapid destruction, modification, and creation of habitat. Fire has spatially variable effects on landscapes, however, and for species that benefit from the ephemeral resource patches created by fire, it is critical to understand characteristics of fires that promote post-fire colonization and persistence, and the spatial scales on which they operate. 2. Using a model post-fire specialist, the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus), we examined how colonization and...

Data from: Hallauer's Tusón: a decade of selection for tropical- to-temperate phenological adaptation in maize

Juliana E. C. Teixeira, Teclemariam Weldekidan, Natalia De Leon, Sherry Flint-Garcia, James B. Holland, Nick Lauter, Seth C. Murray, Wenwei Xu, David A. Hessel, Adrienne E. Kleintop, James A. Hawk, Arnel R. Hallauer & Randall J. Wisser
Crop species exhibit an astounding capacity for environmental adaptation, but genetic bottlenecks resulting from intense selection for adaptation and productivity can lead to a genetically vulnerable crop. Improving the genetic resiliency of temperate maize depends upon the use of tropical germplasm, which harbors a rich source of natural allelic diversity. Here, the adaptation process was studied in a tropical maize population subjected to 10 recurrent generations of directional selection for early flowering in a single...

Data from: Ecotypes of an ecologically dominant prairie grass (Andropogon gerardii) exhibit genetic divergence across the U.S. Midwest grasslands environmental gradient

Miranda M. Gray, Paul St. Amand, Nora M. Bello, Mary Knapp, Karen A. Garrett, Theodore J. Morgan, Sara G. Baer, Brian R. Maricle, Eduard D. Akhunov, Loretta C. Johnson & Matthew B. Galliart
Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is an ecologically dominant grass with wide distribution across the environmental gradient of U.S. Midwest grasslands. This system offers an ideal natural laboratory to study the nature of population divergence and adaptation in spatially varying climates. Objectives were to: (i) characterize neutral genetic diversity and structure within and among three regional ecotypes derived from 11 prairies across the U.S. Midwest environmental gradient, (ii) distinguish between the relative roles of isolation-by-distance (IBD)...

Data from: Five years of phenology observations from a mixed-grass prairie exposed to warming and elevated CO2

Melissa Reyes-Fox, Heidi Steltzer, Dan R. LeCain & Gregory S. McMaster
Atmospheric CO2 concentrations have been steadily increasing since the Industrial Era and contribute to concurrent increases in global temperatures. Many observational studies suggest climate warming alone contributes to a longer growing season. To determine the relative effect of warming on plant phenology, we investigated the individual and joint effects of warming and CO2 enrichment on a mixed-grass prairie plant community by following the development of six common grassland species and recording four major life history...

Data from: Long-term climate and competition explain forest mortality patterns under extreme drought

Derek J. N. Young, Jens T. Stevens, J. Mason Earles, Jeffrey Moore, Adam Ellis, Amy L. Jirka & Andrew M. Latimer
Rising temperatures are amplifying drought-induced stress and mortality in forests globally. It remains uncertain, however, whether tree mortality across drought-stricken landscapes will be concentrated in particular climatic and competitive environments. We investigated the effects of long-term average climate [i.e. 35-year mean annual climatic water deficit (CWD)] and competition (i.e. tree basal area) on tree mortality patterns, using extensive aerial mortality surveys conducted throughout the forests of California during a 4-year statewide extreme drought lasting from...

Data from: Predicting the spread of all invasive forest pests in the United States

Emma J. Hudgins, Andrew M. Liebhold & Brian Leung
We tested whether a general spread model could capture macroecological patterns across all damaging invasive forest pests in the United States. We showed that a common constant dispersal kernel model, simulated from the discovery date, explained 67.94% of the variation in range size across all pests, and had 68.00% locational accuracy between predicted and observed locational distributions. Further, by making dispersal a function of forest area and human population density, variation explained increased to 75.60%,...

Data from: Design of cinnamaldehyde amino acid Schiff base compounds based on the quantitative structure–activity relationship

Hui Wang, Mingyue Jiang, Shujun Li, ChungYun Hse, Chunde Jin, Fangli Sun, Zhuo Li & Chung-Yun Hse
Cinnamaldehyde amino acid Schiff base (CAAS) is a new class of safe, bioactive compounds which could be developed as potential antifungal agents for fungal infections. To design new cinnamaldehyde amino acid Schiff base compounds with high bioactivity, the quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) for CAAS compounds against Aspergillus niger (A. niger) and Penicillium citrinum (P. citrinum) were analysed. The QSAR models (R2 = 0.9346 for A. niger, R2 = 0.9590 for P. citrinum,) were constructed and...

Data from: Does wildlife resource selection accurately inform corridor conservation?

Briana Abrahms, Sarah C. Sawyer, Neil R. Jordan, J. Weldon McNutt, Alan M. Wilson & Justin S. Brashares
Evaluating landscape connectivity and identifying and protecting corridors for animal movement have become central challenges in applied ecology and conservation. Currently, resource selection analyses are widely used to focus corridor planning where animal movement is predicted to occur. An animal's behavioural state (e.g. foraging, dispersing) is a significant determinant of resource selection patterns, yet has largely been ignored in connectivity assessments. We review 16 years of connectivity studies employing resource selection analysis to evaluate how...

Data from: Genetic diversity of the two commercial tetraploid cotton species in the Gossypium Diversity Reference Set

Lori L. Hinze, Elodie Gazave, Michael A. Gore, David D. Fang, Brian E. Scheffler, John Z. Yu, Don C. Jones, James Frelichowski & Richard G. Percy
A diversity reference set has been constructed for the Gossypium accessions in the U.S. National Cotton Germplasm Collection to facilitate more extensive evaluation and utilization of accessions held in the Collection. A set of 105 mapped simple sequence repeat markers were used to study the allelic diversity of 1,933 tetraploid Gossypium accessions representative of the range of diversity of the improved and wild accessions of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. The reference set contained 410...

A spatially explicit model to simulate the population dynamics of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar)

Mandy C. Barron, Andrew M. Liebhold, John M. Kean, Brian Richardson & Eckehard G. Brockerhoff
Removal of host plants is a 'tool' that can be used for the eradication of invasive alien plant pests. We developed a spatially explicit agent-based population model to simulate the population dynamics of the European strain of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, based on Robinet et al. (2008 - Journal of Animal Ecology 77, 966–973. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01417.x). The model was coded in the R language (R Core Team, 2017) and is deposited in this Dryad record. A...

Species complex diversification by host plant use in an herbivorous insect: The source of Puerto Rican cactus mealybug pest and implications for biological control

Daniel Poveda-Martínez, María Aguirre, Guillermo Logarzo, Stephen D. Hight, Serguei Triapitsyn, Hilda Diaz-Soltero, Marcelo Vitorino & Esteban Hasson
Cryptic taxa have often been observed in the form of host‐associated species that diverged as the result of adaptation to alternate host plants. Untangling cryptic diversity in species complexes that encompass invasive species is a mandatory task for pest management. Moreover, investigating the evolutionary history of a species complex may help to understand the drivers of their diversification. The mealybug Hypogeococcus pungens was believed to be a polyphagous species from South America and has been...

Data from: Species-specific variation in germination rates contributes to spatial coexistence more than adult plant water use in four closely-related annual flowering plants

Aubrie James, Timothy Burnette, Jasmine Mack, David James, Vince Eckhart & Monica Geber
1. Spatial partitioning is a classic hypothesis to explain plant species coexistence, but evidence linking local environmental variation to spatial sorting, demography, and species’ traits is sparse. If co-occurring species’ performance is optimized differently along environmental gradients because of trait variation, then spatial variation might facilitate coexistence. 2. We used a system of four naturally co-occurring species of Clarkia (Onagraceae) to ask if distribution patchiness corresponds to variation in two environmental variables that contribute to...

Genomic regions influencing aggressive behavior in honey bees are defined by colony allele frequencies

Arián Avalos, Miaoquan Fang, Hailin Pan, Aixa Ramirez Lluch, Alexander E. Lipka, Sihai Dave Zhao, Tugrul Giray, Gene E. Robinson, Guojie Zhang & Matthew E. Hudson
For social animals, the genotypes of group members affect the social environment, and thus individual behavior, often indirectly. We used genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to determine the influence of individual vs. group genotypes on aggression in honey bees. Aggression in honey bees arises from the coordinated actions of colony members, primarily nonreproductive “soldier” bees, and thus, experiences evolutionary selection at the colony level. Here, we show that individual behavior is influenced by colony environment, which...

Relative reproductive phenology and synchrony affect neonate survival in a nonprecocial ungulate

Eric Michel, Bronson Strickland, Stephen Demarais, Jerrold Belant, Todd Kautz, Jared Duquette, Dean Beyer, Michael Chamberlain, Karl Miller, Rebecca Shuman, John Kilgo, Duane Diefenbach, Bret Wallingford, Justin Vreeland, Steve Ditchkoff, Christopher DePerno, Christopher Moorman, Michael Chitwood & Marcus Lashley
1. Degree of reproductive synchronization in prey is hypothesized as a predator defense strategy reducing prey risk via predator satiation or predator avoidance. Species with precocial young, especially those exposed to specialist predators, should be highly synchronous to satiate predators (predator satiation hypothesis), while prey with nonprecocial (i.e., altricial) young, especially those exposed to generalist predators, should become relatively asynchronous to avoid predator detection (predator avoidance hypothesis). The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in North America...

Disentangling the influence of water limitation and simultaneous above and belowground herbivory on plant tolerance and resistance to stress

Fabiane Mundim, Ernane Vieira-Neto, Hans Alborn & Emilio Bruna
1. Plants face multiple biotic and abiotic stressors simultaneously. Many species can tolerate and resist stress, but countermeasures differ between roots and leaves. Since herbivores and environmental conditions modulate costs and benefits of plant defense traits, stress responses are context-dependent. We examined whole-plant tolerance and resistance responses to individual and combined effects of above and belowground herbivory under variable water conditions. 2. We manipulated water availability and access by two common herbivores (Spodoptera exigua caterpillars...

Species mixture effects and climate influence growth, recruitment and mortality in Interior West U.S.A. Populus tremuloides - conifer communities

Christopher Looney, Wilfred Previant, John Bradford & Linda Nagel
Tree-species mixture effects (e.g., complementarity and facilitation) have been found to increase individual-tree productivity, lessen mortality, and improve recruitment in forests worldwide. By promoting more efficient and complete resource use, mixture effects may also lessen individual-tree-level water stress, thus improving drought-resistance. We investigated the influence of mixture effects on tree productivity, mortality, and recruitment across broad compositional and moisture gradients in high-elevation Interior West US mixed-conifer communities, where Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) is the major...

Recent bark beetle outbreaks influence wildfire severity in mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA

Rebecca Wayman & Hugh Safford
In temperate forests, elevated frequency of drought related disturbances will likely increase the incidence of interactions between disturbances such as bark beetle epidemics and wildfires. Our understanding of the influence of recent drought and insect-induced tree mortality on wildfire severity has largely lacked information from forests adapted to frequent fire. A recent unprecedented tree mortality event in California’s Sierra Nevada provides an opportunity to examine this disturbance interaction in historically frequent-fire forests. Using field data...

Data from: Nutrient enrichment increases invertebrate herbivory and pathogen damage in grasslands

Anne Ebeling & Dana M. Blumenthal
This dataset contains data on leaf damage by invertebrates and pathogens derived in a globally-distributed experiment manipulating nutrient addition (Nutrient Network). In total we estimated leaf damage on 153 plant taxa from twenty-seven grasslands worldwide, under ambient conditions and with experimentally elevated nitrogen and phosphorus. Additionally, we give MAT and MAP from WorldClim 1 for each site and percent cover for each plant species in the respective plot.

Extinct plants of North America north of Mexico

Wesley Knapp, Anne Frances, Reed Noss, Robert Naczi, Alan Weakley, George Gann, Bruce Baldwin, James Miller, Patrick McIntyre, Brent Mishler, Gerry Moore, Richard Olmstead, Anna Strong, Daniel Gluesenkamp & Kathryn Kennedy
The recent study by Humphreys et al., reporting extinction of almost 600 plant species globally, represents a groundbreaking effort at compiling direct data on seed plants. We applaud Humphreys et al. for quantifying plant extinctions because they formulate an important and testable hypothesis. However, their study missed many extinctions and rediscoveries of seed plants in the United States and Canada. Our team of experts has been compiling a list of extinct plants of North America...

Globally, plant-soil feedbacks are weak predictors of plant abundance

Kurt Reinhart, Jonathan Bauer, Sarah McCarthy-Neumann, Andrew MacDougall, José Hierro, Mariana Chiuffo, Scott Mangan, Johannes Heinze, Joana Bergmann, Jasmin Joshi, Richard Duncan, Jeff Diaz, Paul Kardol, Gemma Rutten, Markus Fischer, Wim Van Der Putten, T. Bezemer & John Klironomos
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) have been shown to strongly affect plant performance under controlled conditions, and PSFs are thought to have far reaching consequences for plant population dynamics and the structuring of plant communities. However, thus far the relationship between PSF and plant species abundance in the field is not consistent. Here, we synthesize PSF experiments from tropical forests to semiarid grasslands, and test for a positive relationship between plant abundance in the field and PSFs...

Data from: Genetic evidence for high propagule pressure and long-distance dispersal in monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) invasive populations

Anders Gonçalves Da Silva, Jessica Eberhard, Timothy Wright, Michael Avery & Michael Russello
The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) is a successful invasive species that does not exhibit life history traits typically associated with colonizing species (e.g., high reproductive rate or long-distance dispersal capacity). To investigate this apparent paradox, we examined individual and population genetic patterns of microsatellite loci at one native and two invasive sites. More specifically, we aimed to evaluate the role of propagule pressure, sexual monogamy, and long-distance dispersal in monk parakeet invasion success. Our results...

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