445 Works

Diary, letters and poems of Marjory Fleming

Static chamber measurements of nitrous oxide flux from Sourhope field experiment site, Scotland, 2000-2001 [NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme]

C.A. Davies & U. Skiba
The dataset comprises nitrous oxide (N2O) flux data, collected from static chambers as part of a study to determine how land management affected nitrogen cycling by nitrifiers and denitrifiers in an upland agricultural grassland soil and to determine the effects of changing environmental conditions on nitric and nitrous oxide production and emission as a result of land management. Data were collected during a project funded under the NERC Soil Biodiversity Programme, established in 1999 and...

Qualitative data on socio-economic characteristics from ten villages in Gurue, Mozambique

F. Lupera, M. Carvalho, S. Baumert & F. Vollmer
This dataset contains the transcripts of interviews and discussion groups from ten villages in the Gurue district, Zambezia province, Mozambique. The ten villages were selected from a land scarcity gradient running from villages with abundant land to those with intense land constraints, mainly driven by expanding agricultural activities and population density. The villages had similar infrastructure, soils, rainfall, and vegetation types. The dataset contains information on participatory mapping of the village characteristics, seasonality, how agricultural...

Methane fluxes from peatland plateaus and thawing peatland plateaus and from burnt and unburnt forests from permafrost in subarctic Canada

M.A. Cooper, C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset contains methane fluxes from peatland plateaus and thawing peatland plateaus and from burnt and unburnt forests from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Methane fluxes were monitored during summer in 2013 and 2014 in Yukon and Northwest Territories. Monitored sites included peatland plateaus and thawing features of peatland plateaus.

The seed set of Eschscholzia californica plants introduced into habitats comprising different floral cover

T.M. Evans, M.S. Heard, A.J. Vanbergen, S. Cavers & R. Ennos
This dataset contains seed counts of Eschscholzia californica plants introduced to form experimental arrays within habitats comprising different floral cover. Data was collected in June 2015 at the Hillesden estate, Buckinghamshire, UK. Experimental arrays comprised of three E.californica plants separated by 1m and arranged in a triangular formation. A total of sixteen arrays were introduced across four 100 hectare replicate blocks, each separated by >500m. At the centre of each block, four experimental arrays were...

Boreal forest floor greenhouse gas emissions across a wildfire-disturbed chronosequence

K.E. Mason, S. Oakley, L.E. Street, M. Arróniz-Crespo, D.L. Jones, T.H. DeLuca & N.J. Ostle
Data collected during field experiments to investigate the effect of wildfires on greenhouse gas emissions across forests of differing ages in Sweden. Data comprise greenhouse gas measurements, soil horizon depth, bulk density, loss on ignition, pH, soil phosphorus, carbon and nitrogen, plant species cover, air temperature, soil temperature, soil moisture and surface leaf moisture. Greenhouse gas measurements were taken in the field. Soil cores were collected, then processed and analysed in the laboratory. Plant species...

Household composition, income and assets survey data (including environmental product collection) from Mabalane, Gurue and Marrupa districts, Mozambique in 2014 and 2015

F. Vollmer, J. Fisher, C.M. Ryan, S. Baumert, E. Woollen, A. Luz, I. Cossa, R. Stedham & H. Smith
This dataset includes data collected as part of the Abrupt Changes in Ecosystem Services (ACES) project on the composition, income (including consumption and sale of environmental resources), ownership of assets (e.g. farming equipment, household furnishings and own transport) and wellbeing of respondent households in rural Mozambique. Data are also included from a participatory wealth ranking exercise carried out in each village. Data were collected in a total of 27 villages: 7 villages in Mabalane District...

Social data on human wildlife conflict in ten rural communities of Marrupa, Northern Mozambique

M. Carvalho, F. Lupera, R. Nhamussua, S.N. Lisboa, C. Ryan & N. Ribeiro
This dataset includes the transcript of discussion group activities on Human Wildlife conflict, conducted with ten rural communities in Marrupa District, Niassa (Northern Mozambique). It also comprises the results of semi-structured interviews conducted individually in three of the ten selected communities. The ten villages were selected from a forest cover gradient running from villages with a higher forest cover to those within degraded forest areas and consequently low cover. The villages had similar infrastructure, soils,...

Pollinator data from pan traps located in habitats comprising different floral cover in Buckinghamshire, UK

T.M. Evans, M.S. Heard, A.J. Vanbergen, S. Cavers & R. Ennos
This dataset contains a list of pollinator species caught within pan traps from habitats comprising different floral cover. Data were collected from the Hillesden estate, Buckinghamshire in June 2015. Surveys were conducted alongside four experimental arrays of the Californian poppy, Eschscholzia californica, located with two habitats; a sown wildflower mix and bare, fallow ground. This set-up was repeated over four 100ha blocks separated at a distance greater than 500m. Pan traps comprised three water-filled circular...

Aquatic carbon and greenhouse gas concentrations in the Auchencorth Moss catchment following drain blocking

K.J. Dinsmore, O. Murphey, F. Leith & J. Carfrae
This dataset contains concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, inorganic carbon, CO2, CH4 and N2O in the Black Burn stream which drains Auchencorth Moss peatland in South East Scotland. Concentrations and fluxes have been measured within the Black Burn on an approximately weekly to fortnightly basis from approximately 2006 to present (see https://doi.org/10.5285/3f0820a7-a8c8-4dd7-a058-8db79ba9c7fe). Concentrations in this dataset are from a series of new sites, upstream of the long-term sampling record, adjacent to an area of drains...

Soil dates using 210Pb in profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset consists of soils dated using 210Pb in profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Soil cores were sampled during early summer in 2013 and 2014 from peatland plateaus, thawing peatland plateaus, burnt and unburnt black spruce forests in Yukon and Northwest Territories. The upper part of the soil profile was dated using 210Pb to quantify recent carbon accumulation rates.

Data from: Why do frog and toad forelimbs suddenly (but asynchronously) appear every time metamorphosis is near?

Luigi Zechini, Alison Lilley, J. Roger Downie & Patrick T. Walsh
1. The internal development and the emergence of the forelimbs at metamorphosis is a defining feature of anuran amphibians (frogs and toads). However, although forelimb emergence is considered sudden, it is rarely synchronous. Any asynchrony may or may not exacerbate the increased drag that is predicted to occur with the emergence of the forelimbs at metamorphic climax. 2. Despite the impact forelimb emergence is hypothesized to have on individual survival and life-history evolution, the degree...

Data from: Genotypic variation in a foundation tree (Populus tremula L.) explains community structure of associated epiphytes

Chantel Davies, Christopher J. Ellis, Glenn R. Iason & Richard A. Ennos
Community genetics hypothesizes that within a foundation species the genotype of an individual significantly influences the assemblage of dependent organisms. To assess whether these intra-specific genetic effects are ecologically important, it is required to compare their impact on dependent organisms with that attributable to environmental variation experienced over relevant spatial scales. We assessed bark epiphytes on 27 aspen (Populus tremula L.) genotypes grown in a randomized experimental array at two contrasting sites spanning the environmental...

Data from: Role of sex and migration in adaptation to sink environments

Mato Lagator, Andrew Morgan, Paul Neve & Nick Colegrave
Understanding the effects of sex and migration on adaptation to novel environments remains a key problem in evolutionary biology. Using a single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we investigated how sex and migration affected rates of evolutionary rescue in a sink environment, and subsequent changes in fitness following evolutionary rescue. We show that sex and migration affect both the rate of evolutionary rescue and subsequent adaptation. However, their combined effects change as the populations adapt to a...

Data from: Substantial contribution of submicroscopical Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage to the infectious reservoir in an area of seasonal transmission.

André Lin Ouédraogo, Teun Bousema, Petra Schneider, Sake J. De Vlas, Edith Ilboudo-Sanogo, Nadine Cuzin-Ouattara, Issa Nébié, Will Roeffen, Jan Peter Verhave, Adrian J.F. Luty & Robert Sauerwein
Background: Man to mosquito transmission of malaria depends on the presence of the sexual stage parasites, gametocytes, that often circulate at low densities. Gametocyte densities below the microscopical threshold of detection may be sufficient to infect mosquitoes but the importance of submicroscopical gametocyte carriage in different transmission settings is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings: Membrane feeding experiments were carried out on 80 children below 14 years of age at the end of the wet season in an...

Data from: Expression of parasite genetic variation changes over the course of infection: implications of within-host dynamics for the evolution of virulence

Melanie Clerc, D. Ebert & M. D. Hall
How infectious disease agents interact with their host changes during the course of infection and can alter the expression of disease-related traits. Yet by measuring parasite life-history traits at one or few moments during infection, studies have overlooked the impact of variable parasite growth trajectories on disease evolution. Here we show that infection-age-specific estimates of host and parasite fitness components can reveal new insight into the evolution of parasites. We do so by characterizing the...

Data from: Late-life and intergenerational effects of larval exposure to microbial competitors in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides

Ailsa H. C. McLean, Andres N. Arce, Per T. Smiseth & Daniel E. Rozen
Intergenerational effects can have either adaptive or nonadaptive impacts on offspring performance. Such effects are likely to be of ecological and evolutionary importance in animals with extended parental care, such as birds, mammals and some insects. Here, we studied the effects of exposure to microbial competition during early development on subsequent reproductive success in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, an insect with elaborate parental care. We found that exposure to high levels of microbial competition...

Data from: A framework for estimating the fixation time of an advantageous allele in stepping-stone models

Matthew Hartfield
Determining how population subdivision increases the fixation time of an advantageous allele is an important problem in evolutionary genetics as this influences many processes. Here, I lay out a framework for calculating the fixation time of a positively selected allele in a subdivided population, as a function of the number of demes present, the migration rate between them, and the manner in which they are connected. Using this framework it becomes clear that a beneficial...

Data from: Inbred burying beetles suffer fitness costs from making poor decisions

Jon Richardson, Pauline Comin & Per T. Smiseth
There is a growing interest in how environmental conditions, such as resource availability, can modify the severity of inbreeding depression. However, little is known about whether inbreeding depression is associated with differences in individual decision-making. For example, decisions about how many offspring to produce are also often based upon the prevailing environmental conditions, such as resource availability, and getting these decisions wrong may have important fitness consequences for both parents and offspring. We tested for...

Data from: Fitness decline in spontaneous mutation accumulation lines of Caenorhabditis elegans with varying effective population sizes

Vaishali Katju, Lucille B. Packard, Lijing Bu, Peter David Keightley & Ulfar Bergthorsson
The rate and fitness effects of new mutations have been investigated by mutation accumulation (MA) experiments in which organisms are maintained at a constant minimal population size to facilitate the accumulation of mutations with minimal efficacy of selection. We evolved 35 MA lines of Caenorhabditis elegans in parallel for 409 generations at three population sizes (N = 1, 10, and 100), representing the first spontaneous long-term MA experiment at varying population sizes with corresponding differences...

Data from: Estimating the number of sexual events per generation in a facultatively sexual haploid population

Richard A. Ennos & Xinsheng Hu
In populations of facultatively sexual organisms the proportion of sexually produced offspring contributed each generation is a critical determinant of their evolutionary potential. However, estimating this parameter in natural populations has proved difficult. Here we develop a population genetic model for estimating the number of sexual events occurring per generation for facultatively sexual haploids possessing a biallelic mating type locus (e.g. Chlamydomonas, ascomycete fungi). Our model treats the population as two subpopulations possessing opposite mating...

Data from: Evidence for selection-by-environment but not genotype-by-environment interactions for fitness-related traits in a wild mammal population

Adam Hayward, Josephine Pemberton, Camillo Berenos, Alastair J. Wilson, Jill G. Pilkington, Loeske E.B. Kruuk, Josephine M. Pemberton & Adam D. Hayward
How do environmental conditions influence selection and genetic variation in wild populations? There is widespread evidence for selection-by-environment interactions (S*E), but we reviewed studies of natural populations estimating the extent of genotype-by-environment interactions (G*E) in response to natural variation in environmental conditions, and found that evidence for G*E appears to be rare within single populations in the wild. Studies estimating the simultaneous impact of environmental variation on both selection and genetic variation are especially scarce....

Data from: Patterns of mating and generation of diversity in a Geum hybrid swarm

Markus Ruhsam, Peter M. Hollingsworth & Richard A. Ennos
To understand the evolutionary consequences of hybridization between the outcrossing plant Geum rivale and the selfer G. urbanum we tested the predictions of two simple models which assume either A). low or B). high pollen fitness in hybrids. Model A predicts only four genotypic classes (G. rivale, G. rivale backcross (BCR), F1 and G. urbanum) and asymmetric introgression from inbreeding to outbreeding species. Model B predicts additional genotypic classes and potential generation of novel inbreeding...

Data from: Female Soay sheep do not adjust their maternal care behaviour to the quality of their home range

Charlotte E. Regan, Jill G. Pilkington & Per T. Smiseth
Resource availability, through its impact on the costs and benefits of parental care, is expected to influence parental care behaviour. There has, to our knowledge, been no attempt to understand how variation in the resource use of wild individuals influences individual parental care behaviour. To understand how natural resource variability affects maternal care in female St. Kilda Soay sheep, we selected 69 females whose home ranges varied in quality (measured as the mean percentage cover...

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