46 Works

Data from: RAD-mapping reveals an evolving, polymorphic and fuzzy boundary of a plant pseudoautosomal region

Suo Qiu, Roberta Bergero, Sara Guirao-Rico, Jose L. Campos, Timothée Cezard, Karim Gharbi & Deborah Charlesworth
How loss of genetic exchanges (recombination) evolves between sex chromosomes is a long-standing question. Suppressed recombination may evolve when a sexually antagonistic (SA) polymorphism occurs in a partially sex-linked, “pseudo-autosomal’ region (or “PAR”), maintaining allele frequency differences between the two sexes, and creating selection for closer linkage with the fully sex-linked region of the Y chromosome in XY systems, or the W in ZW sex chromosome systems. Most evidence consistent with the SA polymorphism hypothesis...

Data from: How integrated are behavioural and endocrine stress response traits? A repeated measures approach to testing the stress coping style model

Kay Boulton, Elsa Couto, Andrew J. Grimmer, Ryan L. Earley, Adelino V.M. Canario, Alastair J. Wilson, Craig A. Walling & Adelino V. M. Canario
It is widely expected that physiological and behavioral stress responses will be integrated within divergent stress-coping styles (SCS) and that these may represent opposite ends of a continuously varying reactive–proactive axis. If such a model is valid, then stress response traits should be repeatable and physiological and behavioral responses should also change in an integrated manner along a major axis of among-individual variation. While there is some evidence of association between endocrine and behavioral stress...

Data from: Expression of parasite genetic variation changes over the course of infection: implications of within-host dynamics for the evolution of virulence

Melanie Clerc, D. Ebert & M. D. Hall
How infectious disease agents interact with their host changes during the course of infection and can alter the expression of disease-related traits. Yet by measuring parasite life-history traits at one or few moments during infection, studies have overlooked the impact of variable parasite growth trajectories on disease evolution. Here we show that infection-age-specific estimates of host and parasite fitness components can reveal new insight into the evolution of parasites. We do so by characterizing the...

Data from: Regional heritability mapping method helps explain missing heritability of blood lipid traits in isolated populations

Masoud Shirali, Ricardo Pong-Wong, Pau Navarro, Sara Knott, Caroline Hayward, Veronique Vitart, Igor Rudan, Harry Campbell, Nicholas Hastie, Alan Wright & Christopher Haley
Single single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genome-wide association studies (SSGWAS) may fail to identify loci with modest effects on a trait. The recently developed regional heritability mapping (RHM) method can potentially identify such loci. In this study, RHM was compared with the SSGWAS for blood lipid traits (high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG)). Data comprised 2246 adults from isolated populations genotyped using ~300 000 SNP arrays. The results...

Data from: Integrated radar and lidar analysis reveals extensive loss of remaining intact forest on Sumatra 2007–2010

Murray B. Collins & Edward T. A. Mitchard
Forests with high above ground biomass (AGB), including those growing on peat swamps, have historically not been thought suitable for biomass mapping and change detection using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). However, by integrating L-band (λ = 0.23 m) SAR with lidar data from the ALOS and ICESat earth-observing satellites respectively, and 56 forest plots, we were able to create a forest biomass and change map for a 10.7 Mha section of eastern Sumatra that still...

Data from: Low but significant genetic differentiation underlies biologically meaningful phenotypic divergence in a large Atlantic salmon population

Tutku Aykanat, Susan E. Johnston, Eero Niemelä, Panu Orell, Jaakko Erkinaro & Craig R. Primmer
Despite decades of research assessing the genetic structure of natural populations, the biological meaning of low yet significant genetic divergence often remains unclear due to a lack of associated phenotypic and ecological information. At the same time, structured populations with low genetic divergence and overlapping boundaries can potentially provide excellent models to study adaptation and reproductive isolation in cases where high-resolution genetic markers and relevant phenotypic and life history information are available. Here, we combined...

Data from: State-dependent cooperation in burying beetles: parents adjust their contribution towards care based on both their own and their partner’s size

Natalia Pilakouta, Jon Richardson & Per T. Smiseth
Handicapping experiments on species with biparental care show that a focal parent increases its contribution when its partner is handicapped. Such results are interpreted as evidence for negotiation, whereby each parent adjusts its amount of care to that of its partner. However, it is currently unclear whether the focal parent responds to a change in its handicapped partner's behaviour or state. To address this gap, we conducted an experiment on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides...

Data from: Are molecular markers useful predictors of adaptive potential?

Elizabeth A. Mittell, Shinichi Nakagawa & Jarrod D. Hadfield
Estimates of molecular genetic variation are often used as a cheap and simple surrogate for a population's adaptive potential, yet empirical evidence suggests they are unlikely to be a valid proxy. However, this evidence is based on molecular genetic variation poorly predicting estimates of adaptive potential rather than how well it predicts true values. As a consequence, the relationship has been systematically underestimated and the precision with which it could be measured severely overstated. By...

Data from: Indirect effects of parasitism: costs of infection to other individuals can be greater than direct costs borne by the host

Hanna M. V. Granroth-Wilding, Sarah J. Burthe, Sue Lewis, Katherine A. Herborn, Emi A. Takahashi, Francis Daunt & Emma J. A. Cunningham
Parasitic infection has a direct physiological cost to hosts but may also alter how hosts interact with other individuals in their environment. Such indirect effects may alter both host fitness and the fitness of other individuals in the host's social network, yet the relative impact of direct and indirect effects of infection are rarely quantified. During reproduction, a host's social environment includes family members who may be in conflict over resource allocation. In such situations,...

Data from: Experimental adaptation to marine conditions by a freshwater alga

Josianne Lachapelle, Graham Bell & Nick Colegrave
The marine-freshwater boundary has been suggested as one of the most difficult to cross for organisms. Salt is a major ecological factor and provides an unequalled range of ecological opportunity because marine habitats are much more extensive than freshwater habitats, and because salt strongly affects the structure of microbial communities. We exposed experimental populations of the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to steadily increasing concentrations of salt. About 98% of the lines went extinct. The ones...

Data from: Plasma markers of oxidative stress are uncorrelated in a wild mammal

Louise L. Christensen, Colin Selman, Jonathan D. Blount, Jill G. Pilkington, Kathryn A. Watt, Josephine M. Pemberton, Jane M. Reid & Daniel H. Nussey
Oxidative stress, which results from an imbalance between the production of potentially damaging reactive oxygen species versus antioxidant defenses and repair mechanisms, has been proposed as an important mediator of life-history trade-offs. A plethora of biomarkers associated with oxidative stress exist, but few ecological studies have examined the relationships among different markers in organisms experiencing natural conditions or tested whether those relationships are stable across different environments and demographic groups. It is therefore not clear...

Data from: Bacterial cooperation causes systematic errors in pathogen risk assessment due to the failure of the independent action hypothesis

Daniel M. Cornforth, Andrew Matthews, Sam P. Brown & Ben Raymond
The Independent Action Hypothesis (IAH) states that pathogenic individuals (cells, spores, virus particles etc.) behave independently of each other, so that each has an independent probability of causing systemic infection or death. The IAH is not just of basic scientific interest; it forms the basis of our current estimates of infectious disease risk in humans. Despite the important role of the IAH in managing disease interventions for food and water-borne pathogens, experimental support for the...

Data from: Epigenetic mutations can both help and hinder adaptive evolution

Ilkka Kronholm & Sinéad Collins
Epigenetic variation is being integrated into our understanding of adaptation, yet we lack models on how epigenetic mutations affect evolution that includes de novo genetic change. We model the effects of epigenetic mutations on the dynamics and endpoints of adaptive walks-a process where a series of beneficial mutations move a population towards a fitness optimum. We use an individual-based model of an asexual population, where mutational effects are drawn from Fisher's geometric model. We find...

Data from: A metagenetics approach to determine the diversity and distribution of cyst nematodes at the level of the country, the field and the individual

Sebastian Eves-Van Den Akker, Catherine Lilley, Alex Reid, Jon Pickup, Eric Anderson, Peter Cock, Mark Blaxter, Peter Urwin, John Jones, Vivian Blok, John T. Jones, Catherine J. Lilley, Peter E. Urwin, Vivian C. Blok & Peter J.A. Cock
Distinct populations of the potato cyst nematode (PCN) Globodera pallida exist in the UK that differ in their ability to overcome various sources of resistance. An efficient method for distinguishing between populations would enable pathogen-informed cultivar choice in the field. Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture (SASA) annually undertake national DNA diagnostic tests to determine the presence of PCN in potato seed and ware land by extracting DNA from soil floats. These DNA samples provide...

Data from: Using an insect mushroom body circuit to encode route memory in complex natural environments

Paul Ardin, Fei Peng, Michael Mangan, Konstantinos Lagogiannis & Barbara Webb
Ants, like many other animals, use visual memory to follow extended routes through complex environments, but it is unknown how their small brains implement this capability. The mushroom body neuropils have been identified as a crucial memory circuit in the insect brain, but their function has mostly been explored for simple olfactory association tasks. We show that a spiking neural model of this circuit originally developed to describe fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) olfactory association, can also...

Data from: Asynchronous hatching provides females with a means for increasing male care but incurs a cost by reducing offspring fitness

Lucy E. Ford & Per T. Smiseth
In species with biparental care, sexual conflict occurs because the benefit of care depends on the total amount of care provided by the two parents while the cost of care depends on each parent’s own contribution. Asynchronous hatching may play a role in mediating the resolution of this conflict over parental care. The sexual conflict hypothesis for the evolution of asynchronous hatching suggests that females adjust hatching patterns in order to increase male parental effort...

Data from: Risk of bias in reports of in vivo research: a focus for improvement

Malcolm Robert Macleod, Aaron Lawson McLean, Aikaterini Kyriakopoulou, Styllianos Serghiou, Arno De Wilde, Nicki Sherratt, Theo Hirst, Rachel Hemblade, Zsanett Bahor, Cristina Nunes-Fonseca, Aparna Potluru, Andrew Thomson, Julija Baginskaite, Kieren Egan, Hanna Vesterinen, Gillian L. Currie, Leonid Churilov, David W. Howwels, Emily S. Sena, Stylianos Serghiou, Julija Baginskitae & David W. Howells
The reliability of experimental findings depends on the rigour of experimental design. Here we show limited reporting of measures to reduce the risk of bias in a random sample of life sciences publications, significantly lower reporting of randomisation in work published in journals of high impact, and very limited reporting of measures to reduce the risk of bias in publications from leading United Kingdom institutions. Ascertainment of differences between institutions might serve both as a...

Data from: Determinants of flammability in savanna grass species

Kimberley J. Simpson, Brad S. Ripley, Pascal-Antione Christin, Claire M. Belcher, Caroline E. R. Lehmann, Gavin H. Thomas, Colin P. Osborne & Pascal-Antoine Christin
1. Tropical grasses fuel the majority of fires on Earth. In fire-prone landscapes, enhanced flammability may be adaptive for grasses via the maintenance of an open canopy and an increase in spatiotemporal opportunities for recruitment and regeneration. In addition, by burning intensely but briefly, high flammability may protect resprouting buds from lethal temperatures. Despite these potential benefits of high flammability to fire-prone grasses, variation in flammability among grass species, and how trait differences underpin this...

Data from: Using targeted enrichment of nuclear genes to increase phylogenetic resolution in the neotropical rain forest genus Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)

James A. Nicholls, R. Toby Pennington, Erik J. Koenen, Colin E. Hughes, Jack Hearn, Lynsey Bunnefeld, Kyle G. Dexter, Graham N. Stone, Catherine A. Kidner & Erik J. M. Koenen
Evolutionary radiations are prominent and pervasive across many plant lineages in diverse geographical and ecological settings; in neotropical rainforests there is growing evidence suggesting that a significant fraction of species richness is the result of recent radiations. Understanding the evolutionary trajectories and mechanisms underlying these radiations demands much greater phylogenetic resolution than is currently available for these groups. The neotropical tree genus Inga (Leguminosae) is a good example, with ~300 extant species and a crown...

Data from: Dissecting the hydrological niche: soil moisture, space and lifespan

Gonzalo García-Baquero, Jonathan Silvertown, David J. Gowing & Cipriano J. Valle
Questions: Are communities structured on a hydrological (soil moisture) gradient? Is there spatial segregation into hydrological niches? What is the shape of the hydrological niches of individual species? Controlling for spatial autocorrelation, how much of the spatial structure in the community is due to variation in hydrology? Do annuals and perennials behave alike with respect to the above questions? Locations: La Mina in Moscosa Farm, Salamanca, western Spain (dehesa community) and Laguna Larga in the...

Data from: Hybridisation in closely related Rhododendron species: half of all species differentiating markers experience serious transmission ratio distortion

Tobias Marczewski, David F. Chamberlain & Richard I. Milne
An increasing number of studies of hybridization in recent years have revealed that complete reproductive isolation between species is frequently not finalized in more or less closely related organisms. Most of these species do, however, seem to retain their phenotypical characteristics despite the implication of gene flow, highlighting the remaining gap in our knowledge of how much of an organism's genome is permeable to gene flow, and which factors promote or prevent hybridization. We used...

Data from: The influence of nonrandom extra-pair paternity on heritability estimates derived from wild pedigrees

Josh A. Firth, Jarrod D. Hadfield, Anna W. Santure, Jon Slate & Ben C. Sheldon
Quantitative genetic analysis is often fundamental for understanding evolutionary processes in wild populations. Avian populations provide a model system due to the relative ease of inferring relatedness amongst individuals through observation. However, extra-pair paternity (EPP) creates erroneous links within the social pedigree. Previous work has suggested this causes minor underestimation of heritability if paternal misassignment is random and hence not influenced by the trait being studied. Nevertheless, much literature suggests numerous traits are associated with...

Data from: Crowdsourcing the identification of organisms: a case-study of iSpot

Jonathan Silvertown, Martin Harvey, Richard Greenwood, Mike Dodd, Jon Rosewell, Tony Rebelo, Janice Ansine & Kevin McConway
Accurate species identification is fundamental to biodiversity science, but the natural history skills required for this are neglected in formal education at all levels. In this paper we describe how the web application ispotnature.org and its sister site ispot.org.za (collectively, "iSpot") are helping to solve this problem by combining learning technology with crowdsourcing to connect beginners with experts. Over 94% of observations submitted to iSpot receive a determination. To date (2014), iSpot has crowdsourced the...

Data from: Adaptive divergence in the monkey flower Mimulus guttatus is maintained by a chromosomal inversion

Alex Twyford, Jannice Friedman & Alex D. Twyford
Organisms exhibit an incredible diversity of life history strategies as adaptive responses to environmental variation. The establishment of novel life history strategies involves multilocus polymorphisms, which will be challenging to establish in the face of gene flow and recombination. Theory predicts that adaptive allelic combinations may be maintained and spread if they occur in genomic regions of reduced recombination, such as chromosomal inversion polymorphisms, yet empirical support for this prediction is lacking. Here, we use...

Data from: Sex-dependent dominance at a single locus maintains variation in age at maturity in salmon

Nicola J. Barson, Tuku Aykanat, Kjetil Hindar, Matthew Baranski, Geir H. Bolstad, Peder Fiske, Céleste Jacq, Arne J. Jensen, Susan E. Johnston, Sten Karlsson, Matthew Kent, Thomas Moen, Eero Niemelä, Torfinn Nome, Tor F. Næsje, Panu Orell, Atso Romakkaniemi, Harald Sægrov, Kurt Urdal, Jaakko Erkinaro, Sigbjørn Lien & Craig R. Primmer
Males and females share many traits that have a common genetic basis; however, selection on these traits often differs between the sexes, leading to sexual conflict. Under such sexual antagonism, theory predicts the evolution of genetic architectures that resolve this sexual conflict. Yet, despite intense theoretical and empirical interest, the specific loci underlying sexually antagonistic phenotypes have rarely been identified, limiting our understanding of how sexual conflict impacts genome evolution and the maintenance of genetic...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    46

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    46

Affiliations

  • University of Edinburgh
    46
  • University of Glasgow
    5
  • Centre for Ecology and Hydrology
    4
  • University of St Andrews
    3
  • University of Exeter
    3
  • University of Oxford
    3
  • New York University
    2
  • McGill University
    2
  • University of Leeds
    2
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
    2