11 Works

Data from: Body condition and food shapes group dispersal but not solitary dispersal in a social spider

Bharat Parthasarathy & Hema Somanathan
Dispersal is important for exploitation of new habitat and for outbreeding. A precondition for sociality in spiders is reduced dispersal propensity leading to largely inbred societies. Despite this, social spiders have been observed to disperse from natal colonies and form new or satellite colonies. Proximate factors shaping dispersal, inter-individual variation in dispersal propensities and any advantages accrued from dispersal remain obscure. In the social spider Stegodyphus sarasinorum, we distinguish two types of dispersal: 1) group...

Short neuropeptide F regulates the starvation mediated enhanced locomotor activity in Drosophila

Anna Geo, Himani Pathak, Anamika Elizabeth Kujur, Sreesha R Sudhakar & Nisha N. Kannan
The circadian clock regulates various behavioral, metabolic and physiological processes to occur at the most suitable time of the day. Internal energy stores and nutrient availability modulates the most apparent circadian clock mediated locmotor activity rhythm in Drosophila. Although previous studies unraveled the role of circadian clock in metabolism and activity rest rhythm, the precise pathway through which the circadian neuropeptidergic signaling regulates internal energy storage and the starvation-mediated increase in activity resembling foraging remains...

Data from: Behavioural responses vary with prey species in the social spider, Stegodyphus sarasinorum

Bharat Parthasarathy & Hema Somanathan
Predators living in social groups often show consistent inter-individual differences in prey capture behaviour that may be linked to personality. Though personality predisposes individuals for certain behaviours, responses can also be influenced by context. Studies examining personality-dependent participation in prey capture have largely employed only one prey species, offering the predator no choice. In nature, predators encounter a range of prey species, therefore participation in or leading a prey capture event must also depend on...

Data from: What makes eyespots intimidating? - the importance of pairedness

Ritwika Mukherjee & Ullasa Kodandaramaiah
Background: Many butterflies possess striking structures called eyespots on their wings, and several studies have sought to understand the selective forces that have shaped their evolution. Work over the last decade has shown that a major function of eyespots is their ability to reduce predation by being intimidating to attacking predators. Two competing hypotheses seek to explain the cause of intimidation, one suggesting ‘eye-mimicry’ and the other their ‘conspicuousness’ as the reason. There is an...

Implementing social network analysis to understand the socio-ecology of wildlife co-occurrence and joint interactions with humans in anthropogenic environments

Krishna Balasubramaniam, Stefano Kaburu, Pascal Marty, Brianne Beisner, Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Malgorzata Arlet, Nadine Ruppert, Ahmad Ismail, Sahrul Anuar Mohd Sah, Lalith Mohan, Sandeep Rattan, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah & Brenda McCowan
1. Human population expansion into wildlife habitats has increased interest in the behavioral ecology of human-wildlife interactions. To date, however, the socio-ecological factors that determine whether, when or where wild animals take risks by interacting with humans and anthropogenic factors still remains unclear. 2. We adopt a comparative approach to address this gap, using social network analysis (SNA). SNA, increasingly implemented to determine human impact on wildlife ecology, can be a powerful tool to understand...

Data from: Body size and evolution of motion dazzle coloration in lizards

Gopal Murali & Ullasa Kodandaramaiah
‘Motion dazzle’ patterns are a form of defensive coloration suggested to prevent successful capture during motion by causing predators to misjudge the direction or speed of prey movement. Several studies have found results supporting this idea, but little is known about the factors that favour the evolution of these antipredator colorations. A recent experimental study has suggested that the longitudinal striped patterns on body of lizards can redirect attacks to the tail via the motion...

Predictability of temporal variation in climate and the evolution of seasonal polyphenism in tropical butterflies

Sridhar Halali, Dheeraj Halali, Henry S. Barlow, Freerk Molleman, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah, Paul M. Brakefield & Oskar Brattström
Phenotypic plasticity in heterogeneous environments can provide tight environment-phenotype matching. However, the pre-requisite is a reliable environmental cue(s) that enables organisms to use current environmental information to induce the development of a phenotype with high fitness in a forthcoming environment. Here we quantify predictability in the timing of precipitation and temperature change to examine how this is associated with seasonal polyphenism in tropical Mycalesina butterflies. Seasonal precipitation in the tropics typically results in distinct selective...

Data from: Evolution and biogeography of Memecylon

Prabha Amarasinghe, Sneha Joshi, Navendu Page, Lahiru S. Wijedasa, Mary Merello, Hashendra Kathriarachchi, Robert Douglas Stone, Walter Judd, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah & Nico Cellinese
Premise The woody plant group Memecylon (Melastomataceae) is a large clade occupying diverse forest habitats in the Old World tropics and exhibiting high regional endemism. Its phylogenetic relationships have been previously studied using ribosomal DNA with extensive sampling from Africa and Madagascar. However, divergence times, biogeography, and character evolution of Memecylon remain uninvestigated. We present a phylogenomic analysis of Memecylon to provide a broad evolutionary perspective of this clade. Methods One hundred supercontigs of 67...

Data from: Grab my tail: evolution of dazzle stripes and colourful tails in lizards

Gopal Murali, Sami Merilaita & Ullasa Kodandaramaiah
Understanding the functions of animal coloration has been a long-standing question in evolutionary biology. For example, the widespread occurrence of striking longitudinal stripes and colourful tails in lizards begs for an explanation. Experiments have suggested that colourful tails can deflect attacks towards the tail (the ‘deflection’ hypothesis), which is sacrificable in most lizards, thereby increasing the chance of escape. Studies also suggest that in moving lizards, longitudinal body stripes can redirect predators’ strikes towards the...

Nocturnal bees feed on diurnal leftovers and pay the price of day–night lifestyle transition

Hema Somanathan, Shivani Krishna, Elsa Mini Jos, Vishwas Gowda, Almut Kelber & Renee Borges
Bees exemplify flights under bright sunlight. A few species across bee families have evolved nocturnality, displaying remarkable adaptations to overcome limitations of their daylight-suited apposition eyes. Phase inversion to nocturnality in a minority of bees that co-exist with diurnal bees provide a unique opportunity to study ecological benefits that mediate total temporal niche shifts. While floral traits and sensory modalities associated with the evolution of classical nocturnal pollination syndromes, e.g. by bats and moths, are...

Quantifying the effects of species traits on predation risk in nature: a comparative study of butterfly wing damage

Freerk Molleman, Juhan Javoiš, Robert Davis, Melissa Whitaker, Toomas Tammaru, Andreas Prinzing, Erki Õunap, Niklas Wahlberg, Ullasa Kodandaramaiah, Kwaku Aduse-Poku, Ants Kaasik & James Carey
1) Evading predators is a fundamental aspect of the ecology and evolution of all prey animals. In studying the influence of prey traits on predation risk, previous researchers have shown that crypsis reduces attack rates on resting prey, predation risk increases with increased prey activity, and rapid locomotion reduces attack rates and increases chances of surviving predator attacks. However, evidence for these conclusions is nearly always based on observations of selected species under artificial conditions....

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  • Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram
  • Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
  • Lund University
  • University of California, Davis
  • Utah State University
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Rennes 1
  • University of Wolverhampton
  • National University of Singapore
  • Abasaheb Garware College