Data from: Host-associated genomic differentiation in congeneric butterflies: now you see it, now you don’tAlexander S. Mikheyev, Carolyn S. McBride, Ulrich G. Mueller, Camille Parmesan, Melanie R. Smee, Constanti Stefanescu, Brian Wee & Michael C. Singer
Ecotypic variation among populations may become associated with widespread genomic differentiation, but theory predicts that this should happen only under particular conditions of gene flow, selection and population size. In closely related species, we might expect the strength of host-associated genomic differentiation (HAD) to be correlated with the degree of phenotypic differentiation in host-adaptive traits. Using microsatellite and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers, and controlling for isolation by distance between populations, we sought HAD...
Data from: Low plant density enhances gene dispersal in the Amazonian understory herb Heliconia acuminataMarina Corrêa Côrtes, María Uriarte, Maristerra R. Lemes, Rogério Gribel, W. John Kress, Peter E. Smouse & Emilio M. Bruna
In theory, conservation genetics predicts that forest fragmentation will reduce gene dispersal, but in practice, genetic and ecological processes are also dependent on other population characteristics. We used Bayesian genetic analyses to characterize parentage and propagule dispersal in Heliconia acuminata L. C. Richard (Heliconiaceae), a common Amazonian understory plant that is pollinated and dispersed by birds. We studied these processes in two continuous forest sites and three 1-ha fragments in Brazil's Biological Dynamics of Forest...
Data from: Testing the link between phenotypic evolution and speciation: an integrated paleontological and phylogenetic analysisGene Hunt
1. The punctuated equilibrium model predicts that phenotypic change is concentrated into pulses associated with speciation, with little change otherwise accruing in established lineages. Paleontological tests of this model have generally lacked an adequate phylogenetic and modeling framework, whereas tests relying on extant populations lack direct constraints on the evolutionary dynamics within lineages. 2. The present study extends a modeling approach developed in comparative studies and applies it to a clade with a rich fossil...
Differences in the relative diversification rates of species with variant traits is known as species selection. Species selection can produce a macroevolutionary change in the frequencies of traits by changing the relative number of species possessing each trait over time. But species selection is not the only process that can change the frequencies of traits, phyletic microevolution of traits within species and phylogenetic trait evolution among species, the tempo and mode of microevolution, can also...
The Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) is a common tube-nosed seabird with a disjunct Holarctic range. Taxonomic divisions within the Northern Fulmar have historically been muddled by geographical variation notably including highly polymorphic plumage. Recent molecular analyses (i.e., DNA barcoding) have suggested that genetic divergence between Atlantic and Pacific populations could be on par with those typically observed between species. We employ a multigene phylogenetic analysis to better explore the level of genetic divergence between these...
Data from: Paleoenvironmental and paleobiogeographical implications of a Middle Pleistocene mollusc assemblage from the marine terraces of Baía das Pipas, southwest AngolaJocelyn A. Sessa, Pedro M. Callapez, Pedro A. Dinis & Austin J. W. Hendy
Quaternary raised marine terraces containing the remains of diverse, shallow water marine invertebrate faunas are widespread across coastal Angola. These deposits and faunas have not been studied in the same detail as contemporaneous features in northwest and southernmost Africa. We analyzed the fossil assemblages and sedimentology of two closely spaced Middle Pleistocene marine terrace deposits in Baía das Pipas, southwest Angola. This revealed 46 gastropod and 29 bivalve species, along with scleractinian corals, encrusting bryozoans,...
Data from: The osteology and systematics of the enigmatic Australian Oligo-Miocene metatherian Yalkaparidon (Yalkaparidontidae; Yalkaparidontia; Australidelphia; Marsupialia)Robin M. D. Beck, Kenny J. Travouillon, Ken P. Aplin, Henk Godthelp & Michael Archer
We provide the first detailed description of the osteology of the enigmatic Oligo-Miocene Australian metatherian Yalkaparidon. This taxon exhibits a number of unusual craniodental apomorphies but appears to be plesiomorphic within Metatheria in retaining four molars, rather than three as previously reported. We demonstrate that the only known skull of Yalkaparidon almost certainly represents a single individual. We also tentatively refer a number of isolated tarsals to the genus. Maximum parsimony analyses of a 258...
Data from: Phylogenetic relationships within the lizard clade Xantusiidae: using trees and divergence times to address evolutionary questions at multiple levelsBrice P. Noonan, Jennifer B. Pramuk, Robert L. Bezy, Elizabeth A. Sinclair, Kevin De Queiroz, & Jack W. Sites
Xantusiidae (night lizards) is a clade of small-bodied, cryptic lizards endemic to the New World. The clade is characterized by several features that would benefit from interpretation in a phylogenetic context, including: (1) monophyletic status of extant taxa Cricosaura, Lepidophyma, and Xantusia; (2) a species endemic to Cuba (Cricosaura typica) of disputed age; (3) origins of the parthenogenetic species of Lepidophyma; (4) pronounced micro-habitat differences accompanied by distinct morphologies in both Xantusia and Lepidophyma; and...
Data from: Modelling distributions of fossil sampling rates over time, space and taxa: assessment and implications for macroevolutionary studiesPeter J. Wagner & Jonathan D. Marcot
1. Observed patterns in the fossil record reflect not just macroevolutionary dynamics, but preservation patterns. Sampling rates themselves vary not simply over time or among major taxonomic groups, but within time intervals over geography and environment, and among species within clades. Large databases of presences of taxa in fossil-bearing collections allow us to quantify variation in per-collection sampling rates among species within a clade. We do this separately not just for different time/stratigraphic intervals, but...
Data from: Phylogenetic evidence for a shift in the mode of mammalian body size evolution at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundaryGraham J. Slater
NOTE: Please also see Slater (2014) published in Methods in Ecology and Evolution at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12201 1. Phylogenetic comparative methods provide a powerful way of addressing classic questions about tempo and mode of phenotypic evolution in the fossil record, such as whether mammals increased in body size diversity after the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction. 2. Most often, these kinds of questions are addressed in the context of variation in evolutionary rates. Shifts in the mode of phenotypic...
Data from: The ‘Oxycythereis’ problem: taxonomy and palaeobiogeography of deep-sea ostracod genera Pennyella and RugocythereisMoriaki Yasuhara, Gene Hunt, Hisayo Okahashi & Simone N. Brandão
Systematic revision of the globally distributed deep-sea ostracod genera Pennyella Neale, 1974 and Rugocythereis Dingle, Lord and Boomer, 1990, which have been considered to correspond, at least partially, to nomen nudum but widely used genus name ‘Oxycythereis,’ was conducted to reduce taxonomic uncertainty of these important components of the Modern and fossil deep-sea ostracod community. Approximately 100 specimens from 18 species were examined, ranging in age from the Cretaceous to the present day. Nine new...
Data from: Using a comprehensive DNA barcode library to detect novel egg and larval host plant associations in a Cephaloleia Rolled-leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)Carlos Garcia-Robledo, Erin K. Kuprewicz, Charles L. Staines, W. John Kress & Terry L. Erwin
To fully understand the ecology and evolution of plant-herbivore interactions, information regarding the life history of both immature and adult insect stages is essential. However, most knowledge of plant-herbivore associations is derived from observations of adults. One reason for this bias is that species identification of immature stages is usually challenging. DNA barcodes can be used to identify immature stages to the species-level. This technique compares short sequences of the appropriate DNA barcode loci (e.g.,...
University of Florida2
National Museum of Natural History1
The University of Texas at Austin1
Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County1
University of Queensland1
Humboldt University of Berlin1
Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology1