332 Works

Data from: Simultaneous evolution of multiple dispersal components and kernel

Sudipta Tung, Abhishek Mishra, P. M. Shreenidhi, Mohammed Aamir Sadiq, Sripad Joshi, V. R. Shree Sruti, Sutirth Dey & Mohammed Aamir Sadiq
Global climate is changing rapidly and is accompanied by large-scale fragmentation and destruction of habitats. Since dispersal is the first line of defense for mobile organisms to cope with such adversities in their environment, it is important to understand the causes and consequences of evolution of dispersal. Although dispersal is a complex phenomenon involving multiple dispersal-components like propensity (tendency to leave the natal patch) and ability (to travel long distances), the relationship between these traits...

Data from: Ground ice melt in the high Arctic leads to greater ecological heterogeneity

Michael S. Becker, T. Jonathan Davies, Wayne H Pollard & Wayne H. Pollard
1. The polar desert biome of the Canadian high Arctic Archipelago is currently experiencing some of the greatest mean annual air temperature increases on the planet, threatening the stability of ecosystems residing above temperature-sensitive permafrost. 2. Ice wedges are the most widespread form of ground ice, occurring in up to 25% of the world's terrestrial near-surface, and their melting (thermokarst) may catalyze a suite of biotic and ecological changes, facilitating major ecosystem shifts. 3. These...

A global meta-analysis of temperature effects on marine fishes’ digestion across trophic groups

Nicole Knight, Frederic Guichard & Andrew Altieri
Aim: The temperature constraint hypothesis proposes that marine herbivorous fishes are rare at high latitudes relative to carnivorous fishes because low temperatures impair the digestion of plant material. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of temperature on the digestive performance and investment of marine fishes across trophic groups. Location: Global marine ecosystems. Major Taxa Studied: Marine fishes. Methods: We analyzed data from 304 species consuming a range of diets to quantify the effects...

Data from: Distance-dependent aposematism and camouflage in the cinnabar moth caterpillar (Tyria jacobaeae Erebidae)

James B. Barnett, Innes C. Cuthill & Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel
Defended prey often use distinctive, conspicuous, colours to advertise their unprofitability to potential predators (aposematism). These warning signals are frequently made up of salient, high contrast, stripes which have been hypothesised to increase the speed and accuracy of predator avoidance learning. Limitations in predator visual acuity, however, mean that these patterns cannot be resolved when viewed from a distance, and adjacent patches of colour will blend together (pattern blending). We investigated how saliency changes at...

Data from: Testing for parallel allochronic isolation in lake-stream stickleback

Dieta Hanson, Rowan D. H. Barrett & Andrew P. Hendry
The evolution of reproductive isolation (RI) is a critical step shaping progress toward speciation. In the context of ecological speciation, a critical question is the extent to which specific reproductive barriers important to RI evolve rapidly and predictably in response to environmental differences. Only reproductive barriers with these properties (importance, rapidity, predictability) will drive the diversification of species that are cohesively structured by environment type. One candidate barrier that might exhibit such properties is allochrony,...

Data from: Seabird species vary in behavioural response to drone census

Émile Brisson-Curadeau, David Bird, Chantelle Burke, David A. Fifield, Paul Pace, Richard B. Sherley & Kyle H. Elliott
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide an opportunity to rapidly census wildlife in remote areas while removing some of the hazards. However, wildlife may respond negatively to the UAVs, thereby skewing counts. We surveyed four species of Arctic cliff-nesting seabirds (glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus, Iceland gull Larus glaucoides, common murre Uria aalge and thick-billed murre Uria lomvia) using a UAV and compared censusing techniques to ground photography. An average of 8.5% of murres flew off in...

Data from: An objective approach to select climate scenarios when projecting species distribution under climate change

Nicolas Casajus, Catherine Périé, Travis Logan, Marie-Claude Lambert, Sylvie De Blois & Dominique Berteaux
Occurrences data for three Northeastern-American tree speciestrees_occurrences.zip

Data from: Linking a mutation to survival in wild mice

Rowan D. H. Barrett, Stefan Laurent, Ricardo Mallarino, Susanne P. Pfeifer, Charles C. Y. Xu, Matthieu Foll, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Jonathan S. Duke-Cohan, Jeffrey D. Jensen & Hopi E. Hoekstra
Adaptive evolution in new or changing environments can be difficult to predict because the functional connections between genotype, phenotype, and fitness are complex. Here, we make these explicit connections by combining field and laboratory experiments in wild mice. We first directly estimate natural selection on pigmentation traits and an underlying pigment locus, Agouti, by using experimental enclosures of mice on different soil colors. Next, we show how a mutation in Agouti associated with survival causes...

Data from: Phylogeny of Leavenworthia S-alleles suggests unidirectional mating system evoution and enhanced positive selection following an ancient population bottleneck

Adam C. Herman, Jeremiah W. Busch & Daniel J. J. Schoen
The adoption of self-fertilization from an ancestral outcrossing state is one of the most common evolutionary transitions in the flowering plants. In the mustard family, outcrossing is typically enforced by sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI), but there are also many self-compatible species. The genus Leavenworthia contains taxa that either possess or lack SI. Here we present data showing that SI is associated with strict outcrossing and that there is widespread trans-specific sequence polymorphism at the locus involved...

Data from: Genetic divergence in morphology-performance mapping between Misty Lake and inlet stickleback

Andrew P Hendry, K Hudson, J A Walker, K Räsänen & L J Chapman
Different environments should select for different aspects of organismal performance, which should lead to correlated divergence in morphological traits that influence performance. The result should be genetic divergence in aspects of performance, morphology, and associations (“maps”) between morphology and performance. Testing this hypothesis requires quantifying performance and morphology in multiple populations after controlling for environmental differences, but this is rarely done. We used a common-garden experiment to examine morphology and several aspects of swimming performance...

Data from: Demasculinization of male guppies increases resistance to a common and harmful ectoparasite

Felipe Dargent, Adam R. Reddon, William T. Swaney, Gregor F. Fussmann, Simon M. Reader, Marilyn E. Scott & Mark R. Forbes
Parasites are detrimental to host fitness and therefore should strongly select for host defence mechanisms. Yet, hosts vary considerably in their observed parasite loads. One notable source of inter-individual variation in parasitism is host sex. Such variation could be caused by the immunomodulatory effects of gonadal steroids. Here we assess the influence of gonadal steroids on the ability of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to defend themselves against a common and deleterious parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli). Adult male...

Data from: Assessing among-lineage variability in phylogenetic imputation of functional trait datasets

Rafael Molin-Venegas, Juan Carlos Moreno-Saiz, Isabel Castro Castro, T. Jonathan Davies, Pedro R. Peres-Neto, Miguel Á. Rodriguez & Rafael Molina-Venegas
Phylogenetic imputation has recently emerged as a potentially powerful tool for predicting missing data in functional traits datasets. As such, understanding the limitations of phylogenetic modelling in predicting trait values is critical if we are to use them in subsequent analyses. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between phylogenetic signal and clade-level prediction accuracy, yet variability in prediction accuracy among individual tips of phylogenies remains largely unexplored. Here, we used simulations of trait evolution...

Data from: Exploring the effects of salinization on trophic diversity in freshwater ecosystems: a quantitative review

Luis Fernando De León, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Diana M. T. Sharpe & Anakena M. Castillo
Salinization of freshwater ecosystems represents a potential threat to biodiversity, but the distribution of salinity tolerance among freshwater organisms and its functional consequences are understudied. In this study, we reviewed global patterns of salinity tolerance across a broad range of freshwater organisms. Specifically, we compared published data on LC50 (a metric of salinity tolerance) across climatic regions, taxa, and functional feeding groups (FFGs). We found that microinvertebrates were more sensitive to salinity than vertebrates and...

Data from: Glaciation as an historical filter of below-ground biodiversity

Jerome Mathieu & T. Jonathan Davies
Aim: The latitudinal gradient in species richness is one of the most studied biodiversity patterns. Here we explore a north–south gradient in earthworm diversity, and evaluate the importance of current and historical filters in shaping the distribution of present-day below-ground species richness. Location: France. Methods: Using high-resolution data on earthworm distributions across France, we document the latitudinal gradients in alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) diversity. We relate these gradients to species' traits, taxonomic...

Data from: Effectiveness of continence promotion for older women via community organisations: a cluster randomised trial

Cara Tannenbaum, Rona Agnew, Andrea Benedetti, Doneal Thomas & Eleanor Van Den Heuvel
Objectives: The primary objective of this cluster randomised controlled trial was to compare the effectiveness of the three experimental continence promotion interventions against a control intervention on urinary symptom improvement in older women with untreated incontinence recruited from community organisations. Setting: 71 community organisations across the United Kingdom Participants: 259 women aged 60 years and older with untreated incontinence entered the trial; 88% completed the 3-month follow-up. Interventions: The three active interventions consisted of a...

Data from: Low heritabilities, but genetic and maternal correlations between red squirrel behaviours.

Ryan W. Taylor, Adrienne K. Boon, Ben Dantzer, Denis Réale, Murray M. Humphries, Stan Boutin, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman & Andrew G. McAdam
Consistent individual differences in behaviour, and behavioural correlations within and across contexts, are referred to as animal personalities. These patterns of variation have been identified in many animal taxa and are likely to have important ecological and evolutionary consequences. Despite their importance, genetic and environmental sources of variation in personalities have rarely been characterized in wild populations. We used a Bayesian animal model approach to estimate genetic parameters for aggression, activity and docility in North...

Data from: Parting ways: Parasite release in nature leads to sex-specific evolution of defense

Felipe Dargent, Gregor Rolshausen, Andrew P. Hendry, Marilyn E. Scott & Gregor F. Fussmann
We evaluate the extent to which males and females evolve along similar or different trajectories in response to the same environmental shift. Specifically, we use replicate experimental introductions in nature to consider how release from a key parasite (Gyrodactylus) generates similar or different defense evolution in male versus female guppies (Poecilia reticulata). After 8-12 generations of evolution, guppies were collected from the ancestral (parasite still present) and derived (parasite now absent) populations and bred for...

Data from: Male-mediated species recognition among African weakly electric fishes

Rebecca Nagel, Frank Kirschbaum, Jacob Engelmann, Volker Hofmann, Felix Pawelzik & Ralph Tiedemann
Effective communication among sympatric species is often instrumental for behavioural isolation, where the failure to successfully discriminate between potential mates could lead to less fit hybrid offspring. Discrimination between con- and heterospecifics tends to occur more often in the sex that invests more in offspring production, i.e. females, but males may also mediate reproductive isolation. In this study, we show that among two Campylomormyrus African weakly electric fish species, males preferentially associate with conspecific females...

Data from: Multi-scale quantification of tissue behavior during amniote embryo axis elongation

Bertrand Benazeraf, Mathias Beaupeux, Martin Tcherknookov, Allison Wallingford, Tasha Salisbury, Amelia Shirtz, Andrew Shirtz, David Huss, Olivier Pourquie, Paul Francois & Rusty Lansford
Embryonic axis elongation is a complex multi-tissue morphogenetic process responsible for the formation of the posterior part of the amniote body. How movements and growth are coordinated between the different posterior tissues (e.g. neural tube, axial and paraxial mesoderm, lateral plate, ectoderm, endoderm) to drive axis morphogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we use quail embryos to quantify cell behavior and tissue movements during elongation. We quantify the tissue-specific contribution to axis elongation by using 3D...

Data from: The nature of nurture in a wild mammal’s fitness

S. Eryn McFarlane, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman, Murray M. Humphries, Stan Boutin & Andrew G. McAdam
Genetic variation in fitness is required for the adaptive evolution of any trait but natural selection is thought to erode genetic variance in fitness. This paradox has motivated the search for mechanisms that might maintain a population's adaptive potential. Mothers make many contributions to the attributes of their developing offspring and these maternal effects can influence responses to natural selection if maternal effects are themselves heritable. Maternal genetic effects (MGEs) on fitness might, therefore, represent...

Data from: Unveiling the food webs of tetrapods across Europe through the prism of the Eltonian niche

Louise O'Connor, Laura J. Pollock, João Braga, Gentile Francesco Ficetola, Alessandro Montemaggiori, Luigi Maiorano, Wilfried Thuiller, Marc Ohlmann & Camille Martinez-Almoyna
Aim Despite the recent calls on integrating the interaction networks into the study of large‐scale biodiversity patterns, we still lack a basic understanding of the functional characteristics of large interaction networks and how they are structured across environments. Here, building on recent advances in network science around the Eltonian niche concept, we aim to characterize the trophic groups in a large food web, and understand how these trophic groups vary across space. Location Europe and...

The evolution of reproductive isolation in Daphnia

Tiffany Chin, Carla E. Cáceres & Melania E. Cristescu
Background The process by which populations evolve to become new species involves the emergence of various reproductive isolating barriers (RIB). Despite major advancements in understanding this complex process, very little is known about the order in which RIBs evolve or their relative contribution to the total restriction of gene flow during various stages of speciation. This is mainly due to the difficulties of studying reproductive isolation during the early stages of species formation. This study...

Communities that thrive in extreme conditions captured from a freshwater lake

Etienne Low-Decarie, Gregor F. Fussmann, Alex J. Dumbrell & Graham Bell
Organisms that can grow in extreme conditions would be expected to be confined to extreme environments. However, we were able to capture highly productive communities of algae and bacteria capable of growing in acidic (pH 2), basic (pH 12) and saline (40 ppt) conditions from an ordinary freshwater lake. Microbial communities may thus include taxa that are highly productive in conditions that are far outside the range of conditions experienced in their host ecosystem. The...

Environmental drivers of Sphagnum growth in peatlands across the Holarctic region

Fia Bengtsson, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer Baltzer, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Kjell Ivar Flatberg, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hajek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia Koronatova, Natalia Kosykh, Anna Laine, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina … & Richard J. Payne
The relative importance of global versus local environmental factors for growth and thus carbon uptake of the bryophyte genus Sphagnum – the main peat-former and ecosystem engineer in northern peatlands – remains unclear. 2) We measured length growth and net primary production (NPP) of two abundant Sphagnum species across 99 Holarctic peatlands. We tested the importance of previously proposed abiotic and biotic drivers for peatland carbon uptake (climate, N deposition, water table depth, and vascular...

Adding the third dimension to studies of parallel evolution of morphology and function: an exploration based on parapatric lake-stream stickleback

Grant Haines, Yoel Stuart, Dieta Hanson, Tania Tasneem, Daniel Bolnick, Hans Larsson & Andrew Hendry
Recent methodological advances have led to a rapid expansion of evolutionary studies employing three-dimensional landmark-based geometric morphometrics (GM). GM methods generally enable researchers to capture and compare complex shape phenotypes, and to quantify their relationship to environmental gradients. However, some recent studies have shown that the common, inexpensive, and relatively rapid two-dimensional GM methods can distort important information and produce misleading results because they cannot capture variation in the depth (Z) dimension. We use micro-CT...

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