341 Works

The Paris Climate Agreement and future sea level rise from Antartica

Robert M. DeConto, David Pollard, Richard B. Alley, Isabella Velicogna, Edward Gasson, Natalya Gomez, Shaina Sadai, Alan Condron, Daniel M. Gilford, Erica L. Ashe, Robert E. Kopp, Dawei Li & Andrea Dutton

Data from: Differential impact of severe drought on infant mortality in two sympatric neotropical primates

Fernando Campos, Urs Kalbitzer, Amanda Melin, Jeremy Hogan, Saul Cheves, Evin Murillo-Chacon, Adrián Guadamuz, Monica Myers, Colleen Schaffner, Katharine Jack, Filippo Aureli & Linda Fedigan
Extreme climate events can have important consequences for the dynamics of natural populations, and severe droughts are predicted to become more common and intense due to climate change. We analysed infant mortality in relation to drought in two primate species (white-faced capuchins, Cebus capucinus imitator, and Geoffroy's spider monkeys, Ateles geoffroyi) in a tropical dry forest in north-western Costa Rica. Our survival analyses combine several rare and valuable long-term data sets, including long-term primate life-history,...

Factors influencing fall departure phenology in migratory birds that bred in northeastern North America

Pascal Côté, Émile Brisson-Curadeau & Kyle Elliott
The phenology of migrating birds is shifting with climate change. For instance, short-distance migrants wintering in temperate regions tend to delay their migration in fall during spells of warmer temperature. However, some species do not show strong shifts, and the factors determining which species will react to temperature changes by delaying their migration are poorly known. In addition, it is not known whether a slower migration or a postponed departure creates the observed delays in...

Individual fish infection data from metapopulation epidemics used to calculate resistance, tolerance and competence

Christina Tadiri, Gregor Fussmann & Marilyn Scott
Host competence, defined as the likelihood that a host will transmit infection, may be affected by an individual’s resistance to infection and its ability to withstand damage caused by infection (tolerance). Host competence may therefore be one of the most important factors to impact host-parasite dynamics, yet the relationships among resistance, tolerance, and competence are poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to determine whether individual host resistance (ability to resist or minimize...

Maps of forest-smallholder homesteads in the Chaco at 10x10km² spatial resolution (1985-2015)

Christian Levers, Alfredo Romero-Muñoz, Matthias Baumann, Teresa De Marzo, Pedro David Fernández, Nestor Ignacio Gasparri, Gregorio Ignacio Gavier-Pizarro, Yann Le Polain De Waroux, María Piquer-Rodríguez, Asunción Semper-Pascual & Tobias Kuemmerle
The data contained in the three ZIP files represents the following information on smallholder homestead distribution and dynamics across the Gran Chaco ecoregion: - presence of smallholder homesteads for target years in five-year intervals between 1985 and 2015 [% per grid cell] - net loss of smallholder homesteads between five-year intervals between 1985 and 2015 [% per grid cell] - net gain of smallholder homesteads between five-year intervals between 1985 and 2015 [% per grid...

Biophysical models unravel associations between glucocorticoids and thermoregulatory costs across avian species

Juan Rubalcaba & Blanca Jimeno
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are metabolic hormones that regulate physiological and behavioural responses to environmental change and mediate homeostasis maintenance in vertebrates. Despite the assumption that GCs covary with energy metabolism, we yet lack a mechanistic understanding of how environmental factors such as temperature modulate GC variation through their effect on organismal energy balance. In particular, the mechanisms linking temperature-dependent metabolic rate and GCs at broad spatial scales and across species remain poorly investigated. Here we used...

Differential ESR1 promoter Methylation in the peripheral blood of healthy middle-aged and older women- findings from the women 40+ healthy aging study

Elena Gardini, Gary G. Chen, Serena Fiacco, Laura Mernone, Jasmine Willi, Gustavo Turecki & Ulrike Ehlert
Background Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) contributes to maintain biological processes preserving health during aging. DNA methylation changes of ERα gene (ESR1) were established as playing a direct role in the regulation of ERα levels. In this study, we hypothesized decreased DNA methylation of ESR1 associated with postmenopause, lower estradiol levels and increased age among healthy middle-aged and older women. Methods We assessed DNA methylation of ESR1 promoter region from dried blood spots and estradiol from...

Data for: Parasitism risk and infection alter host dispersal

Celina Baines, Salma Diab & Shannon McCauley
Dispersal determines the spatial dynamics of host-parasite assemblages, particularly during invasions and disease epidemics. The risk of parasitism may create an incentive for dispersal, but infection is expected to reduce dispersal ability, which may alter the host’s dispersal response to biotic stressors including population density. We measured the dispersal of the semi-aquatic insect, Notonecta undulata, in aquatic mesocosms in which we manipulated the presence of ectoparasitic Hydrachnidia mites and of infected conspecifics. We found that...

Five-years of ocrelizumab in relapsing multiple sclerosis: OPERA studies open-label extension

Stephen L Hauser, Ludwig Kappos, Douglas L Arnold, Amit Bar-Or, Bruno Brochet, Robert T Naismith, Anthony Traboulsee, Jerry S Wolinsky, Shibeshih Belachew, Harold Koendgen, Victoria Levesque, Marianna Manfrini, Fabian Model, Stanislas Hubeaux, Lahar Mehta & Xavier Montalban
Objective To assess over 3 years of follow-up, the effects of maintaining or switching to ocrelizumab (OCR) therapy on clinical and MRI outcomes and safety measures in the open-label extension (OLE) phase of the pooled OPERA studies in relapsing multiple sclerosis. Methods After 2 years of double-blind, controlled treatment, patients continued OCR (600 mg infusions every 24 weeks) or switched from interferon (IFN) β-1a (44 μg 3 times weekly) to OCR when entering the OLE...

Introductory gestures before songbird vocal displays are shaped by learning and biological predispositions

Raghav Rajan, Shikha Kalra, Vishruta Yawatkar, Logan James & Jon Sakata
Numerous animal displays begin with introductory gestures. For example, lizards start their head-bobbing displays with introductory push-ups and many songbirds begin their vocal displays by repeating introductory notes (INs) before producing their learned song. Among songbirds, the acoustic structure and the number of INs produced before song vary considerably between individuals in a species. While similar variation in songs between individuals is a result of learning, whether variation in INs are also due to learning...

Data from: The role of behavioural flexibility in primate diversification

Maria Creighton, Dan Greenberg, Simon Reader & Arne Mooers
Identifying the factors that influence species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of the evolutionary processes underlying extant biodiversity. Behavioural innovation, coupled with the social transmission of new behaviours, has been proposed to increase rates of evolutionary diversification, as novel behaviours expose populations to new selective regimes. Thus, it is believed that behavioural flexibility may be important in driving evolutionary diversification across animals. We test this hypothesis within the primates, a taxonomic group with considerable...

Adaptation and competition in deteriorating environments

Romana Limberger & Gregor Fussmann
Evolution might rescue populations from extinction in changing environments. Using experimental evolution with microalgae, we investigated if competition influences adaptation to an abiotic stressor, and vice versa, if adaptation to abiotic change influences competition. In a first set of experiments, we propagated monocultures of five species with and without increasing salt stress for ~180 generations. When assayed in monoculture, two of the five species showed signatures of adaptation, that is, lines with a history of...

Frontal tau pathology underlies behavioural/dysexecutive presentations of Alzheimer’s disease

Joseph Therriault, Tharick Pascoal, Melissa Savard, Andrea Benedet, Mira Chamoun, Cecile Tissot, Firoza Lussier, Min Su Kang, Emilie Thomas, Tatsuhiro Terada, Soham Rej, Gassan Massarweh, Ziad Nasreddine, Paolo Vitali, Jean-Paul Soucy, Paramita Saha-Chaudhuri, Serge Gauthier & Pedro Rosa-Neto
Objective: To determine the associations between amyloid-PET, tau-PET and atrophy with the behavioural/dysexecutive presentation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and how these differ from amnestic AD. Background: The behavioural/dysexecutive variant of AD is a rare clinical syndrome presenting with behavioural changes, apathy and/or executive dysfunction, similar to frontotemporal dementia. Small autopsy studies provide conflicting reports of frontal pathology and recent studies challenge the notion of frontal involvement in this condition. We tested the hypothesis that patterns...

Frequency of biologically-defined AD in relation to age, sex, APOEε4 and cognitive impairment in a prospective cohort study

Joseph Therriault, Tharick Pascoal, Andrea Benedet, Jaime Fernandez-Arias, Tina Wang, Gleb Berzgin, Min Su Kang, Firoza Lussier, Mira Chamoun, Melissa Savard, Cecile Tissot, Gassan Massarweh, Jean-Paul Soucy, Paolo Vitali, Paramita Saha-Chaudhuri, Serge Gauthier & Pedro Rosa-Neto
Objective: To assess the frequency of biologically-defined Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in relation to age, sex and APOEε4, as well as rates of discordance between clinically- and biologically defined AD. Methods: We assessed cognitively unimpaired (CU) elderly (n=166), amnestic MCI (n=77) and probable AD dementia (n=62) subjects who underwent evaluation by dementia specialists and neuropsychologists in addition to amyloid-PET with [18F]AZD4694 and tau-PET with [18F]MK6240. Individuals were grouped according to their AD biomarker profile. Positive predictive...

Data from: Climate change increases predation risk for a keystone species of the boreal forest

Michael Peers, Yasmine Majchrzak, Allyson Menzies, Emily Studd, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Rudy Boonstra, Murray Humphries, Thomas Jung, Alice Kenney, Charles Krebs, Dennis Murray & Stan Boutin
Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) form a keystone predator-prey cycle that has large impacts on the North-American boreal forest vertebrate community. Snowshoe hares and lynx are both well-suited for snowy winters, but climate change associated shifts in snow conditions could lower hare survival and alter cyclic dynamics. Using detailed monitoring of snowshoe hare cause-specific mortality, behaviour, and prevailing weather, we demonstrate that hare mortality risk is strongly influenced by variation in...

Data from: The effects of food supply on reproductive hormones and timing of reproduction in an income-breeding seabird

Shannon Whelan, Scott A. Hatch, Z. Morgan Benowitz-Fredericks, Charline Parenteau, Olivier Chastel & Kyle Elliott
Current food supply is a major driver of timing of breeding in income-breeding animals, likely because increased net energy balance directly increases reproductive hormones and advances breeding. In capital breeders, increased net energy balance increases energy reserves, which eventually leads to improved reproductive readiness and earlier breeding. To test the hypothesis that phenology of income-breeding birds is independent of energy reserves, we conducted an experiment on food-supplemented (“fed”) and control female black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla)....

Food availability and long-term predation risk interactively affect antipredator response

Shotaro Shiratsuru, Yasmine Majchrzak, Michael Peers, Emily Studd, Allyson Menzies, Rachael Derbyshire, Murray Humphries, Charles Krebs, Dennis Murray & Stan Boutin
Food availability and temporal variation in predation risk are both important determinants of the magnitude of antipredator responses, but their effects have rarely been examined simultaneously, particularly in wild prey. Here, we determine how food availability and long-term predation risk affect antipredator responses to acute predation risk by monitoring the foraging response of free-ranging snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) to an encounter with a Canada lynx Lynx canadensis) in Yukon, Canada, over 4 winters (from 2015-2016...

mRNA expression analysis of the hippocampus in a Vervet monkey model of FASD

Roberta Palmour & Rob Gillis
The vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) has proven to be an invaluable tool for researching voluntary alcohol ingestion and the sequelae that can arise from such behaviour. In this study, a vervet monkey model for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder was generated by providing a cohort of alcohol preferring, pregnant dams the option to ingest alcohol between gestational days 90-165 with a corresponding sucrose matched control group. Subsequently, gene expression analysis of the hippocampus was contrasted at...

Data from: Shale-hosted biota from the Dismal Lakes Group in Arctic Canada supports an early Mesoproterozoic diversification of eukaryotes

Corentin C. Loron, Galen P. Halverson, Robert H. Rainbird, Tom Skulski, Elizabeth C. Turner & Emmanuelle J. Javaux
The Mesoproterozoic is an important era for the development of eukaryotic organisms in oceans. The earliest unambiguous eukaryotic microfossils are reported in late Paleoproterozoic shales from China and Australia. During the Mesoproterozoic, eukaryotes diversified in taxonomy, metabolism and ecology, with the advent of eukaryotic photosynthesis, osmotrophy, multicellularity, and predation. Despite these biological innovations, their fossil record is scarce before the late Mesoproterozoic. Here, we document an assemblage of organic-walled microfossils from the 1590-1270 Ma Dismal...

Data from: Risk factors for respiratory illness in a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

Melissa Emery Thompson, Zarin P. Machanda, Erik J. Scully, Drew K. Enigk, Emily Otali, Martin N. Muller, Tony L. Goldberg, Colin A. Chapman & Richard W. Wrangham
Respiratory disease has caused significant mortality in African great ape populations. While much effort has been given to identifying the responsible pathogens, little is known about the factors that influence disease transmission or individual susceptibility. In the Kanyawara community of wild chimpanzees, respiratory illness has been the leading cause of mortality over 30 years, contributing to 27% of deaths. Deaths were common in all age groups except juveniles. Over 22 years of health observations, respiratory...

Data from: Revisiting Darwin’s naturalization conundrum: explaining invasion success of non-native trees and shrubs in southern Africa

Simeon Bezeng Bezeng, Jonathan T. Davies, Kowiyou Yessoufou, Olivier Maurin & Michelle Van Der Bank
1. Invasive species are detrimental ecologically and economically. Their negative impacts in Africa are extensive and call for a renewed commitment to better understand the correlates of invasion success. 2. Here, we explored several putative drivers of species invasion among woody non-native trees and shrubs in southern Africa, a region of high floristic diversity. We tested for differences in functional traits between plant categories using a combination of phylogenetic independent contrasts and a simulation-based phylogenetic...

Data from: Multi-contrast submillimetric 3-Tesla hippocampal subfield segmentation protocol and dataset

Jessie Kulaga-Yoskovitz, Boris C. Bernhardt, Seok-Jun Hong, Tommaso Mansi, Kevin E. Liang, Andre J. W. Van Der Kouwe, Jonathan Smallwood, Andrea Bernasconi & Neda Bernasconi
The hippocampus is composed of distinct anatomical subregions that participate in multiple cognitive processes and are differentially affected in prevalent neurological and psychiatric conditions. Advances in high-field MRI allow for the non-invasive identification of hippocampal substructure. These approaches, however, demand time-consuming manual segmentation that relies heavily on anatomical expertise. Here, we share manual labels and associated high-resolution MRI data (MNI-HISUB25; submillimetric T1- and T2-weighted images, detailed sequence information, and stereotaxic probabilistic anatomical maps) based on...

Data from: Life history change in response to fishing and an introduced predator in the East African cyprinid Rastrineobola argentea

Diana M. T. Sharpe, Silvester B. Wandera & Lauren J. Chapman
Fishing and introduced species are among the most important stressors affecting freshwaters, and can be important selective agents. We examined the combined effects of commercial fishing and an introduced predator (Nile perch, Lates niloticus) on life history traits in an African cyprinid fish (Rastrineobola argentea) native to the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa. To understand whether these two stressors have driven shifts in life history traits of R. argentea, we tested for associations between...

Data from: Quantitative genetic inheritance of morphological divergence in a lake-stream stickleback ecotype pair: implications for reproductive isolation

Daniel Berner, Renaud Kaeuffer, Anne-Catherine Grandchamp, Joost A. M. Raeymaekers, Katja Räsänen & Andrew P. Hendry
Ecological selection against hybrids between populations occupying different habitats might be an important component of reproductive isolation during the initial stages of speciation. The strength and directionality of this barrier to gene flow depends on the genetic architecture underlying divergence in ecologically relevant phenotypes. We here present line cross analyses of inheritance for two key foraging-related morphological traits involved in adaptive divergence between stickleback ecotypes residing parapatrically in lake and stream habitats within the Misty...

Data from: Monoallelic chromatin conformation flanking long-range silenced domains in cancer-derived and normal cells

Domenic Di Paola, John Raelson, Emmanouil Rampakakis, Mark Basik, Maria Zannis-Hadjopoulos & W. Edward C. Bradley
Epigenetic inactivation of chromatin plays an important role in determining cell phenotype in both normal and cancer cells, but our knowledge is still incomplete with respect to any potential monoallelic nature of the phenomenon. We have genotyped DNA isolated from chromatin of two colorectal cancer-derived lines and a culture of normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC), which was immunoprecipitated with antibodies to acetylated vs. methylated histone H3K9, and presented the data as B allele frequency...

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