334 Works

A global meta-analysis of temperature effects on marine fishes’ digestion across trophic groups

Nicole Knight, Frederic Guichard & Andrew Altieri
Aim: The temperature constraint hypothesis proposes that marine herbivorous fishes are rare at high latitudes relative to carnivorous fishes because low temperatures impair the digestion of plant material. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of temperature on the digestive performance and investment of marine fishes across trophic groups. Location: Global marine ecosystems. Major Taxa Studied: Marine fishes. Methods: We analyzed data from 304 species consuming a range of diets to quantify the effects...

Publication release: How well do species distribution models predict occurrences in exotic ranges?

Dat Nguyen & Brian Leung
Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used predictive tools to forecast potential biological invasions. However, the reliability of SDMs extrapolated to exotic ranges remains understudied, with most analyses restricted to few species and equivocal results. We examined the spatial transferability of SDMs for 647 non-indigenous species extrapolated across 1,867 invaded ranges, and identify what factors may help differentiate predictive success from failure. We performed a large-scale assessment of the transferability of SDMs using two modelling...

Data supporting: Environmental RNA degrades more rapidly than environmental DNA across a broad range of pH conditions

Kaushar Kagzi, Robert Hechler, Gregor Fussmann & Melania Cristescu
Although the use and development of molecular biomonitoring tools based on environmental nucleic acids (eDNA and eRNA; collectively known as eNAs) have gained broad interest for the quantification of biodiversity in natural ecosystems, studies investigating the impact of site-specific physicochemical parameters on eNA-based detection methods (particularly eRNA) remain scarce. Here, we used a controlled laboratory microcosm experiment to comparatively assess the environmental degradation of eDNA and eRNA across an acid-base gradient following complete removal of...

Sexual maturity in Barn Owl (Tyto alba)

Paul Béziers & Alexandre Roulin
The age at first reproduction can significantly impact fitness. We investigated the possible source of variation in the age at first reproduction (“sexual maturity”) and its consequences for lifetime reproductive success in a wild population of barn owls. This raptor is sexually dimorphic for two melanin-based plumage traits shown to covary with sex-specific behaviour and physiology. We observed that females were sexually mature earlier than males, an effect that depended on the colour of their...

Data from: Vertebrate scavenging dynamics differ between carnivore and herbivore carcasses in the northern boreal forest

Michael Peers, Sean Konkolics, Yasmine Majchrzak, Allyson Menzies, Emily Studd, Rudy Boonstra, Stan Boutin & Clayton Lamb
Vertebrate scavenging can impact food web dynamics, but our understanding of this process stems predominantly from monitoring herbivore carrion and extrapolating results across carcass types. Recent evidence suggests carnivores may avoid intraguild scavenging to reduce parasite transmission. If this behavior is widespread across diverse ecosystems, estimation of nutrient cycling and community scavenging rates are likely biased to a currently unknown degree. We examined whether the time to initiate scavenging, carcass persistence, or the richness of...

Data from: Seabird species vary in behavioural response to drone census

Émile Brisson-Curadeau, David Bird, Chantelle Burke, David A. Fifield, Paul Pace, Richard B. Sherley & Kyle H. Elliott
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide an opportunity to rapidly census wildlife in remote areas while removing some of the hazards. However, wildlife may respond negatively to the UAVs, thereby skewing counts. We surveyed four species of Arctic cliff-nesting seabirds (glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus, Iceland gull Larus glaucoides, common murre Uria aalge and thick-billed murre Uria lomvia) using a UAV and compared censusing techniques to ground photography. An average of 8.5% of murres flew off in...

Data from: Parting ways: Parasite release in nature leads to sex-specific evolution of defense

Felipe Dargent, Gregor Rolshausen, Andrew P. Hendry, Marilyn E. Scott & Gregor F. Fussmann
We evaluate the extent to which males and females evolve along similar or different trajectories in response to the same environmental shift. Specifically, we use replicate experimental introductions in nature to consider how release from a key parasite (Gyrodactylus) generates similar or different defense evolution in male versus female guppies (Poecilia reticulata). After 8-12 generations of evolution, guppies were collected from the ancestral (parasite still present) and derived (parasite now absent) populations and bred for...

Data from: Microparasite dispersal in metapopulations: a boon or bane to the host population?

Christina P. Tadiri, Marilyn E. Scott & Gregor F. Fussmann
Although connectivity can promote host species persistence in a metapopulation, dispersal may also enable disease transmission, an effect further complicated by the impact that parasite distribution may have on host-parasite population dynamics. We investigated the effects of connectivity and initial parasite distribution (clustered or dispersed) on microparasite-host dynamics in experimental metapopulations, using guppies and Gyrodactylus turnbulli. We created metapopulations of guppies divided into four subpopulations and introduced either a low level of parasites to all...

Data from: Male-mediated species recognition among African weakly electric fishes

Rebecca Nagel, Frank Kirschbaum, Jacob Engelmann, Volker Hofmann, Felix Pawelzik & Ralph Tiedemann
Effective communication among sympatric species is often instrumental for behavioural isolation, where the failure to successfully discriminate between potential mates could lead to less fit hybrid offspring. Discrimination between con- and heterospecifics tends to occur more often in the sex that invests more in offspring production, i.e. females, but males may also mediate reproductive isolation. In this study, we show that among two Campylomormyrus African weakly electric fish species, males preferentially associate with conspecific females...

Data from: Conservation through the lens of (mal)adaptation: concepts and meta-analysis

Alison Derry, Dylan Fraser, Steven Brady, Louis Astorg, Elizabeth Lawrence, Gillian Martin, Jean-Michel Matte, Jorge Octavio Negrín Dastis, Antoine Paccard, Rowan Barrett, Lauren Chapman, Jeffrey Lane, Chase Ballas, Marissa Close & Erika Crispo
Evolutionary approaches are gaining popularity in conservation science, with diverse strategies applied in efforts to support adaptive population outcomes. Yet conservation strategies differ in the type of adaptive outcomes they promote as conservation goals. For instance, strategies based on genetic or demographic rescue implicitly target adaptive population states whereas strategies utilizing transgenerational plasticity or evolutionary rescue implicitly target adaptive processes. These two goals are somewhat polar: adaptive state strategies optimize current population fitness, which should...

Data from: The nature of nurture in a wild mammal’s fitness

S. Eryn McFarlane, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman, Murray M. Humphries, Stan Boutin & Andrew G. McAdam
Genetic variation in fitness is required for the adaptive evolution of any trait but natural selection is thought to erode genetic variance in fitness. This paradox has motivated the search for mechanisms that might maintain a population's adaptive potential. Mothers make many contributions to the attributes of their developing offspring and these maternal effects can influence responses to natural selection if maternal effects are themselves heritable. Maternal genetic effects (MGEs) on fitness might, therefore, represent...

Data from: Taller plants have lower rates of molecular evolution

Robert Lanfear, Simon Y. W. Ho, T. Jonathan Davies, Angela T. Moles, Lonnie Aarssen, Nathan G. Swenson, Laura Warman, Amy E. Zanne & Andrew P. Allen
Rates of molecular evolution have a central role in our understanding of many aspects of species’ biology. However, the causes of variation in rates of molecular evolution remain poorly understood, particularly in plants. Here we show that height accounts for about one-fifth of the among-lineage rate variation in the chloroplast and nuclear genomes of plants. This relationship holds across 138 families of flowering plants, and when accounting for variation in species richness, temperature, ultraviolet radiation,...

Data from: Assessing among-lineage variability in phylogenetic imputation of functional trait datasets

Rafael Molin-Venegas, Juan Carlos Moreno-Saiz, Isabel Castro Castro, T. Jonathan Davies, Pedro R. Peres-Neto, Miguel Á. Rodriguez & Rafael Molina-Venegas
Phylogenetic imputation has recently emerged as a potentially powerful tool for predicting missing data in functional traits datasets. As such, understanding the limitations of phylogenetic modelling in predicting trait values is critical if we are to use them in subsequent analyses. Previous studies have focused on the relationship between phylogenetic signal and clade-level prediction accuracy, yet variability in prediction accuracy among individual tips of phylogenies remains largely unexplored. Here, we used simulations of trait evolution...

Data from: Parallel and non-parallel behavioural evolution in response to parasitism and predation in Trinidadian guppies

Lisa Jacquin, Simon M. Reader, Amandine Boniface, Jaquelynn Mateluna, Iola Patalas, Felipe Pérez-Jvostov & Andrew P. Hendry
Natural enemies such as predators and parasites are known to shape intra-specific variability of behaviour and personality in natural populations, yet several key questions remain: (1) What is the relative importance of predation versus parasitism in shaping intra-specific variation of behaviour across generations? (2) What are the contributions of genetic and plastic effects to this behavioural divergence? And (3) to what extent are responses to predation and parasitism repeatable across independent evolutionary lineages? We addressed...

Data from: Evolution of mammalian migrations for refuge, breeding, and food

Gitanjali E. Gnanadesikan, William D. Pearse & Allison K. Shaw
Many organisms migrate between distinct habitats, exploiting variable resources while profoundly affecting ecosystem services, disease spread, and human welfare. However, the very characteristics that make migration captivating and significant also make it difficult to study, and we lack a comprehensive understanding of which species migrate and why. Here we show that, among mammals, migration is concentrated within Cetacea and Artiodactyla but also diffusely spread throughout the class (found in 12 of 27 orders). We synthesize...

Data from: Population correlates of rapid captive-induced maladaptation in a wild fish

Dylan J. Fraser, Lisa Walker, Matthew C. Yates, Kia Marin, Jacquelyn L.A. Wood, Thais A. Bernos, Carol Zastavniouk & Jacquelyn L. A. Wood
Understanding the extent to which captivity generates maladaptation in wild species can inform species recovery programs and elucidate wild population responses to novel environmental change. Though rarely quantified, effective population size (Ne) and genetic diversity should influence the magnitude of plastic and genetic changes manifested in captivity that reduce wild fitness. Sexually-dimorphic traits might also mediate consequences of captivity. To evaluate these relationships, we generated >600 full- and half-sibling families from nine wild brook trout...

Data from: The spatial structure of phylogenetic and functional diversity in the United States and Canada: an example using the sedge family (Cyperaceae)

Daniel Spalink, Jocelyn Pender, Marcial Escudero, Andrew L. Hipp, Eric H. Roalson, Julian R. Starr, Marcia J. Waterway, Lynn Bohs & Kenneth J. Sytsma
Systematically quantifying diversity across landscapes is necessary to understand how clade history and ecological heterogeneity contribute to the origin, distribution, and maintenance of biodiversity. Here, we chart the spatial structure of diversity among all species in the sedge family (Cyperaceae) throughout the USA and Canada. We first identify areas of remarkable species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional trait diversity, and highlight regions of conservation priority. We then test predictions about the spatial structure of this...

Data from: Experimental evidence does not support the Habitat Amount Hypothesis

Nick M. Haddad, Andrew Gonzalez, Lars A. Brudvig, Melissa A. Burt, Douglas J. Levey & Ellen I. Damschen
For a half century, habitat configuration – the arrangement of habitat patches within a landscape – has been central to theories of landscape ecology, population dynamics, and community assembly, in addition to conservation strategies. A recent hypothesis advanced by Fahrig (2013) would, if supported, greatly diminish the relevance of habitat configuration as a predictor of diversity. The Habitat Amount Hypothesis posits that the sample area effect overrides patch size and patch isolation effects of habitat...

Data from: Multi-scale quantification of tissue behavior during amniote embryo axis elongation

Bertrand Benazeraf, Mathias Beaupeux, Martin Tcherknookov, Allison Wallingford, Tasha Salisbury, Amelia Shirtz, Andrew Shirtz, David Huss, Olivier Pourquie, Paul Francois & Rusty Lansford
Embryonic axis elongation is a complex multi-tissue morphogenetic process responsible for the formation of the posterior part of the amniote body. How movements and growth are coordinated between the different posterior tissues (e.g. neural tube, axial and paraxial mesoderm, lateral plate, ectoderm, endoderm) to drive axis morphogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we use quail embryos to quantify cell behavior and tissue movements during elongation. We quantify the tissue-specific contribution to axis elongation by using 3D...

Data from: Courtship song preferences in female zebra finches are shaped by developmental auditory experience

Yining Chen, Oliver Clark & Sarah C. Woolley
The performance of courtship signals provides information about the behavioural state and quality of the signaller, and females can use such information for social decision-making (e.g. mate choice). However, relatively little is known about the degree to which the perception of and preference for differences in motor performance are shaped by developmental experiences. Furthermore, the neural substrates that development could act upon to influence the processing of performance features remains largely unknown. In songbirds, females...

Data from: Within-season synchrony of a masting conifer enhances seed escape

Devan W. Archibald, Andrew G. McAdam, Stan Boutin, Quinn E. Fletcher & Murray M. Humphries
Predator satiation resulting from interannual reproductive synchrony has been widely documented in masting plants, but how reproductive synchrony within a year influences seed escape is poorly understood. We evaluated whether the intra-annual reproductive synchrony of individual white spruce trees (Picea glauca) increased seed escape from their primary predispersal seed predator, North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Trees with cones that matured synchronously relative to those of other trees within red squirrel territories were significantly more...

Data from: \"De novo assembly transcriptome for the rostrum dace (Leuciscus burdigalensis, Cyprinidae: fish) naturally infected by a copepod ectoparasite\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 December 2014 to 31 January 2015

Olivier Rey, Géraldine Loot, Olivier Bouchez, Simon Blanchet, Maria Jose Ruiz-Lopez, Nelson Ting, Paul D. Etter, Eric A. Johnson, Tony L. Goldberg, Colin A. Chapman, James H. Jones, Patrick A. Omeja & William M. Switzer
The emergence of pathogens represents substantial threats to public health, livestock, domesticated animals, and biodiversity. How wild populations respond to emerging pathogens has generated a lot of interest in the last two decades. With the recent advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies it is now possible to develop large transcriptomic resources for non-model organisms, hence allowing new research avenues on the immune responses of hosts from a large taxonomic spectra. We here focused on a wild...

Data from: Demasculinization of male guppies increases resistance to a common and harmful ectoparasite

Felipe Dargent, Adam R. Reddon, William T. Swaney, Gregor F. Fussmann, Simon M. Reader, Marilyn E. Scott & Mark R. Forbes
Parasites are detrimental to host fitness and therefore should strongly select for host defence mechanisms. Yet, hosts vary considerably in their observed parasite loads. One notable source of inter-individual variation in parasitism is host sex. Such variation could be caused by the immunomodulatory effects of gonadal steroids. Here we assess the influence of gonadal steroids on the ability of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to defend themselves against a common and deleterious parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli). Adult male...

Data from: Subgenome dominance in an interspecific hybrid, synthetic allopolyploid, and a 140-year-old naturally established neo-allopolyploid monkeyflower

Patrick P. Edger, Ronald D. Smith, Michael R. McKain, Arielle M. Cooley, Mario Vallejo-Marin, Yao-Wu Yuan, Adam J. Bewick, Lexiang Ji, Adrian E. Platts, Megan J. Bowman, Kevin Childs, Jacob D. Washburn, Robert Schmitz, Gregory D. Smith, J. Chris Pires & Joshua R. Puzey
Recent studies have shown that one of the parental subgenomes in ancient polyploids is generally more dominant - having both retained more genes and being more highly expressed - a phenomenon termed subgenome dominance. The genomic features that determine how quickly and which subgenome dominates within a newly formed polyploid remain poorly understood. To investigate the rate of subgenome dominance emergence, we examined gene expression, gene methylation, and transposable element (TE) methylation in a natural,...

Data from: Globally, functional traits are weak predictors of juvenile tree growth, and we do not know why

C. E. Timothy Paine, Lucy Amissah, Harald Auge, Christopher Baraloto, Martin Baruffol, Nils Bourland, Helge Bruelheide, Kasso Daïnou, Roland C. De Gouvenain, Jean-Louis Doucet, Susan Doust, Paul V. A. Fine, Claire Fortunel, Josephine Haase, Karen D. Holl, Hervé Jactel, Xuefei Li, Kaoru Kitajima, Julia Koricheva, Cristina Martínez-Garza, Christian Messier, Alain Paquette, Christopher Philipson, Daniel Piotto, Lourens Poorter … & Andy Hector
1. Plant functional traits, in particular specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and seed mass, are often good predictors of individual tree growth rates within communities. Individuals and species with high SLA, low wood density and small seeds tend to have faster growth rates. 2. If community-level relationships between traits and growth have general predictive value, then similar relationships should also be observed in analyses that integrate across taxa, biogeographic regions and environments. Such global...

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