195 Works

Data for: Causes and consequences of variation in diet composition of nestling Canada jays

Nikole Freeman
Diet quality during development can impact growth, physiology, behaviour, and survival. The Canada jay is a resident boreal passerine that caches a wide variety of perishable food items in late summer and autumn for its over-winter survival and late-winter reproduction. A previous experiment found evidence that food supplementation of Canada jay pairs during the nestling period had a positive effect on the condition of their nestlings. However, given that foods cached by adults vary widely...

Diversity and phylogenetic community structure across elevation during climate change in a family of hyperdiverse neotropical beetles (Staphylinidae)

M. Alex Smith
Environmental stress from abiotic conditions imposes physiological limits on individuals within communities, and these stressful conditions can act as a filter on the species present in any given environment. Such abiotic stressors can reduce a community’s diversity and make its composition more phylogenetically clustered. Using a decade of staphylinid beetle (Staphylinidae, Coleoptera, rove beetles) collections made across a 1,500 m elevation gradient in northwestern Costa Rica (2008-2017) we asked what species lived there, how large...

Independent evolutionary changes in fine-root traits among main clades during the diversification of seed plants

Oscar Valverde-Barrantes, Hafiz Maherali, Christopher Baraloto & Christopher Blackwood
Rationale: Changes in fine-root morphology are typically associated with transitions from the ancestral arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) to the alternative ectomycorrhizal (ECM) or non-mycorrhizal (NM) associations. However, the modifications in root morphology may also coincide with new modifications in leaf hydraulics and growth habit during angiosperm diversification. These hypotheses have not been evaluated concurrently, which limits our understanding of the causes of fine-root evolution. Methods: To explore the evolution of fine-root systems, we assembled a 600+...

Data from: Biomass–density relationships of plant communities deviate from the self‐thinning rule due to age structure and abiotic stress

Maximiliane Herberich, Sebastian Gayler, Madhur Anand, Katja Tielbörger & Maximiliane Marion Herberich
A pertinent debate in plant ecology centers around the generality of the self-thinning rule. However, studies focused on highly simplified settings such as even-aged monospecific populations or optimal conditions. This neglects the fact that most natural communities, to which the classical self-thinning slope is often applied, are age-structured, composed of multiple species and exposed to various types of abiotic stress. With the help of an individual-based model, we relax these simplified assumptions and systematically test...

Long-term evidence shows crop-rotation diversification increases agricultural resilience to adverse growing conditions in North America

Timothy Bowles, Maria Mooshammer, Yvonne Socolar, Franciso Calderón, Michel Cavigelli, Steve Culman, William Dean, Axel Garcia Y Garcia, Amélie Gaudin, W Scott Harkom, Michael Lehman, Shannon Osborne, G Philip Robertson, Jonathan Salerno, Marty Schmer, Jeffrey Strock, A Stuart Grandy & Craig Drury
A grand challenge facing humanity is how to produce food for a growing population in the face of a changing climate and environmental degradation. Though empirical evidence remains sparse, management strategies that increase environmental sustainability, like increasing agroecosystem diversity through crop rotations, may also increase resilience to weather extremes without sacrificing yields. We used multilevel regression analyses of long-term crop yield datasets across a continental precipitation gradient to assess how temporal crop diversification affects maize...

Territory acquisition mediates the influence of predators and climate on juvenile red squirrel survival

Jack G Hendrix, David Fisher, April Martinig, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Jeffrey Lane & Andrew McAdam
1) Juvenile survival to first breeding is a key life history stage for all taxa. Survival through this period can be particularly challenging when it can coincide with harsh environmental conditions such as a winter climate or food scarcity, leading to highly variable cohort survival. However, the small size and dispersive nature of juveniles generally makes studying their survival more difficult. 2) In territorial species, a key life history event is the acquisition of a...

Data from: Natural resistance to worms exacerbates bovine tuberculosis severity independently of worm coinfection

Vanessa Ezenwa, Sarah Budischak, Peter Buss, Mauricio Seguel, Gordon Luikart, Anna Jolles & Kaori Sakamoto
Pathogen interactions arising during coinfection can exacerbate disease severity, for example, when the immune response mounted against one pathogen negatively affects defense of another. It is also possible that host immune responses to a pathogen, shaped by historical evolutionary interactions between host and pathogen, may modify host immune defenses in ways that have repercussions for other pathogens. In this case, negative interactions between two pathogens could emerge even in the absence of concurrent infection. Parasitic...

Data for: Parasitoids indicate major climate-induced shifts in Arctic communities

Tuomas Kankaanpää, Eero Vesterinen, Bess Hardwick, Niels Martin Martin Schmidt, Tommi Andersson, Paul Eric Aspholm, Isabel Barrio, Niklas Beckers, Joël Bêty, Tone Birkemoe, Melissa DeSiervo, Katherine Drotos, Dorothee Ehrich, Olivier Gilg, Vladimir Gilg, Nils Hein, Toke Høye, Kristian Jakobsen, Camille Jodouin, Jesse Jorna, Mikhail Kozlov, Jean-Claude Kresse, Don-Jean Leandri-Breton, Nicolas Lecomte, Maia Olsen … & Tomas Roslin
Climatic impacts are especially pronounced in the Arctic, which as a region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the globe. Here, we investigate how mean climatic conditions and rates of climatic change impact parasitoid insect communities in 16 localities across the Arctic. We focus on parasitoids in a wide-spread habitat, Dryas heathlands, and describe parasitoid community composition in terms of larval host use (i.e. parasitoid use of herbivorous Lepidoptera versus pollinating Diptera)...

UCE phylogenomics, detection of a putative hybrid population, and one older mitogenomic node age of Batrachuperus salamanders

Yuchi Zheng, Jinzhong Fu, Pizhu Zhang & Xiaomao Zeng
The prevalence of incomplete lineage sorting complicates the examination of hybridization and species-level paraphyly with gene trees of a small number of loci. In Asian mountain salamanders of the genus Batrachuperus, possible hybridization and species paraphyly had been identified by utilizing mitochondrial genealogy and fixed allozyme differences. Here we sampled 2909 UCEs in 44 local populations from all six Batrachuperus species, inferred gene and species trees, compared them with mitochondrial and allozyme results, and examined...

Data from: Eating local: influences of habitat on the diet of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus)

Elizabeth L Clare, Brittany R Barber, Bernard W Sweeney, Paul DN Hebert & M Brock Fenton
We employ molecular methods to profile the diet of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus, and describe spatial and temporal changes in diet over their maternity season. We identified 61 prey species of insects and 5 species of arachnid. The largest proportion of prey (∼32%) were identified as species of the mass-emerging Ephemeroptera (mayfly) genus Caenis. Bats roosting in agricultural settings had lower dietary richness than those occupying a roost located on a forest fragment...

Data from: Molecular insights into the lichen genus Alectoria (Parmeliaceae) in North America

Richard Troy McMullin, James C. Lendemer, Heather E. Braid & Steven G. Newmaster
Alectoria is a genus of fruticose lichen characterised by the presence of usnic acid and conspicuous raised pseudocyphellae. This genus is particularly diverse and abundant in montane, boreal, and Arctic regions of North America. Because intermediate forms have been reported for several species of Alectoria on the continent, it has been suggested that these species were initially delimited based on the extremes of morphological gradients. Here, we use the results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of...

Data from: Molecular phylogeny of the Taeniapterini (Diptera: Micropezidae) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, with a reclassification of the genus Taeniaptera Macquart

Morgan D. Jackson, Stephen A. Marshall & Jeffrey H. Skevington
DNA molecular data are used to generate a phylogeny for the micropezid subfamily Taeniapterinae. Thirty-two taeniapterine species were sampled, including 10 of the 20 New World genera recognized by Steyskal, as well as one genus formerly treated as a synonym of Poecilotylus Hennig (Hemichaeta Steyskal). Five species from the Micropezinae were included as outgroups. A total DNA dataset of 4705 bp, including mitochondrial genes (12S and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI)) and nuclear coding genes...

Data from: Very low levels of direct additive genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in a red squirrel population

S. Eryn McFarlane, Stan Boutin, Murray M. Humphries, Andrew G. McAdam, Jamieson C. Gorrell & David W. Coltman
A trait must genetically correlate with fitness in order to evolve in response to natural selection, but theory suggests that strong directional selection should erode additive genetic variance in fitness and limit future evolutionary potential. Balancing selection has been proposed as a mechanism that could maintain genetic variance if fitness components trade off with one another and has been invoked to account for empirical observations of higher levels of additive genetic variance in fitness components...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Using metagenomics to show the efficacy of forest restoration in the New Jersey Pine Barrens

William D. Eaton, Shadi Shokralla, Kathleen M. McGee & Mehrdad Hajibabaei
The Franklin Parker Preserve within the New Jersey Pine Barrens contains 5,000 acres of wetlands habitat, including old-growth Atlantic White Cedar (or AWC; Chamaecyparis thyoides) swamps, cranberry bogs, and former cranberry bogs undergoing restoration into AWC forests. This study showed that the C-use efficiency was greater in the old-growth AWC soils than in soils from 8-year old mid-stage restored AWC stands, which were greater than found in soil from 4-year old AWC stands—the latter two...

Data from: Gape-limited predators as agents of selection on the defensive morphology of an invasive invertebrate

Andrea L. J. Miehls, Scott D. Peacor & Andrew G. McAdam
Invasive species have widespread and pronounced effects on ecosystems and adaptive evolution of invaders is often considered responsible for their success. Despite the potential importance of adaptation to invasion, we still have limited knowledge of the agents of natural selection on invasive species. Bythotrephes longimanus, a cladoceran zooplankton, invaded multiple Canadian Shield lakes over the past several decades. Bythotrephes have a conspicuous caudal process (tail spine) that provides a morphological defense against fish predation. We...

Data from: Herbivory and eutrophication mediate grassland plant nutrient responses across a global climatic gradient

T. Michael Anderson, Daniel M. Griffith, James B. Grace, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Pedro Daleo, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Suzanne M. Prober, Anita C. Risch, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schütz, Eric W. Seabloom, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Peter D. Wragg & Elizabeth T. Borer
Plant stoichiometry, the relative concentration of elements, is a key regulator of ecosystem functioning and is also being altered by human activities. In this paper we sought to understand the global drivers of plant stoichiometry and compare the relative contribution of climatic vs. anthropogenic effects. We addressed this goal by measuring plant elemental (C, N, P and K) responses to eutrophication and vertebrate herbivore exclusion at eighteen sites on six continents. Across sites, climate and...

Data from: Physiological effects of temperature do not explain prevalence of females in populations of gynodioecious Lobelia siphilitica growing in warmer climates

Maia F. Bailey, Andrea L. Case & Christina M. Caruso
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Gynodioecy is a sexual polymorphism whereby female and hermaphroditic plants co-occur within populations. In many gynodioecious species, stressful abiotic environments are associated with higher frequencies of females. This association suggests that abiotic stress affects the relative fitness of females and hermaphrodites and, thus, the maintenance of gynodioecy. METHODS:To test whether abiotic stress affects the fitness of females and hermaphrodites, we grew open-pollinated Lobelia siphilitica families in temperature regimes characteristic of the...

Data from: Using playback of territorial calls to investigate mechanisms of kin discrimination in red squirrels

Julia Shonfield, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman, Stan Boutin, Murray M. Humphries, David Wilson & Andrew G. McAdam
Kin recognition can facilitate kin selection and may have played a role in the evolution of sociality. Red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) defend territories using vocalizations known as rattles. They use rattles to discriminate kin, though the mechanism underlying this ability is unknown. Our objective was to distinguish between the mechanisms of prior association, where animals learn the phenotypes of kin they associate with early in life, and phenotype matching/recognition alleles, where animals use a template...

Data from: Patchy distribution and low effective population size raise concern for an at-risk top predator

Linda Y. Rutledge, Glenn Desy, John M. Fryxell, Kevin Middel, Bradley N. White & Brent R. Patterson
Aim: Understanding carnivore distribution is important for management decisions that aim to restore naturally-regulated ecosystems and preserve biodiversity. Eastern Wolves, a species at risk in Canada, are centralized in Algonquin Provincial Park and their ability to disperse and establish themselves elsewhere is limited by human-caused mortality associated with hunting, trapping, and vehicle collisions. Here, we refine our understanding of Eastern Wolf distribution and provide the first estimates of their effective population size. Location: Southern Ontario...

The influence of experimentally induced polyploidy on the relationships between endopolyploidy and plant function in Arabidopsis thaliana

Evan Pacey, Hafiz Maherali & Brian Husband
Whole genome duplication, leading to polyploidy and endopolyploidy, occurs in all domains and kingdoms and is especially prevalent in vascular plants. Both polyploidy and endopolyploidy increase cell size, but it is uncertain whether both processes have similar effects on plant morphology and function, or whether polyploidy influences the magnitude of endopolyploidy. To address these gaps in knowledge, fifty-five geographically separated diploid genotypes (i.e., accessions) of Arabidopsis thaliana that span a gradient of endopolyploidy were experimentally...

Data from: Why hate the good guy? Antisocial punishment of high cooperators is greater when people compete to be chosen

Aleta Pleasant & Pat Barclay
When choosing social partners, people prefer good cooperators (all else equal). Given this preference, anyone wishing to be chosen can either increase their own cooperation to become more desirable, or suppress others’ cooperation to make them less desirable. Previous research shows that very cooperative people sometimes get punished (“antisocial punishment”) or criticized (“do-gooder derogation”) in many cultures. Here we use a public goods game with punishment to test whether antisocial punishment is used as a...

Data from: Genetic and maternal effects on tail spine and body length in the invasive spiny water flea (Bythotrephes longimanus)

Andrea L. J. Miehls, Scott D. Peacor & Andrew G. McAdam
Interest in the evolution of invasive species has grown in recent years, yet few studies have investigated sources of variation in invasive species traits experiencing natural selection. The spiny water flea, Bythotrephes longimanus, is an invasive zooplankton in the Great Lakes that exhibits seasonal changes in tail spine and body length consistent with natural selection. Evolution of Bythotrephes traits, however, depends on the presence and magnitude of quantitative genetic variation, which could change within or...

Data from: Revisiting the ichthyodiversity of Java and Bali through DNA barcodes: taxonomic coverage, identification accuracy, cryptic diversity and identification of exotic species

Hadi Dahruddin, Aditya Hutama, Frédéric Busson, Sopian Sauri, Robert Hanner, Philippe Keith, Renny Hadiaty & Nicolas Hubert
Among the 899 species of freshwater fishes reported from Sundaland biodiversity hotspot, nearly 50% are endemics. The functional integrity of aquatic ecosystems is currently jeopardized by human activities, and landscape conversion led to the decline of fish populations in several part of Sundaland, particularly in Java. The inventory of the Javanese ichthyofauna has been discontinuous, and the taxonomic knowledge is scattered in the literature. This study provides a DNA barcode reference library for the inland...

Data from: Reducing cryptic relatedness in genomic datasets via a central node exclusion algorithm

Pablo A.S. Fonseca, Thiago P. Leal, Fernanda Caroline Santos, Mateus Henrique Gouveia, Samir Id-Lahoucine, Izinara C. Rosse, Ricardo V. Ventura, Frank Angelo T. Bruneli, Marco Antônio Machado, Maria Gabriela C.D. Peixoto, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Maria Raquel S. Carvalho & Pablo A. S. Fonseca
Cryptic relatedness is a confounding factor in genetic diversity and genetic association studies. Development of strategies to reduce cryptic relatedness in a sample is a crucial step for downstream genetic analyzes. The present study uses a node selection algorithm, based on network degrees of centrality, to evaluate its applicability and impact on evaluation of genetic diversity and population stratification. 1,036 Guzerá (Bos indicus) females were genotyped using Illumina Bovine SNP50 v2 BeadChip. Four strategies were...

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