15 Works

Data from: Very low levels of direct additive genetic variance in fitness and fitness components in a red squirrel population

S. Eryn McFarlane, Stan Boutin, Murray M. Humphries, Andrew G. McAdam, Jamieson C. Gorrell & David W. Coltman
A trait must genetically correlate with fitness in order to evolve in response to natural selection, but theory suggests that strong directional selection should erode additive genetic variance in fitness and limit future evolutionary potential. Balancing selection has been proposed as a mechanism that could maintain genetic variance if fitness components trade off with one another and has been invoked to account for empirical observations of higher levels of additive genetic variance in fitness components...

Data from: Molecular phylogeny of the Taeniapterini (Diptera: Micropezidae) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, with a reclassification of the genus Taeniaptera Macquart

Morgan D. Jackson, Stephen A. Marshall & Jeffrey H. Skevington
DNA molecular data are used to generate a phylogeny for the micropezid subfamily Taeniapterinae. Thirty-two taeniapterine species were sampled, including 10 of the 20 New World genera recognized by Steyskal, as well as one genus formerly treated as a synonym of Poecilotylus Hennig (Hemichaeta Steyskal). Five species from the Micropezinae were included as outgroups. A total DNA dataset of 4705 bp, including mitochondrial genes (12S and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI)) and nuclear coding genes...

Data from: Gape-limited predators as agents of selection on the defensive morphology of an invasive invertebrate

Andrea L. J. Miehls, Scott D. Peacor & Andrew G. McAdam
Invasive species have widespread and pronounced effects on ecosystems and adaptive evolution of invaders is often considered responsible for their success. Despite the potential importance of adaptation to invasion, we still have limited knowledge of the agents of natural selection on invasive species. Bythotrephes longimanus, a cladoceran zooplankton, invaded multiple Canadian Shield lakes over the past several decades. Bythotrephes have a conspicuous caudal process (tail spine) that provides a morphological defense against fish predation. We...

Data from: Decreased root heterogeneity and increased root length following grassland invasion

Brenda M. Vaness, Scott D. Wilson & Andrew S. MacDougall
1. Plant invasions can be promoted by environmental heterogeneity, but the opposite effect, the impact of plant invasion on heterogeneity, has received little attention. Grassland invasions might contribute to decreased spatial heterogeneity because invaders tend to be larger than native vegetation. Lowered heterogeneity may contribute to the low diversity of invaded communities, as well as to the persistence of invasive populations. 2. We compared the spatial heterogeneity of roots and resources in uninvaded native grassland...

Data from: Next-generation DNA barcoding: using next-generation sequencing to enhance and accelerate DNA barcode capture from single specimens

Shadi Shokralla, Joel F. Gibson, Hamid Nikbakht, Daniel H. Janzen, Winnie Hallwachs & Mehrdad Hajibabaei
DNA barcoding is an efficient method to identify specimens and to detect undescribed/cryptic species. Sanger sequencing of individual specimens is the standard approach in generating large-scale DNA barcode libraries and identifying unknowns. However, the Sanger sequencing technology is, in some respects, inferior to next-generation sequencers, which are capable of producing millions of sequence reads simultaneously. Additionally, direct Sanger sequencing of DNA barcode amplicons, as practiced in most DNA barcoding procedures, is hampered by the need...

Data from: A comprehensive DNA barcode database for Central European beetles with a focus on Germany: adding more than 3,500 identified species to BOLD

Jérôme Morinière, Lars Hendrich, Gerhard Haszprunar, Paul D. N. Hebert, Axel Hausmann, Frank Köhler & Michael Balke
Beetles are the most diverse group of animals and are crucial for ecosystem functioning. In many countries, they are well established for environmental impact assessment, but even in the well-studied Central European fauna, species identification can be very difficult. A comprehensive and taxonomically well-curated DNA barcode library could remedy this deficit and could also link hundreds of years of traditional knowledge with next generation sequencing technology. However, such a beetle library is missing to date....

Data from: Rapid and accurate taxonomic classification of insect (Class Insecta) cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA barcode sequences using a naïve Bayesian classifier

Joel F. Gibson, Shadi Shokralla, G. Brian Golding, Mehrdad Hajibabaei, Teresita M. Porter & Donald J. Baird
Current methods to identify unknown insect (class Insecta) cytochrome c oxidase (COI barcode) sequences often rely on difficult to define thresholds of distances, sequence similarity cutoffs, or monophyly. Most methods do not provide a measure of confidence for the taxonomic assignments they provide. The aim of this study is to use a naïve Bayesian classifier (Wang et al., 2007) to automate unsupervised taxonomic assignments for large batches of insect COI sequences such as data obtained...

Data from: ABCG transporters are required for suberin and pollen wall extracellular barriers in Arabidopsis

Vandana Yadav, Isabel Molina, Kosala Ranathunge, Indira Queralta Castillo, Steven J. Rothstein & Jason W. Reed
Effective regulation of water balance in plants requires localized extracellular barriers that control water and solute movement. We describe a clade of five Arabidopsis thaliana ABCG half-transporters that are required for synthesis of an effective suberin barrier in roots and seed coats (ABCG2, ABCG6, and ABCG20) and for synthesis of an intact pollen wall (ABCG1 and ABCG16). Seed coats of abcg2 abcg6 abcg20 triple mutant plants had increased permeability to tetrazolium red and decreased suberin...

Data from: What is the primary function of the early teleost gill? Evidence for Na+/NH4+ exchange in developing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Alex M. Zimmer, Patricia A. Wright & Chris M. Wood
Post-hatch fishes lack a functional gill and use cutaneous surfaces for exchange with the surrounding environment. The ionoregulatory hypothesis posits that ionoregulation is the first physiological process to be limited by cutaneous exchange, necessitating its shift to the gills. We hypothesized that the ontogeny of branchial ammonia excretion (Jamm) is coupled to Na+ uptake (Graphic) in accordance with the current model for Graphic exchange in freshwater. Using divided chambers, branchial and cutaneous Jamm, Graphic and...

Data from: Climatic niche differences between diploid and tetraploid cytotypes of Chamerion angustifolium (Onagraceae)

Ken A. Thompson, Brian C. Husband & Hafiz Maherali
Premise of the study: Polyploidy—the possession of more than two copies of each chromosome in the nucleus—is common in flowering plants. Polyploid plants can occupy different geographic ranges than their diploid progenitors, but the factors responsible for maintaining these range differences are poorly understood. Polyploidy can have significant physiological consequences, and the present study aims to determine whether previously described physiological differences between cytotypes are correlated with climatic niches and geographic distributions. Methods: Prior research...

Data from: Predators, energetics and fitness drive neonatal reproductive failure in red squirrels

Emily K. Studd, Stan Boutin, Andrew G. McAdam, Charles J. Krebs & Murray M. Humphries
Neonatal reproductive failure should occur when energetic costs of parental investment outweigh fitness benefits. However, little is known about the drivers of neonatal reproductive failure in free ranging species experiencing continuous natural variation in predator abundance and in the energetic and fitness costs and benefits associated with parental investment. Long-term comprehensive studies are required to better understand how biotic, abiotic, and life history conditions interact to drive occurrences of reproductive failure in the wild. Using...

Data from: A large-scale field study examining effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on honey bee colony health, development, and overwintering success

G. Christopher Cutler, Cynthia D. Scott-Dupree, Maryam Sultan, Andrew D. McFarlane & Larry Brewer
In summer 2012, we initiated a large-scale field experiment in southern Ontario, Canada, to determine whether exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola (oil seed rape) has any adverse impacts on honey bees. Colonies were placed in clothianidin seed-treated or control canola fields during bloom, and thereafter were moved to an apiary with no surrounding crops grown from seeds treated with neonicotinoids. Colony weight gain, honey production, pest incidence, bee mortality, number of adults, and amount of...

Data from: Daily energy expenditure during lactation is strongly selected in a free-living mammal

Quinn E. Fletcher, John R. Speakman, Stan Boutin, Jeffrey E. Lane, Andrew G. McAdam, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman & Murray M. Humphries
1. Energy expenditure is a trait of central importance in ecological and evolutionary theory. We examined the correlates of, the strength of selection on, and the heritability of, daily energy expenditure (DEE; kJ/day) during lactation in free-ranging North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). 2. Over seven years, lactating squirrels with greater DEE had higher annual reproductive success (ARS; standardized selection gradient: β’ = 0.47; top 12% of published estimates). Surprisingly, positive fecundity selection on lactation...

Data from: Understanding the spectacular failure of DNA barcoding in willows (Salix): Does this result from a trans-specific selective sweep?

Diana M. Percy, George W. Argus, Quentin C. Cronk, Aron J. Fazekas, Prasad R. Kesanakurti, Kevin S. Burgess, Brian C. Husband, Steven G. Newmaster, Spencer C. H. Barrett, Sean W. Graham & Spencer C.H. Barrett
Willows (Salix: Salicaceae) form a major ecological component of Holarctic floras, and consequently are an obvious target for a DNA-based identification system. We surveyed two to seven plastid genome regions (~3.8 kb; ~3% of the genome) from 71 Salix species across all five subgenera, to assess their performance as DNA barcode markers. Although Salix has a relatively high level of interspecific hybridization, this may not sufficiently explain the near complete failure of barcoding that we...

Data from: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 mediates adaptive developmental plasticity of hypoxia tolerance in zebrafish, Danio rerio

Cayleih E. Robertson, Patricia A. Wright, Louise Köblitz, Nicholas J. Bernier & L. Koblitz
In recent years, natural and anthropogenic factors have increased aquatic hypoxia the world over. In most organisms, the cellular response to hypoxia is mediated by the master regulator hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). HIF-1 also plays a critical role in the normal development of the cardiovascular system of vertebrates. We tested the hypothesis that hypoxia exposures which resulted in HIF-1 induction during embryogenesis would be associated with enhanced hypoxia tolerance in subsequent developmental stages. We exposed zebrafish...

Registration Year

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