21 Works

Data from: Genetic and environmental determinants of unreduced gamete production in Brassica napus, Sinapis arvensis and their hybrids

Dylan Sora, Paul Kron & Brian C. Husband
Unreduced gametes, sperm or egg cells with the somatic chromosome number, are an important mechanism of polyploid formation and gene flow between heteroploid plants. The meiotic processes leading to unreduced gamete formation are well documented, but the relative influence of environmental and genetic factors on the frequency of unreduced gametes remain largely untested. Furthermore, direct estimates of unreduced gametes based on DNA content are technically challenging and hence, uncommon. Here, we use flow cytometry to...

Data from: Do saline taxa evolve faster? comparing relative rates of molecular evolution between freshwater and marine eukaryotes

T. Fatima Mitterboeck, Alexander Y. Chen, Omar A. Zaheer, Eddie Y. T. Ma & Sarah J. Adamowicz
The major branches of life diversified in the marine realm, and numerous taxa have since transitioned between marine and freshwaters. Previous studies have demonstrated higher rates of molecular evolution in crustaceans inhabiting continental saline habitats as compared with freshwaters, but it is unclear whether this trend is pervasive or whether it applies to the marine environment. We employ the phylogenetic comparative method to investigate relative molecular evolutionary rates between 148 pairs of marine or continental...

Data from: Acute embryonic anoxia exposure favours the development of a dominant and aggressive phenotype in adult zebrafish

Catherine M. Ivy, Cayleih E. Robertson & Nicholas J. Bernier
Eutrophication and climate change are increasing the incidence of severe hypoxia in fish nursery habitats, yet the programming effects of hypoxia on stress responsiveness in later life are poorly understood. In this study, to investigate whether early hypoxia alters the developmental trajectory of the stress response, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 4 h of anoxia at 36 h post-fertilization and reared to adults when the responses to secondary stressors were assessed. While embryonic anoxia did...

Data from: Calcium interacts with temperature to influence Daphnia movement rates

Gustavo Betini, Jordan Roszell, Andreas Heyland, John M. Fryxell & Gustavo S. Betini
Predicting the ecological responses to climate change is particularly challenging, because organisms might be affected simultaneously by the synergistic effects of multiple environmental stressors. Global warming is often accompanied by declining calcium concentration in many freshwater ecosystems. Although there is growing evidence that these changes in water chemistry and thermal conditions can influence ecosystem dynamics, little information is currently available about how these synergistic environmental stressors could influence the behaviour of aquatic organisms. Here, we...

Data from: A genome scan for selection signatures comparing farmed Atlantic salmon with two wild populations: testing co-localization among outlier markers, candidate genes, and QTLs for production traits

Lei Liu, Keng Pee Ang, J. A. K. Elliott, Matthew Peter Kent, Sigbjørn Lien, Danielle MacDonald & Elizabeth Grace Boulding
Comparative genome scans can be used to identify chromosome regions, but not traits, that are putatively under selection. Identification of targeted traits may be more likely in recently domesticated populations under strong artificial selection for increased production. We used a North American Atlantic salmon 6K SNP dataset to locate genome regions of an aquaculture strain (Saint John River) that were highly diverged from that of its putative wild founder population (Tobique River). First, admixed individuals...

Data from: One fly to rule them all—muscid flies are the key pollinators in the Arctic

Mikko Tiusanen, Paul D.N. Hebert, Niels-Martin Schmidt, Tomas Roslin & Niels Martin Schmidt
Global change is causing drastic changes in the pollinator communities of the Arctic. While arctic flowers are visited by a wide range of insects, flies in family Muscidae have been proposed as a pollinator group of particular importance. To understand the functional outcome of current changes in pollinator community composition, we examined the role of muscids in the pollination of a key plant species, the mountain avens (Dryas). We monitored the seed set of Dryas...

Data from: A newly identified left–right asymmetry in larval sea urchins

Jason Hodin, Keegan Lutek & Andreas Heyland
Directional asymmetry (DA) in body form is a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants alike, and a functional understanding of such asymmetries can offer insights into the ways in which ecology and development interface to drive evolution. Echinoids (sea urchins, sand dollars and their kin) with planktotrophic development have a bilaterally symmetrical feeding pluteus larva that undergoes a dramatic metamorphosis into a pentameral juvenile that enters the benthos at settlement. The earliest stage of this...

Data from: Climate modifies response of non-native and native species richness to nutrient enrichment

Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Peter B. Reich, Eric M. Lind, Lauren L. Sullivan, Eric W. Seabloom, Laura Yahdjian, Andrew S. MacDougall, Lara G. Reichmann, Juan Alberti, Selene Báez, Jonathan D. Bakker, Marc W. Cadotte, Maria C. Caldeira, Enrique J. Chaneton, Carla M. D'Antonio, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Oscar Iribarne, Kevin P. Kirkman, Johannes M. H. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Ramesh Laungani, Andrew D. B. Leakey … & Elizabeth T. Borer
Ecosystem eutrophication often increases domination by non-natives and causes displacement of native taxa. However, variation in environmental conditions may affect the outcome of interactions between native and non-native taxa in environments where nutrient supply is elevated. We examined the interactive effects of eutrophication, climate variability and climate average conditions on the success of native and non-native plant species using experimental nutrient manipulations replicated at 32 grassland sites on four continents. We hypothesized that effects of...

Data from: Mycorrhizal feedback is not associated with the outcome of competition in old-field perennial plants

Hafiz Maherali & Sabina Stanescu
The symbiosis between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is hypothesized to be an important contributor to plant–soil feedbacks, which can influence the outcome of inter-specific competition. Mycorrhizal feedbacks can be conspecific, which affects individuals of the same species, or heterospecific, which affects individuals of a different species. When heterospecific feedbacks are more positive than conspecific feedbacks, heterospecific individuals are expected to outcompete conspecific individuals. To test this hypothesis, we quantified conspecific mycorrhizal feedback for...

Data from: Investigating the impacts of field-realistic exposure to a neonicotinoid pesticide on bumblebee foraging, homing ability and colony growth

Dara A. Stanley, Avery L. Russell, Sarah J. Morrison, Catherine Rogers & Nigel E. Raine
The ability to forage and return home is essential to the success of bees as both foragers and pollinators. Pesticide exposure may cause behavioural changes that interfere with these processes, with consequences for colony persistence and delivery of pollination services. We investigated the impact of chronic exposure (5–43 days) to field-realistic levels of a neonicotinoid insecticide (2·4 ppb thiamethoxam) on foraging ability, homing success and colony size using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology in free-flying...

Data from: A DNA barcode library for North American Pyraustinae (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea: Crambidae)

Zhaofu Yang, Jean-François Landry & Paul D. N. Hebert
Although members of the crambid subfamily Pyraustinae are frequently important crop pests, their identification is often difficult because many species lack conspicuous diagnostic morphological characters. DNA barcoding employs sequence diversity in a short standardized gene region to facilitate specimen identifications and species discovery. This study provides a DNA barcode reference library for North American pyraustines based upon the analysis of 1589 sequences recovered from 137 nominal species, 87% of the fauna. Data from 125 species...

Data from: The importance of taxonomic resolution for additive beta diversity as revealed through DNA barcoding

Trevor T. Bringloe, Karl Cottenie, Gillian K. Martin & Sarah J. Adamowicz
Additive diversity partitioning (α, β, and γ) is commonly used to study the distribution of species-level diversity across spatial scales. Here, we first investigate whether published studies of additive diversity partitioning show signs of difficulty attaining species-level resolution due to inherent limitations with morphological identifications. Second, we present a DNA barcoding approach in order to delineate specimens of stream caddisfly larvae (order Trichoptera) and considered the importance of taxonomic resolution on classical (additive) measures of...

Data from: QTL analysis of soft scald in two apple populations

Kendra A. McClure, Kyle M. Gardner, Peter M. A. Toivonen, Cheryl R. Hampson, Jun Song, Charles F. Forney, John DeLong, Istvan Rajcan & Sean Myles
The apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) is one of the world’s most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches...

Data from: Size selection by a gape-limited predator of a marine snail: insights into magic traits for speciation

Elizabeth G. Boulding, María José Rivas, Nerea González-Lavín, Emilio Rolán-Alvarez & Juan Galindo
The intertidal snail Littorina saxatilis has repeatedly evolved two parallel ecotypes assumed to be wave adapted and predatory shore crab adapted, but the magnitude and targets of predator-driven selection are unknown. In Spain, a small, wave ecotype with a large aperture from the lower shore and a large, thick-shelled crab ecotype from the upper shore meet in the mid-shore and show partial size-assortative mating. We performed complementary field tethering and laboratory predation experiments; the first...

Data from: Spatial patterns of immunogenetic and neutral variation underscore the conservation value of small, isolated American badger populations

Yessica Rico, Danielle M. Ethier, Christina Davy, Josh Sayers, Rich D. Weir, Bradley J. Swanson, Joseph J. Nocera, Christopher J. Kyle, Christina M. Davy & Richard D. Weir
Small and isolated populations often exhibit low genetic diversity due to drift and inbreeding, but may simultaneously harbour adaptive variation. We investigate spatial distributions of immunogenetic variation in American badger subspecies (Taxidea taxus), as a proxy for evaluating their evolutionary potential across the northern extent of the species’ range. We compared genetic structure of 20 microsatellites and the Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to evaluate if small isolated populations show low adaptive polymorphism relative to large...

Data from: Functional diversity loss with increasing livestock grazing intensity in drylands: the mechanisms and their consequences depend on the taxa

Verónica Chillo, Ricardo A. Ojeda, Virginia Capmourteres & Madhur Anand
1. Overgrazing is one of the main drivers of desertification in drylands, and livestock production is expected to increase in the next decades. The analysis of functional diversity can clarify the effects of increasing livestock grazing on ecosystem functioning. 2. We assess the effect of livestock grazing intensity on the relationship between taxonomic (TDH) and functional diversity (FDQ) of plants, ants and small mammals, as well as on within-trait diversity. We compared results using two...

Data from: Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean

Guillermo P. Murphy, Rene Van Acker, Istvan Rajcan & Clarence J. Swanton
Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and...

Data from: Loss of reproductive output caused by an invasive species

Maude E. M. Tremblay, Todd J. Morris & Josef D. Ackerman
We investigated whether Neogobius melanostomus, an invader of biodiversity ‘hot-spots’ in the Laurentian Great Lakes region, facilitates or inhibits unionid mussel recruitment by serving as a host or sink for their parasitic larvae (glochidia). Infestation and metamorphosis rates of four mussel species with at-risk (conservation) status (Epioblasma torulosa rangiana, Epioblasma triquetra, Lampsilis fasciola and Villosa iris) and one common species (Actinonaias ligamentina) on N. melanostomus were compared with rates on known primary and marginal hosts...

Data from: Revisiting the ichthyodiversity of Java and Bali through DNA barcodes: taxonomic coverage, identification accuracy, cryptic diversity and identification of exotic species

Hadi Dahruddin, Aditya Hutama, Frédéric Busson, Sopian Sauri, Robert Hanner, Philippe Keith, Renny Hadiaty & Nicolas Hubert
Among the 899 species of freshwater fishes reported from Sundaland biodiversity hotspot, nearly 50% are endemics. The functional integrity of aquatic ecosystems is currently jeopardized by human activities, and landscape conversion led to the decline of fish populations in several part of Sundaland, particularly in Java. The inventory of the Javanese ichthyofauna has been discontinuous, and the taxonomic knowledge is scattered in the literature. This study provides a DNA barcode reference library for the inland...

Data from: Patchy distribution and low effective population size raise concern for an at-risk top predator

Linda Y. Rutledge, Glenn Desy, John M. Fryxell, Kevin Middel, Bradley N. White & Brent R. Patterson
Aim: Understanding carnivore distribution is important for management decisions that aim to restore naturally-regulated ecosystems and preserve biodiversity. Eastern Wolves, a species at risk in Canada, are centralized in Algonquin Provincial Park and their ability to disperse and establish themselves elsewhere is limited by human-caused mortality associated with hunting, trapping, and vehicle collisions. Here, we refine our understanding of Eastern Wolf distribution and provide the first estimates of their effective population size. Location: Southern Ontario...

Data from: Using playback of territorial calls to investigate mechanisms of kin discrimination in red squirrels

Julia Shonfield, Jamieson C. Gorrell, David W. Coltman, Stan Boutin, Murray M. Humphries, David Wilson & Andrew G. McAdam
Kin recognition can facilitate kin selection and may have played a role in the evolution of sociality. Red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) defend territories using vocalizations known as rattles. They use rattles to discriminate kin, though the mechanism underlying this ability is unknown. Our objective was to distinguish between the mechanisms of prior association, where animals learn the phenotypes of kin they associate with early in life, and phenotype matching/recognition alleles, where animals use a template...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    21

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    21

Affiliations

  • University of Guelph
    21
  • University of Washington
    2
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    2
  • Trent University
    2
  • Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
    1
  • Ministry of Environment
    1
  • North West Agriculture and Forestry University
    1
  • University of Buenos Aires
    1
  • National University of Ireland
    1
  • Institut de Recherche pour le Développement
    1