24 Works

Data from: Natural resistance to worms exacerbates bovine tuberculosis severity independently of worm coinfection

Vanessa Ezenwa, Sarah Budischak, Peter Buss, Mauricio Seguel, Gordon Luikart, Anna Jolles & Kaori Sakamoto
Pathogen interactions arising during coinfection can exacerbate disease severity, for example, when the immune response mounted against one pathogen negatively affects defense of another. It is also possible that host immune responses to a pathogen, shaped by historical evolutionary interactions between host and pathogen, may modify host immune defenses in ways that have repercussions for other pathogens. In this case, negative interactions between two pathogens could emerge even in the absence of concurrent infection. Parasitic...

Data for: Parasitoids indicate major climate-induced shifts in Arctic communities

Tuomas Kankaanpää, Eero Vesterinen, Bess Hardwick, Niels Martin Martin Schmidt, Tommi Andersson, Paul Eric Aspholm, Isabel Barrio, Niklas Beckers, Joël Bêty, Tone Birkemoe, Melissa DeSiervo, Katherine Drotos, Dorothee Ehrich, Olivier Gilg, Vladimir Gilg, Nils Hein, Toke Høye, Kristian Jakobsen, Camille Jodouin, Jesse Jorna, Mikhail Kozlov, Jean-Claude Kresse, Don-Jean Leandri-Breton, Nicolas Lecomte, Maia Olsen … & Tomas Roslin
Climatic impacts are especially pronounced in the Arctic, which as a region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the globe. Here, we investigate how mean climatic conditions and rates of climatic change impact parasitoid insect communities in 16 localities across the Arctic. We focus on parasitoids in a wide-spread habitat, Dryas heathlands, and describe parasitoid community composition in terms of larval host use (i.e. parasitoid use of herbivorous Lepidoptera versus pollinating Diptera)...

Diversity and phylogenetic community structure across elevation during climate change in a family of hyperdiverse neotropical beetles (Staphylinidae)

M. Alex Smith
Environmental stress from abiotic conditions imposes physiological limits on individuals within communities, and these stressful conditions can act as a filter on the species present in any given environment. Such abiotic stressors can reduce a community’s diversity and make its composition more phylogenetically clustered. Using a decade of staphylinid beetle (Staphylinidae, Coleoptera, rove beetles) collections made across a 1,500 m elevation gradient in northwestern Costa Rica (2008-2017) we asked what species lived there, how large...

Data for: Causes and consequences of variation in diet composition of nestling Canada jays

Nikole Freeman
Diet quality during development can impact growth, physiology, behaviour, and survival. The Canada jay is a resident boreal passerine that caches a wide variety of perishable food items in late summer and autumn for its over-winter survival and late-winter reproduction. A previous experiment found evidence that food supplementation of Canada jay pairs during the nestling period had a positive effect on the condition of their nestlings. However, given that foods cached by adults vary widely...

UCE phylogenomics, detection of a putative hybrid population, and one older mitogenomic node age of Batrachuperus salamanders

Yuchi Zheng, Jinzhong Fu, Pizhu Zhang & Xiaomao Zeng
The prevalence of incomplete lineage sorting complicates the examination of hybridization and species-level paraphyly with gene trees of a small number of loci. In Asian mountain salamanders of the genus Batrachuperus, possible hybridization and species paraphyly had been identified by utilizing mitochondrial genealogy and fixed allozyme differences. Here we sampled 2909 UCEs in 44 local populations from all six Batrachuperus species, inferred gene and species trees, compared them with mitochondrial and allozyme results, and examined...

Phylogenetic signal of sub-arctic beetle communities

Sam Majoros
Post-glacial dispersal and colonization processes have shaped community patterns in sub-Arctic regions such as Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. This study investigates evolutionary community structure within the beetle (Coleoptera) families of Churchill and tests whether biological traits have played a role in governing colonization patterns from refugial and southerly geographic regions. This study quantifies sub-Arctic beetle phylogenetic community structure for each family using the net relatedness index (NRI) and nearest taxon index (NTI), calculated using publicly available...

Observational evidence of herbivore-specific associational effects between neighboring conspecifics in natural, dimorphic populations of Datura wrightii

Jay Goldberg, Sonya Sternlieb, Genevieve Pintel & Lynda Delph
Associational effects – in which the vulnerability of a plant to herbivores is influenced by its neighbors – have been widely implicated in mediating plant-herbivore interactions. Studies of associational effects typically focus on interspecific interactions or pest-crop dynamics. However, associational effects may also be important for species with intraspecific variation in defensive traits. In this study, we observed hundreds of Datura wrightii – which exhibits dimorphism in its trichome phenotype – from over 30 dimorphic...

Data from Evidence of phenotypic plasticity in the response of unionid mussels to turbidity.

Josef Ackerman & Shaylah Tuttle-Raycraft
1. Increases in total suspended solids (TSS) reduce feeding and reproductive success of unionid mussels, but mussels in turbid rivers are less affected than those in clear rivers, probably due to differences in gill and palp morphology. This study was designed to determine whether the differences observed between adult mussels in populations from turbid versus clear rivers are due to phenotypic plasticity. 2. Parasitic larvae (glochidia) of Lampsilis siliquoidea (Fatmucket) obtained from a low turbidity...

Genomic evidence of past and future climate-linked loss in a migratory Arctic fish

Kara K. S. Layton, Paul V. R. Snelgrove, J. Brian Dempson, Tony Kess, Sarah J. Lehnert, Paul Bentzen, Steven J. Duffy, Amber M. Messmer, Ryan R. E. Stanley, Claudio DiBacco, Sarah J. Salisbury, Daniel E. Ruzzante, Cameron M. Nugent, Moira M. Ferguson, Jong S. Leong, Ben F. Koop & Ian R. Bradbury
Despite widespread biodiversity losses, an understanding of how most taxa will respond to future climate change is lacking. Here we integrate genomics and environmental modelling to assess climate change responses in an ecologically and economically important Arctic species. Environmentally associated genomic diversity and machine learning are used to identify highly vulnerable populations of anadromous (migratory) Arctic charr, and we reconstruct estimates of effective population size spanning the twentieth century to identify past climate-associated declines. We...

What matters for the job performance of field advisors: a case from Madhupur Sal forest, Bangladesh

Khondokar Humayun Kabir, Andrea Knierim, Ataharul Chowdhury & Dietrich Darr
This study analyzed the determinants of the job performance of field advisors who were working in a remote forest area. A stakeholder analysis was conducted to identify advisory organizations working in the Madhupur Sal forest, Tangail, Bangladesh. Data from 87 field advisors were collected in face-to-face interviews. The binary logistic regression was performed to identify the factors affecting the performance of the field advisors. Various factors drove the performance of field staff at organizational and...

Seasonality of floral resources in relation to bee activity in agroecosystems

Jessica M. Guezen & Jessica R. K. Forrest
The contribution of wild insects to crop pollination is becoming increasingly important as global demand for crops dependent on animal pollination increases. If wild insect populations are to persist in agricultural landscapes, there must be sufficient resources over time and space. The temporal, within‐season component of floral resource availability has rarely been investigated, despite growing recognition of its likely importance for pollinator populations. Here, we examined the visitation rates of common bee genera and the...

Genetic variation in Neotropical butterflies is associated with sampling scale, species distributions, and historical forest dynamics

Natalí Attiná, Ezequiel Núñez Bustos, Darío A. Lijtmaer, Paul D. N. Hebert, Pablo L. Tubaro & Pablo D. Lavinia
Prior studies of butterfly diversification in the Neotropics have focused on Amazonia and the tropical Andes, while southern regions of the continent have received little attention. To address the gap in knowledge about the Lepidoptera of temperate South America, we analyzed over 3,000 specimens representing nearly 500 species from Argentina for a segment of the mitochondrial COI gene. Representing 42% of the country’s butterfly fauna, collections targeted species from the Atlantic and Andean forests, biodiversity...

Interspecific and intraspecific comparisons reveal the importance of evolutionary context in sunfish brain form divergence

Caleb Axelrod, Frederic Laberge & Beren Robinson
Habitats can select for specialized phenotypic characteristics in animals. However, the consistency of evolutionary responses to particular environmental conditions remains difficult to predict. One trait of great ecological importance is brain form, which is expected to vary between habitats that differ in their cognitive requirements. Here we compared divergence in brain form and oral jaw size across a common littoral-pelagic ecological axis in two sunfishes at both the intraspecific and interspecific levels. Brain form differed...

Noachian Bedrock at Endeavour Crater: Data Tables, Statistical Modeling and Locator Images

David Mittlefehldt, Ralf Gellert, Scott VanBommel, Raymond Arvidson, James W. Ashley, Benton Clark, Larry S. Crumpler, William H. Farrand, Matthew Golombek, John Grant, Richard Morris & Christian Schröder

Cutaneous tactile sensitivity before and after tail loss and regeneration in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius)

Stefanie Bradley, Erika Howe, Leah Bent & Matt Vickaryous
Amongst tetrapods, mechanoreceptors on the feet establish a sense of body placement and help to facilitate posture and biomechanics. Mechanoreceptors are necessary for stabilizing the body while navigating through changing terrains or responding to a sudden change in body mass and orientation. Lizards such as the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) employ autotomy – a voluntary detachment of a portion of the tail, to escape predation. Tail autotomy represents a natural form of significant (and localized)...

Spatial fingerprinting: horizontal fusion of multi-dimensional bio-tracers as solution to global food provenance problems

Kevin Cazelles, Kevin McCann, Tyler Zemlak, Marie Gutgesell, Emelia Myles-Gonzalez & Robert Hanner
Building the capacity of efficiently determining the provenance of food products represents a crucial step towards the sustainability of the global food system. Whether it is for enforcing existing legislation or providing reliable information to consumers, technologies to verify geographical origin of food are being actively developed. Biological tracers (bio-tracers) such as DNA and stable isotopes have recently demonstrated their potential for determining provenance. Here we show that the data fusion of bio-tracers is a...

Aligned and reduced 5'-COI sequence alignment from Steinke et al. 2009

Jarrett Phillips
1218 5'-COI DNA barcode sequences in NEXUS format used in Steinke et al. (2009). Data were retrieved from BOLD through the Workbench using the project name TZFPC. Sequences were filtered to include only those greater than or equal to 500 bp in length. Sequences were aligned using BOLD's custom amino acid Hidden Markov Model (HMM) aligner.

Rapid recovery by fat- and muscle-depleted Blackpoll Warblers following trans-oceanic migration is driven by time-minimization

Nicholas J. Bayly, Kenneth V. Rosenberg, Ryan Norris, Philip D. Taylor & Keith A. Hobson
Non-stop endurance flights are a defining characteristic of many long-distance migratory birds but subsequent recovery phases are not typically distinguished from fueling phases (collectively ‘stopovers’), despite endurance flights inducing marked physiological changes including flight muscle atrophy and gastrointestinal tract reductions. Here, we hypothesize that recovery requires unique behavioral adaptations, leading to departures from the predictions of optimal migration theory for time-minimizing migrants. We predict that recovering birds will 1) select (moist) food-rich habitats on arrival;...

Interaction of field realistic doses of clothianidin and Varroa destructor parasitism on adult honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) health and neural gene expression, and antagonistic effects on differentially expressed genes

Nuria Morfin, Paul H. Goodwin & Ernesto Guzman-Novoa
While many studies have examined the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor on honey bees (Apis mellifera), more information on the combined effects of such stressors on gene expression, including neural related genes, and their impact on biological pathways is needed. This study analyzed the effects of field realistic concentrations of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on adult bees infested and not infested with V. destructor over 21 consecutive days and then determined...

A sit-and-wait predator, but not an active-pursuit predator, alters pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits

Amanda Benoit & Christina Caruso
Indirect species interactions are ubiquitous in nature, often outnumbering direct species interactions. Yet despite evidence that indirect interactions have strong ecological effects, relatively little is known about whether they can shape adaptive evolution by altering the strength and/or direction of natural selection. We tested whether indirect interactions affect the strength and direction of pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits of the bumble-bee pollinated wildflower Lobelia siphilitica. We estimated the indirect effects of two pollinator predators with...

Mast productivity, red-backed vole productivity and rate of increase, northern saw-whet owl rate of increase, and fisher harvest age ratios for central Ontario, 1994-2016

Janet Greenhorn, Jeff Bowman, Simon Denomme-Brown & Danielle Ethier
Harvest management quotas for fishers (Pekania pennanti) in some jurisdictions are estimated from the previous year’s harvest, and stem from the hypothesis that age ratios in the harvest are largely influenced by ‘top-down’ trapping pressure. The influence of ‘bottom-up’ food supply on fisher harvest age ratios might be underappreciated, which could result in a misallocation of quotas in management planning. We assessed a variety of data sources to test the influence of bottom-up processes on...

Cache site exploitations by Canada jays (Perisoreus canadensis)

Robert Martin, Matthew Fuirst & David Sherry
This dataset examines caching preferences by Canada jays, and contains the results of three behavioural captive experiments. The first looks at overall caching preference, the second looks at the processing of olfactory information and the third investigates the influence of structural cues.

EcoEvo Icelandic Arctic charr population divergence

Matthew Brachmann
Conceptual models of adaptive divergence and ecological speciation in sympatry predict differential resource use, phenotype-environment correlations, and reduced gene flow among diverging phenotypes. While these predictions have been assessed in past studies connections among them have rarely been assessed collectively. We examined relationships among phenotypic, ecological, and genetic variation in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from six Icelandic localities that have undergone varying degrees of divergence into sympatric benthic and pelagic morphs. We characterized morphological variation...

Experimental field evidence shows milkweed contaminated with a common neonicotinoid decreases larval survival of monarch butterflies

Samantha Knight, Tyler Flockhart, Rachael Derbyshire, Mark Bosco & Ryan Norris
1. Neonicotinoid insecticides are the most widely used class of insecticides in the world and can have both lethal and sub-lethal effects on non-target organisms in agricultural areas. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) have experienced dramatic declines in recent decades and, given that a large proportion of milkweed on the landscape grows in agricultural areas, there is concern about the negative effects of neonicotinoids on this non-target insect. 2. In the field, we exposed common milkweed...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Guelph
  • Bernardino Rivadavia Natural Sciences Museum
  • University of Montana
  • Acadia University
  • University of Hohenheim
  • New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science
  • University of Georgia
  • The Arctic University of Norway
  • Oregon State University