Phylogeographic studies frequently reveal multiple morphologically cryptic lineages within species. What is not yet clear is whether such lineages represent nascent species or evolutionary ephemera. To address this question, we compare five contact zones, each of which occurs between ecomorphologically cryptic lineages of skinks from the rainforests of the Australian Wet Tropics. Although the contacts probably formed concurrently in response to Holocene expansion from glacial refugia, we estimate that the divergence times (τ) of the...
Data from: Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiationMichael L. Yuan, Marvalee H. Wake & Ian J. Wang
The performance of an organism in its environment frequently depends more on its composite phenotype than on individual phenotypic traits. Thus, understanding environmental adaptation requires investigating patterns of covariation across functionally-related traits. The replicated adaptive radiations of Greater Antillean Anolis lizards are characterized by ecological and morphological convergence, thus providing an opportunity to examine the role of multiple phenotypes in microhabitat adaptation. Here, we examine integrated claw and toepad morphological evolution in relation to habitat...
Data from: Evidence for ephemeral ring species formation during the diversification history of Western Fence Lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis)Nassima Bouzid, James Archie, Roger Anderson, Jared Grummer & Adam Leaché
Divergence is often ephemeral, and populations that diverge in response to regional topographic and climatic factors may not remain reproductively isolated when they come into secondary contact. We investigated the geographic structure and evolutionary history of population divergence within Sceloporus occidentalis (Western Fence Lizards), a habitat generalist with a broad distribution that spans the major biogeographic regions of Western North America. We used double digest RAD sequencing to infer population structure, phylogeny, and demography. Population...
Macroevolutionary patterns of sexual size dimorphism among African tree frogs (Family: Hyperoliidae)Daniel Portik, David Blackburn & Jimmy McGuire
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is shaped by multiple selective forces that drive the evolution of sex-specific body size, resulting in male or female-biased SSD. Stronger selection on one sex can result in an allometric body-size scaling relationship consistent with Rensch’s rule or its converse. Anurans (frogs and toads) generally display female-biased SSD, but there is variation across clades and the mechanisms driving the evolution of SSD remain poorly understood. We investigated these topics in a...
Natural history collections are unparalleled repositories of geographic and temporal variation in faunal conditions. Molecular studies offer an opportunity to uncover much of this variation; however, genetic studies of historical museum specimens typically rely on extracting highly degraded and chemically modified DNA samples from skins, skulls or other dried samples. Despite this limitation, obtaining short fragments of DNA sequences using traditional PCR amplification of DNA has been the primary method for genetic study of historical...
Data from: Comparative multi-locus phylogeography confirms multiple vicariance events in co-distributed rainforest frogsRayna C Bell, Jason B MacKenzie, Michael J Hickerson, Krystle L Chavarría, Michael Cunningham, Stephen Williams, Craig Moritz, K. L. Chavarria, J. B. MacKenzie, S. Williams, R. C. Bell, M. Cunningham, C. Moritz & M. J. Hickerson
Though Pleistocene refugia are frequently cited as drivers of species diversification, comparisons of molecular divergence among sister species typically indicate a continuum of divergence times from the late Miocene, rather than a clear pulse of speciation events at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Community-scale inference methods that explicitly test for multiple vicariance events, and account for differences in ancestral effective population size and gene flow, are well suited for detecting heterogeneity of species’ responses to...
Data from: Microgeographic socio-genetic structure of an African cooperative breeding passerine revealed: integrating behavioural and genetic data.Ângela M Ribeiro, Penn Lloyd, Kevin A Feldheim & Rauri C K Bowie
Dispersal can be motivated by multiple factors including sociality. Dispersal behaviour affects population genetic structure that in turn reinforces social organization. We combined observational information with individual-based genetic data in the Karoo scrub-robin, a facultative cooperatively breeding bird, to understand how social bonds within familial groups affect mating patterns, cause sex asymmetry in dispersal behavior and ultimately influence the evolution of dispersal. Our results revealed that males and females do not have symmetrical roles in...
Data from: A tight balance between natural selection and gene flow in a southern African arid-zone endemic birdÂngela Maria Ribeiro, Penn Lloyd & Rauri C. K. Bowie
Gene flow is traditionally thought to be antagonistic to population differentiation and local adaptation. However, recent studies have demonstrated that local adaptation can proceed provided that selection is greater than the homogenising effects of gene flow. We extend these initial studies by combining ecology (climate), phenotype (body size), physiological genetics (oxidative phosphorylation genes) and neutral loci (nuclear microsatellites and introns) to test whether selection can counter-balance gene flow and hence promote local adaptation in a...
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology33
University of California, Berkeley9
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor4
University of Cape Town4
National Museum of Natural History4
Australian National University3
University of Kansas2
Institut Teknologi Bandung2
University of Washington2
Field Museum of Natural History2