60 Works

Life on a leaf: the development of spatial structure in epiphyll communities

Anna Mežaka, Noris Salazar Allen, Glenda Mendieta-Leiva & Maaike Y. Bader
1. The spatial structure of biotic communities can be shaped by niche-based or stochastic processes, and the importance of both can change through time. Niche-based processes include neighbour interactions, which can change in intensity and quality as communities develop in dependence of environmental conditions. Epiphylls, miniature communities of liverworts, lichens, algae and fungi on leaves, develop only in relatively moist forests, but their leaf-surface habitat is still characterised by moisture stress, especially in more exposed...

Data from: De novo assembly and comparative analysis of the Ceratodon purpureus transcriptome

Péter Szövényi, Pierre-François Perroud, Aikaterini Symeonidi, Sean Stevenson, Ralph S. Quatrano, Stefan A. Rensing, Andrew C. Cuming & Stuart F. McDaniel
The bryophytes are a morphologically and ecologically diverse group of plants that have recently emerged as major model systems for a variety of biological processes. In particular, the genome sequence of the moss, Physcomitrella patens, has significantly enhanced our understanding of the evolution of developmental processes in land plants. However, to fully explore the diversity within bryophytes, we need additional genomic resources. Here we describe analyses of the transcriptomes of a male and a female...

Data from: Species richness-productivity relationships of tropical terrestrial ferns at regional and local scales

Michael Kessler, Laura Salazar, Jürgen Homeier & Jürgen Kluge
1. The species richness-productivity relationship (SRPR), by which the species richness of habitats or ecosystems is related to the productivity of the ecosystem or the taxon, has been documented both on regional and local scales, but its generality, biological meaning, and underlying mechanisms remain debated. 2. We evaluated the SRPR and 3 mechanistic hypotheses using terrestrial ferns in 18 study plots along an elevational gradient (500-4000 m) in Ecuador. We measured annual increases in above-ground...

Data from: Responses of a legume to inbreeding and the intensity of novel and familiar stresses

Finn Rehling, Diethart Matthies & Tobias Sandner
It is often assumed that the negative effects of inbreeding on fitness (inbreeding depression, ID) are particularly strong under stressful conditions. However, ID may be relatively mild under types of stress that plant populations have experienced for a long time, because environment-specific deleterious alleles may already have been purged. We examined the performance of open- and self-pollinated progeny of the short-lived calcareous grassland plant Anthyllis vulneraria under three intensities of each of five types of...

Data from: Variation in neighbourhood context shapes frugivore-mediated facilitation and competition among co-dispersed plant species

Jörg Albrecht, Victoria Bohle, Dana Berens, Bogdan Jaroszewicz, Nuria Selva, Nina Farwig & Dana G. Berens
1. Co-occurring and simultaneously fruiting plant species may either compete for dispersal by shared frugivores, or enhance each other's dispersal through joint attraction of frugivores. While competitive plant–plant interactions are expected to cause the evolutionary divergence of fruit phenologies, facilitative interactions are assumed to promote their convergence. To which extent competitive and facilitative interactions among plant species with similar phenological niches are controlled by spatial variation in their local abundance and co-occurrence is poorly understood....

Data from: Large birds travel farther in homogeneous environments

Marlee A. Tucker, Olga Alexandrou, , Keith L. Bildstein, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Chloe Bracis, John N. Brzorad, Evan R. Buechley, David Cabot, Justin M. Calabrese, Carlos Carrapato, André Chiaradia, Lisa C. Davenport, Sarah C. Davidson, Mark Desholm, Christopher R. DeSorbo, Robert Domenech, Peter Enggist, William F. Fagan, Nina Farwig, Wolfgang Fiedler, Christen H. Fleming, Alastair Franke, John M. Fryxell, Clara García-Ripollés … & João Paulo Silva
Aim: Animal movement is an important determinant of individual survival, population dynamics, and ecosystem structure and function. Yet it is still unclear how local movements are related to resource availability and the spatial arrangement of resources. Using resident bird species and migratory bird species outside of the migratory period, we examined how the distribution of resources affect the movement patterns of both large terrestrial birds (e.g., raptors, bustards, hornbills) and waterbirds (e.g., cranes, storks, ducks,...

Data from: Detection of somatic epigenetic variation in Norway spruce via targeted bisulfite sequencing

Katrin Heer, Kristian K. Ullrich, Manuel Hiss, Sascha Liepelt, Ralf Schulze Brüning, Jiabin Zou, Lars Opgenoorth, Stefan A. Rensing & Jiabin Zhou
Epigenetic mechanisms represent a possible mechanism for achieving a rapid response of long‐lived trees to changing environmental conditions. However, our knowledge on plant epigenetics is largely limited to a few model species. With increasing availability of genomic resources for many tree species, it is now possible to adopt approaches from model species that permit to obtain single‐base pair resolution data on methylation at a reasonable cost. Here, we used targeted bisulfite sequencing (TBS) to study...

Data from: Effects of zoochory on the spatial genetic structure of plant populations

Tiziana A. Gelmi-Candusso, Eckhard W. Heymann & Katrin Heer
Spatial genetic structure (SGS) of plants results from the non-random distribution of related individuals. SGS provides information on gene flow and spatial patterns of genetic diversity within populations. Seed dispersal creates the spatial template for plant distribution. Thus, in zoochorous plants, dispersal mode and disperser behavior might have a strong impact on SGS. However, many studies only report the taxonomic group of seed dispersers, without further details. The recent increase in studies on SGS provides...

A target enrichment probe set for resolving the flagellate land plant tree of life

Jesse W. Breinholt, Sarah B. Carey, George P. Tiley, E. Christine Davis, Lorena Endara, Stuart F. McDaniel, Leandro Neves, Emily B. Sessa, Matt Von Konrat, Susan Fawcett, Stefanie M. Ickert-Bond, Paulo H. Labiak, Juan Larraín, Marcus Lehnert, Lily R. Lewis, Nathalie S. Nagalingum, Nikisha Patel, Stefan A. Rensing, Weston Testo, Alejandra Vasco, Juan Carlos Villarreal, Evelyn Webb Williams, J. Gordon Burleigh, Sahut Chantanaorrapint, Leandro G. Neves … & Stefanie M. Ickert‐Bond
Premise of the Study: New sequencing technologies enable the possibility of generating large-scale molecular datasets for constructing the plant tree of life. We describe a new probe set for target enrichment sequencing to generate nuclear sequence data to build phylogenetic trees with any flagellate land plants, including hornworts, liverworts, mosses, lycophytes, ferns, and all gymnosperms. Methods and Results: We leveraged existing transcriptome and genome sequence data to design a set of 56,989 probes for target...

Annual occupancy estimates for butterflies, grasshoppers and dragonflies in Bavaria (Germany), 1980-2019

Eva Katharina Engelhardt, Matthias F. Biber, Matthias Dolek, Thomas Fartmann, Axel Hochkirch, Jan Leidinger, Franz Löffler, Stefan Pinkert, Dominik Poniatowski, Johannes Voith, Michael Winterholler, Dirk Zeuss, Diana E. Bowler & Christian Hof
Recent climate and land-use changes are having substantial impacts on biodiversity, including population declines, range shifts, and changes in community composition. However, few studies have compared these impacts among multiple taxa, particularly because of a lack of standardized time series data over long periods. Existing datasets are typically of low resolution or poor coverage, both spatially and temporally, thereby limiting the inferences that can be drawn from such studies. Here, we compare climate and land-use...

Light and malaise traps tell different stories about the spatial variations in arthropod biomass and method-specific insect abundance

Annika Busse, Claus Bässler, Roland Brandl, Nicolas Friess, Hermann Hacker, Lea Heidrich, Torben Hilmers, Gisela Merkel-Wallner, Christian Schmid-Egger, Linda Seifert & Jörg Müller
1. Conclusions reached in meta-analyses of changes in insect communities may be influenced by method-specific sampling biases, which may lead to inappropriate conservation measures. 2. We argue that the contradictory conclusions regarding terrestrial insect biomass, abundance and richness patterns are, at least partly, due to methodological limitations that reflect taxon-specific responses to environmental changes. 3. In this study, light and Malaise traps were simultaneously deployed to sample insects at 52 plots in a temperate forest...

Long-term (1901-2017) phenology data of 20 forest understory herbs in Europe, collected from herbaria and GBIF, used in: \"Forest wildflowers bloom earlier as Europe warms: Lessons from herbaria and spatial modeling\", New Phytologist

Franziska Merle Willems
Today plants often flower earlier due to climate warming, and the collection dates of herbarium specimens can provide proof of this.
To test for such fingerprints of climate change in Europe, we compiled a long-term (1901-2017) dataset from 6131 herbarium specimens of 20 early-flowering European forest understory herbs. The data were collected in the herbaria of Jena (JE), Stuttgart (STU) and Tübingen (TUB), and were complemented with herbarium data from the database GBIF.
The final data file...

Comparison of native and non-native predator consumption rates and prey avoidance behavior in North America and Europe

Ayse Gül Ünlü, John J. Obrycki & Roman Bucher
Novel predator-prey interactions can contribute to the invasion success of non-native predators. For example, native prey can fail to recognize and avoid non-native predators due to a lack of co-evolutionary history and cue dissimilarity with native predators. This might result in a competitive advantage for non-native predators. Numerous lady beetle species were globally redistributed as biological control agents against aphids, resulting in novel predator-prey interactions. Here, we investigated the strength of avoidance behavior of the...

Climate-diversity relationships underlying cross-taxon diversity of the Africa fauna and their implications for conservation

Stefan Pinkert, Dirk Zeuss, Viola Clausnitzer, Jens Kipping, Klaas-Douwe B. Dijkstra, Stefan Brunzel & Roland Brandl
Aim: Many taxa show remarkable similarities in their diversity patterns and these similarities are commonly used to define large-scale conservation priorities. Here, we investigated the relative importance of contemporary climate and climate change since the Last Glacial Maximum for determining the species richness and rarity patterns of four animal taxa. We assessed the extent to which diversity patterns are congruent across taxa because of similar responses to these climatic aspects and we identify regions that...

Data from: The extracellular domains of IgG1 and T cell-derived IL-4/IL-13 are critical for the polyclonal memory IgE response in vivo

Adriana Turqueti-Neves, Manuel Otte, Christian Schwartz, Michaela Erika Renate Schmitt, Cornelia Lindner, Oliver Pabst, Philipp Yu & David Voehringer
IgE-mediated activation of mast cells and basophils contributes to protective immunity against helminths but also causes allergic responses. The development and persistence of IgE responses are poorly understood, which is in part due to the low number of IgE-producing cells. Here, we used next generation sequencing to uncover a striking overlap between the IgE and IgG1 repertoires in helminth-infected or OVA/alum-immunized wild-type BALB/c mice. The memory IgE response after secondary infection induced a strong increase...

Data from: Trait-associated loss of frugivores in fragmented forest does not affect seed removal rates

Nina Farwig, Dana G. Schabo & Jörg Albrecht
Seed dispersal by frugivorous animals forms the basis for regeneration of numerous plant species. Habitat fragmentation has been found to be one major factor perturbing frugivore communities and dependent plant species. Yet, community-wide consequences of fragmentation for both frugivore and plant communities are still hardly understood. Here, we studied the effects of habitat fragmentation on the seed removal by frugivorous birds and mammals from nine fleshy-fruited plant species in Białowieża Forest (Eastern Poland). This last...

Data from: Moving from frugivory to seed dispersal: incorporating the functional outcomes of interactions in plant-frugivore networks

Benno I. Simmons, William J. Sutherland, Lynn V. Dicks, Jörg Albrecht, Nina Farwig, Daniel Garcia, Pedro Jordano & Juan P. González-Varo
1.There is growing interest in understanding the functional outcomes of species interactions in ecological networks. For many mutualistic networks, including pollination and seed dispersal networks, interactions are generally sampled by recording animal foraging visits to plants. However, these visits may not reflect actual pollination or seed dispersal events, despite these typically being the ecological processes of interest. 2.Frugivorous animals can act as seed dispersers, by swallowing entire fruits and dispersing their seeds, or as pulp...

Data from: Quantification of the zygotic barrier between interbreeding taxa using gene flow data

Ronald Bialozyt, Marc Niggemann & Birgit Ziegenhagen
Hybridization and introgression via interspecific gene flow are common processes in the plant kingdom. The effectiveness of these processes is governed by the strengths of multiple zygotic barriers. These barriers have often been quantified in artificial settings using laborious and time-consuming hand-pollination experiments, but their quantification is nonexistent at the landscape level. In this study, we utilized gene flow data within a spatially explicit simulation to assess the strengths of zygotic barriers. Our model system...

Data from: The effects of stress intensity and stress type on inbreeding depression in Silene vulgaris

Tobias Michael Sandner & Diethart Matthies
Inbreeding depression (ID) is generally assumed to increase under stressful conditions, but a number of studies have found the opposite pattern, i.e. that crossed offspring were more capable of exploiting benign conditions. Alternatively, the phenotypic variation hypothesis predicts that not stress intensity, but enhanced phenotypic variation in an environment leads to increased ID. We subjected inbred and crossed offspring of Silene vulgaris to drought, simulated herbivory, copper contamination, and two levels of nutrient deficiency and...

Data from: Evolutionary processes, dispersal limitation and climatic history shape current diversity patterns of European dragonflies

Stefan Pinkert, Klaas-Douwe B. Dijkstra, Dirk Zeuss, Christoph Reudenbach, Roland Brandl & Christian Hof
We investigated the effects of contemporary and historical factors on the spatial variation of European dragonfly diversity. Specifically, we tested to what extent patterns of endemism and phylogenetic diversity of European dragonfly assemblages are structured by (i) phylogenetic conservatism of thermal adaptations and (ii) differences in the ability of post-glacial recolonization by species adapted to running waters (lotic) and still waters (lentic). We investigated patterns of dragonfly diversity using digital distribution maps and a phylogeny...

Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across Europe

Emily A. Martin, Matteo Dainese, Yann Clough, András Báldi, Riccardo Bommarco, Vesna Gagic, Michael Garratt, Andrea Holzschuh, David Kleijn, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Lorenzo Marini, Simon G. Potts, Henrik G. Smith, Diab Al Hassan, Matthias Albrecht, Georg K. S. Andersson, Josep Asis, Stephanie Aviron, Mario Balzan, Laura Baños-Picón, Ignasi Bartomeus, Peter Batary, Françoise Burel, Berta Caballero-López, Elena D. Concepcion … & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with...

Amazonian epiphytic bryophytes: community matrix and tools to assess diversity across scales

Monica Bibiana Berdugo Moreno, S. Robbert Gradstein, Louise Guérot, Susana León-Yánez, Jörg Bendix & Maaike Bader
Aim: Tropical forests are highly diverse at many spatial scales. In these forests, epiphytic bryophyte communities can be species-rich already within a few cm2, and their species numbers increase when expanding the sampling along the tree and the forest. Understanding how this diversity increase depends on scale and position within the tree is critical to evaluate the processes that maintain biodiversity. We, therefore, studied vertical zonation and alpha and beta diversity of epiphytic bryophytes across...

Data from: Revisiting the measurement of anomie

Ali Teymoori, Jolanda Jetten, Brock Bastian, Amarina Ariyanto, Frédérique Autin, Nadia Ayub, Constantina Badea, Tomasz Besta, Fabrizio Butera, Rui Costa-Lopes, Lijuan Cui, Carole Fantini, Gillian Finchilesc, Lowell Gaertner, Mario Gollwitzer, Ángel Gómez, Roberto González, Ying Yi Hong, Dorthe Høj Jensen, Minoru Karasawa, Thomas Kessler, Olivier Klein, Marcus Lima, Tuuli Anna Mähönen, Laura Megevand … & Gillian Finchilescu
Sociologists coined the term "anomie" to describe societies that are characterized by disintegration and deregulation. Extending beyond conceptualizations of anomie that conflate the measurements of anomie as 'a state of society' and as a 'state of mind', we disentangle these conceptualizations and develop an analysis and measure of this phenomenon focusing on anomie as a perception of the 'state of society'. We propose that anomie encompasses two dimensions: a perceived breakdown in social fabric (i.e.,...

Data from: Epiphyll specialization for leaf and forest successional stages in a tropical lowland rainforest

Anna Mežaka, Maaike Y. Bader, Noris Salazar Allen & Glenda Mendieta Leiva
Questions The importance of tropical rainforest gap dynamics in biodiversity maintenance is not fully understood, in particular for taxa other than trees and lianas. We used epiphylls on rainforest leaves to study the importance of leaf- and forest-scale succession in determining biodiversity patterns by characterizing community change with leaf age in gaps and closed-forest habitats. We asked: 1. Do epiphylls show specialization for leaf and forest successional stages? 2. Can early and late-successional epiphyllous species...

Data from: Closely related parasitic plants have similar host requirements and related effects on hosts

Diethart Matthies
The performance of root hemiparasites depends strongly on host species identity, but it remains unknown whether there exist general patterns in the quality of species as hosts for hemiparasites and in their sensitivity to parasitism. In a comparative approach, the model root-hemiparasites Rhinanthus minor and R. alectorolophus were grown with 25 host species (grasses, forbs and legumes) at two nutrient levels. Hosts grown without parasites served as a control. Host species identity strongly influenced parasite...

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