99 Works

Data from: Immunogenetic heterogeneity in a widespread ungulate: the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

Erwan Quéméré, Maxime Galan, Jean-François Cosson, François Klein, Stéphane Aulagnier, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont, Joël Merlet, A. J. Mark Hewison & Nathalie Charbonnel
Understanding how immune genetic variation is shaped by selective and neutral processes in wild populations is of prime importance in both evolutionary biology and epidemiology. The European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) has considerably expanded its distribution range these last decades, notably by colonizing agricultural landscapes. This range shift is likely to have led to bottlenecks and increased roe deer exposure to a new range of pathogens that until recently predominantly infected humans and domestic fauna....

Data from: A single multiplex of twelve microsatellite markers for the simultaneous study of the brown hare (Lepus europaeus) and the mountain hare (Lepus timidus)

Marie-Pauline Beugin, Jérôme Letty, Cécile Kaerle, Jean-Sébastien Guitton, Lina Muselet, Guillaume Queney & Dominique Pontier
The management of hunted species is challenging, as it must conciliate the conservation of species and their sustainable exploitation. Non-genetic tools are widely used in this context but they may present limitations notably when species can hybridize or when large-scale spatial monitoring is required to establish optimal management actions. This is why genetic tools have been more and more integrated in wildlife management practices. However, the markers proposed are often amplified in small multiplexes when...

Data from: On the evolutionary consequences of increasing litter size with multiple paternity in wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa)

Thibault Gayet, Sebastien Devillard, Marlène Gamelon, Serge Brandt, Ludovic Say & Eric Baubet
Understanding how some species may be able to evolve quickly enough to deal with anthropogenic pressure is of prime interest in evolutionary biology, conservation and management. Wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) populations keep growing all over Europe despite increasing hunting pressure. In wild boar populations subject to male-selective harvesting, the initially described polygynous mating system may switch to a promiscuous/polyandrous one. Such a change in the mating system, where potentially more males sire a litter...

Data from: Ultrasonic cavitation induces necrosis and impairs growth in three-dimensional models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Einas Abou Ali, Benoit Bordacaha, Jean-Louis Mestas, Frederic Batteux, Cyril Lafon, Marine Camus & Frederic Prat
Introduction: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a rapidly increasing cause of mortality whose dismal prognosis is mainly due to overwhelming chemoresistance. New therapeutic approaches include physical agents such as ultrasonic cavitation, but clinical applications require further insights in the mechanisms of cytotoxicity. Three dimensional in vitro culture models such as spheroids exploit realistic spatial, biochemical and cellular heterogeneity that may bridge some of the experimental gap between conventional in vitro and in vivo experiments. Purpose:...

Data from: The influence of weather conditions during gestation on life histories in a wild Arctic ungulate

Mathieu Douhard, Leif Egil Loe, Audun Stien, Christophe Bonenfant, R. Justin Irvine, Vebjørn Veiberg, Erik Ropstad & Steve Albon
The internal predictive adaptive response (internal PAR) hypothesis predicts that individuals born in poor conditions should start to reproduce earlier if they are likely to have reduced performance in later life. However, whether this is the case remains unexplored in wild populations. Here, we use longitudinal data from a long-term study of Svalbard reindeer to examine age-related changes in adult female life-history responses to environmental conditions experienced in utero as indexed by rain-on-snow (ROSutero). We...

Data from: Bayesian phylogeographic inferences reveal contrasting colonization dynamics among European groundwater isopods

David Eme, Florian Malard, Lara Konecny-Dupré, Tristan Lefébure & Christophe J. Douady
The potentially important role of northern microrefugia during postglacial dispersal is challenging the view of southern Europe as a refuge and source area of European biota. In groundwaters, large geographic ranges of presumably good dispersers are increasingly suspected to consist of assemblages of cryptic species with narrow ranges. Moreover, a large species range, even when confirmed by molecular evidence, tells us little about the spatiotemporal dynamics of dispersal. Here, we used phylogenetic inferences, species delineation...

Data from: Quantifying individual heterogeneity and its influence on life-history trajectories: different methods for different questions and contexts

Sandra Hamel, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Mathieu Douhard, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Fanie Pelletier & Nigel G. Yoccoz
Heterogeneity among individuals influences the life-history trajectories we observe at the population level because viability selection, selective immigration and emigration processes, and ontogeny change the proportion of individuals with specific trait values with increasing age. Here, we review the two main approaches that have been proposed to account for these processes in life-history trajectories, contrasting how they quantify ontogeny and selection, and proposing ways to overcome some of their limitations. Nearly all existing approaches to...

Data from: Testing determinants of the annual individual fitness: an overall mean mixture model for de-lifing data

Pierre Dupont, Dominique Allainé, Aurélie Cohas & Roger Pradel
1. The de-lifing method (Coulson et al. 2006), though very promising for studying ecological and evolutionary changes, has been scarcely used to identify factors influential on fitness. 2. Through simulations representative of a variety of iteroparous species, we establish that a two-component normal mixture usually provides a much better representation of de-lifing data than the single normal distribution assumed in classical linear models. 3. To test determinants of the annual individual fitness, we propose the...

Data from: Non-traditional isotope perspectives in vertebrate palaeobiology

Jeremy E. Martin, Theo Tacail & Vincent Balter
The recent development of multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) notably in the disciplines of earth sciences, now allows the precise measurement of isotope ratios, even at low concentration. Non-traditional isotope systems, such as alkaline earth (Ca, Mg) and transition (Cu, Fe, Zn) metals are now being measured in a variety of biological tissues, including bone and teeth. Although our understanding of the environmental and biological mechanisms behind the fractionation of such elements is...

Data from: Metabarcoding for the parallel identification of several hundred predators and their preys: application to bat species diet analysis

Maxime Galan, Jean-Baptiste Pons, Orianne Tournayre, Eric Pierre, Maxime Leuchtmann, Dominique Pontier & Nathalie Charbonnel
Assessing diet variability is of main importance to better understand the biology of bats and design conservation strategies. Although the advent of metabarcoding has facilitated such analyses, this approach does not come without challenges. Biases may occur throughout the whole experiment, from fieldwork to biostatistics, resulting in the detection of false negatives, false positives or low taxonomic resolution. We detail a rigorous metabarcoding approach based on a short COI minibarcode and two-step PCR protocol enabling...

Data from: Evaluating the accuracy of biodiversity changes through geological times: from simulation to solution

Corentin Gibert & Gilles Escarguel
Estimating biodiversity and its variations through geologic time is a notoriously difficult task, due to several taphonomic and methodological effects that make the reconstructed signal potentially distinct from the unknown, original one. Through a simulation approach, we examine the effect of a major, surprisingly still understudied, source of potential disturbance: the effect of time discretization through biochronological construction, which generates spurious coexistences of taxa within discrete time intervals (i.e., biozones), and thus potentially makes continuous-...

Data from: Exploring and visualising spaces of tree reconciliations

Katharina T. Huber, Vincent Moulton, Marie-France Sagot & Blerina Sinaimeri
Tree reconciliation is the mathematical tool that is used to investigate the coevolution of organisms, such as hosts and parasites. A common approach to tree reconciliation involves specifying a model that assigns costs to certain events, such as cospeciation, and then tries to find a mapping between two specified phylogenetic trees which minimises the total cost of the implied events. For such models, it has been shown that there may be a huge number of...

Drivers of amphibian population dynamics and asynchrony at local and regional scales

Hugo Cayuela, Richard A. Griffiths, Nurul Zakaria, Jan W. Arntzen, Pauline Priol, Jean-Paul Léna, Aurélien Besnard & Pierre Joly
Identifying the drivers of population fluctuations in spatially distinct populations remains a significant challenge for ecologists. Whereas regional climatic factors may generate population synchrony (i.e., the Moran effect), local factors including the level of density-dependence may reduce the level of synchrony. Although divergences in the scaling of population synchrony and spatial environmental variation have been observed, the regulatory factors that underlie such mismatches are poorly understood. Few previous studies have investigated how density-dependent processes and...

Direct observation of hyperpolarization breaking through the spin diffusion barrier

Quentin Stern, Samuel F. Cousin, Frederic Mentink-Vigier, Arthur C. Pinon, Stuart J. Elliott, Olivier Cala & Sami Jannin
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a widely used tool for overcoming the low intrinsic sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Its practical applicability is typically bounded, however, by the so-called ‘spin diffusion barrier’, which relates to the poor efficiency of polarization transfer from highly polarized nuclei close to paramagnetic centers to bulk nuclei. A quantitative assessment of this barrier has been hindered so far by the lack of general methods for studying nuclear-polarization...

Enforced monoandry and female investment into reproduction

Gabriele Sorci, Loïc Lesobre, Pauline Vuarin, Gwènaëlle Levêque, Michel Saint Jalme & Frédéric Lacroix
While uncovering the costs and benefits of polyandry has attracted considerable attention, assessing the net effect of sexual selection on population fitness requires the experimental manipulation of female mating over generations, which is usually only achievable in laboratory populations of arthropods. However, knowing if sexual selection improves or impairs the expression of life history traits is key for the management of captive populations of endangered species, which are mostly long-lived birds and mammals. It might...

Muscle systems and motility of early animals highlighted by cnidarians from the basal Cambrian

Xing Wang, Jean Vannier, Xiaoguang Yang, Lucas Leclère, Qiang Ou, Xikun Song, Tsuyoshi Komiya & Jian Han
Although fossil evidence suggests that various animal groups were able to move actively through their environment in the early stages of their evolution, virtually no direct information is available on the nature of their muscle systems. The origin of jellyfish swimming, for example, is of great interest to biologists. Exceptionally preserved muscles are described here in benthic peridermal olivooid medusozoans from the basal Cambrian of China (Kuanchuanpu Formation, ca. 535 Ma) that have direct equivalent...

Data from: Timetree of Aselloidea reveals species diversification dynamics in groundwater

Claire Morvan, Florian Malard, Emmanuel Paradis, Tristan Lefébure, Lara Konecny-Dupré & Christophe J. Douady
A key challenge for biologists is to document and explain global patterns of diversification in a wide range of environments. Here, we explore patterns of continental-scale diversification in a groundwater species-rich clade, the superfamily Aselloidea (Pancrustacea: Isopoda). Our analyses supported a constant diversification rate during most of the course of Aselloidea evolution, until 4–15 Ma when diversification rates started to decrease. This constant accumulation of lineages challenges the view that groundwater species diversification in temperate...

Data from: Does multiple paternity explain phenotypic variation among offspring in wild boar?

Marlène Gamelon, Thibault Gayet, Eric Baubet, Sébastien Devillard, Ludovic Say, Serge Brandt, Christophe Pélabon & Bernt-Erik Sæther
During pregnancy, littermates compete to extract maternal resources from the placenta. Unequal extraction of resources leads to developmental differences among offspring and thus within-litter variation in offspring mass. Because competition among littermates can be stronger among half-sibs, multiple paternity may represent an adaptive strategy allowing females to increase within-litter phenotypic variation among offspring when facing variable environments. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) females produce large litters with diversified offspring in terms of body mass. Additionally, multiple...

Data from: Back and forth Wolbachia transfers reveal efficient strains to control spotted wing drosophila populations

Julien Cattel, Katerina Nikolouli, Thibault Andrieux, Julien Martinez, Francis Jiggins, Sylvain Charlat, Fabrice Vavre, David Lejon, Patricia Gibert & Laurence Mouton
1.Since its recent invasion of the European and American continents, the spotted wing Drosophila Drosophila suzukii has become a burden of the fruit industry. Armed with a highly sclerotized ovipositor, females can lay eggs in a wider variety of ripening and healthy fruits than other Drosophila species. Economic losses due to Drosophila suzukii reach millions of dollars annually and methods to control natural populations in the field mainly rely on the use of chemical pesticides....

Data from: Fluctuating food resources influence developmental plasticity in wild boar

Marlène Gamelon, Mathieu Douhard, Eric Baubet, Olivier Gimenez, Serge Brandt, Jean-Michel Gaillard & J.-M. Gaillard
To maximize long-term average reproductive success, individuals can diversify the phenotypes of offspring produced within a reproductive event by displaying the ‘coin-flipping’ tactic. Wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) females have been reported to adopt this tactic. However, whether the magnitude of developmental plasticity within a litter depends on stochasticity in food resources has not been yet investigated. From long-term monitoring, we found that juvenile females produced similar-sized fetuses within a litter independent of food availability....

Data from: Transient growth-enhancing effects of elevated maternal thyroid hormones at no apparent oxidative cost during early postnatal period

Bin-Yan Hsu, Blandine Doligez, Lars Gustafsson & Suvi Ruuskanen
Maternal thyroid hormones (THs) have been proven crucial for embryonic development in humans, but their influence within the natural variation on wild animals remains unknown. So far the only two studies that experimentally investigated the potential fitness consequences of maternal THs in birds found inconsistent results. More studies are thus required to assess the general effects of maternal THs and their influences on more behavioral and physiological parameters. In this study, we experimentally elevated yolk...

Data from: Chikungunya virus impacts the diversity of symbiotic bacteria in mosquito vector

Karima Zouache, Rory J. Michelland, Anna-Bella Failloux, Genevieve L. Grundmann & Patrick Mavingui
Mosquitoes transmit numerous arboviruses including dengue and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). In recent years, mosquito species Aedes albopictus has expanded in the Indian Ocean region and was the principal vector of chikungunya outbreaks in La Reunion and neighbouring islands in 2005 and 2006. Vector-associated bacteria have recently been found to interact with transmitted pathogens. For instance, Wolbachia modulates the replication of viruses or parasites. However there has been no systematic evaluation of the diversity of the...

Data from: Recovery of benthic marine communities from the end-Permian mass extinction at the low-latitudes of Eastern Panthalassa

Richard Hofmann, Michael Hautmann, Arnaud Brayard, Alexander Nützel, Kevin Bylund, James Jenks, Emmanuelle Vennin, Nicolas Olivier & Hugo Bucher
Based on the quantitative community analysis using species-level identifications, we track the restoration of benthic ecosystems after the end-Permian mass extinction throughout the Lower Triassic of the western USA. New data on the palaeoecology of the Thaynes Group and Sinbad Formation are provided, which fill a gap between the recently studied palaeoecology of the Griesbachian–Dienerian Dinwoody Formation and the Spathian Virgin Formation. In the Sinbad Formation and Thaynes Group, 17 species (12 genera) of bivalves,...

Data from: Contemporary variations of immune responsiveness during range expansion of two invasive rodents in Senegal

Christophe Diagne, Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont, Stéphane Cornet, Laëtitia Husse, Souleymane Doucouré, Ambroise Dalecky, Khalilou Bâ, Mamadou Kane, Youssoupha Niang, Mamoudou Diallo, Aliou Sow, Odile Fossati-Gaschignard, Sylvain Piry, Emmaneulle Artige, Mbacké Sembène, Carine Brouat, Nathalie Charbonnel & Emmanuelle Artige
Biological invasions provide unique opportunities for studying life history trait changes over contemporary time scales. As spatial spread may be related to changes in parasite communities, several hypotheses (such as the evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) or EICA-refined hypotheses) suggest immune changes in invasive species along invasion gradients. Although native hosts may be subject to similar changes in parasite selection pressures, their immune responses have been rarely investigated in invasion contexts. In this study,...

Data from: Introduction history overrides social factors in explaining genetic structure of females in Mediterranean mouflon

Elodie Portanier, Mathieu Garel, Sebastien Devillard, Pascal Marchand, Julie Andru, Daniel Maillard & Gilles Bourgoin
Fine-scale spatial genetic structure of populations results from social and spatial behaviors of individuals such as sex-biased dispersal and philopatry. However, the demographic history of a given population can override such socio-spatial factors in shaping genetic variability when bottlenecks or founder events occurred in the population. Here, we investigated whether socio-spatial organization determines the fine-scale genetic structure for both sexes in a Mediterranean mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon×Ovis sp.) population in southern France 60 years after...

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