16 Works

Data from: Does sex-biased dispersal account for the lack of geographic and host-associated differentiation in introduced populations of an aphid parasitoid?

Francisca Zepeda-Paulo, Blas Lavandero, Frédérique Mahéo, Emilie Dion, Yannick Outreman, Jean-Christophe Simon & Christian C. Figueroa
Host recognition and use in female parasitoids strongly relies on host fidelity, a plastic behavior which can significantly restrict the host preferences of parasitoids, thus reducing the gene flow between parasitoid populations attacking different insect hosts. However, the effect of migrant males on the genetic differentiation of populations has been frequently ignored in parasitoids, despite its known impact on gene flow between populations. Hence, we studied the extent of gene flow mediated by female and...

Data from: Genotype matching in a parasitoid-host genotypic food web: an approach for measuring effects of environmental change

Blas Lavandero & Jason M. Tylianakis
Food webs typically quantify interactions between species, whereas evolution operates through the success of alleles within populations of a single species. To bridge this gap, we quantify genotypic interaction networks among individuals of a single specialized parasitoid species and its obligately to cyclically parthenogenetic aphid host along a climatic gradient. As a case study for the kinds of questions genotype food webs could be used to answer, we show that genetically-similar parasitoids became more likely...

How to cope with drought and not die trying: drought acclimation across tree species with contrasting niche breadth

Alex Fajardo & Frida Piper
Worldwide drought events have been reported to cause tree growth decline and mortality, thus altering the carbon (C) balance of forest ecosystems. While most of the attention has been focused on the physiological mechanisms associated with drought-induced tree responses of a few species at specific locations, the ecological attributes of these species, like their niche breadth, may be also important in determining species’ sensitivity or resilience to drought. We postulated that wide-niche breadth tree species...

Prosopis laevigata microsatellite and sequence alignment data

Antonio González-Rodríguez, Gonzalo Contreras-Negrete, Luis Letelier & Javier Piña-Torres
Patterns of genetic and phylogeographic structure and recent population history of plant species in the Mexican arid zones has been scarcely investigated. Prosopis laevigata is the most widely spread species of mesquite in Mexico, with extensive populations in the arid and semi-arid zones of the central and northern plateaus and scattered presence in southern Mexico. We evaluated the genetic and phylogeographic structure of this species to infer its recent demographic history. We genotyped six nuclear...

Data from: Woody climbers show greater population genetic differentiation than trees: insights into the link between ecological traits and diversification

Ernesto Gianoli, Cristian Torres-Diaz, Eduardo Ruiz, Cristian Salgado-Luarte, Marco A. Molina-Montenegro, Alfredo Saldaña & Rodrigo S. Ríos
The climbing habit is a key innovation in plants: climbing taxa have higher species richness than non-climbing sister groups. We evaluated the hypothesis that climbing plant species show greater among-population genetic differentiation than non-climber species. We compared the among-population genetic distance in woody climbers (8 species, 30 populations) and trees (7 species, 29 populations) coexisting in 9 communities in a temperate rainforest. We also compared within-population genetic diversity in co-occurring woody climbers and trees in...

Data from: Multiple late-Pleistocene colonisation events of the Antarctic pearlwort Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae) reveal the recent arrival of native Antarctic vascular flora

E. M. Biersma, C. Torres-Díaz, K. K. Newsham, M. A. Vidal, G. Ballesteros, C. C. Figueroa, W. P. Goodall-Copestake, M.A. Leppe, M. Cuba-Díaz, M. A. Valladares, L. R. Pertierra, P. Convey, I. S. Acuña-Rodríguez, G. A. Collado & M. A. Molina-Montenegro
Aim: Antarctica’s remote and extreme terrestrial environments are inhabited by only two species of native vascular plants. We assessed genetic connectivity amongst Antarctic and South American populations of one of these species, Colobanthus quitensis, to determine its origin and age in Antarctica. Location: Maritime Antarctic, sub-Antarctic islands, South America Taxon: Antarctic pearlwort Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae) Methods: Four chloroplast markers and one nuclear marker were sequenced from 270 samples from a latitudinal transect spanning 21–68° S....

Data from: Adaptive evolution of a generalist parasitoid: implications for the effectiveness of biological control agents

Francisca A. Zepeda-Paulo, Sebastián A. Ortiz-Martínez, Christian C. Figueroa & Blas Lavandero
The use of alternative hosts imposes divergent selection pressures on parasitoid populations. In response to selective pressures, these populations may follow different evolutionary trajectories. Divergent natural selection could promote local host adaptation in populations, translating into direct benefits for biological control thereby increasing their effectiveness on the target host. Alternatively, adaptive phenotypic plasticity could be favored over local adaptation in temporal and spatially heterogeneous environments. We investigated the existence of local host adaptation in Aphidius...

Phenotypic plasticity may mediate habitat filtering in a forest edge community

Ernesto Gianoli & Víctor Escobedo
A key process determining community assembly is habitat filtering, which reduces the range of trait values and thus leads to trait convergence. Habitat filtering is often assumed to involve a reduction in species richness, but such trait convergence could also result from phenotypic plasticity. By allowing more species in the community to show the “right” phenotype and pass the filter, phenotypic plasticity could maintain species richness despite trait convergence. If phenotypic plasticity plays this role,...

Data from: The intraspecific relationship between wood density, vessel diameter and other traits across environmental gradients

Alex Fajardo
This data is about several traits measured on branches of 3 wide-niche breadth tree species--Embothrium coccineum (Proteaceae, Nothofagus antarctica (Nothofagaceae) and N. pumilio--growing across environmental gradients in southern Chile. The traits involve leaf, wood anatomy, including wood density, growth, carbon reserves and wood isotopes.

Phenotypic plasticity and the leaf economics spectrum: plasticity is positively associated with specific leaf area

Gisela C. Stotz, Gisela Stotz, Cristian Salgado-Luarte, Víctor Escobedo, Fernando Valladares & Ernesto Gianoli
Phenotypic plasticity is a key mechanism by which plants respond to changing or heterogeneous conditions. Efforts to predict phenotypic plasticity across plant species have mainly focused on environmental variability or abiotic conditions, i.e., site characteristics. However, the considerable variation in phenotypic plasticity within sites calls for alternative approaches. Different functional groups are thought to differ in their plasticity levels. Further, traits such as leaf specific area (SLA), leaf area (LA) and maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax)...

Non-structural carbohydrates predict survival in saplings of temperate trees under carbon stress

Frida Piper, Paulo Moreno & Alex Fajardo
1. Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) mediate plant survival when the plant’s carbon (C) balance is negative, suggesting that NSCs could predict plant survival under C stress. To examine this possibility, we exposed saplings of six temperate tree species to diverse levels of C stress created by the combination of two light conditions (full light availability and deep shade) and two defoliation levels (severe defoliation and non-defoliation). We then measured survival, biomass, and total NSCs and soluble...

Latitudinal trend in the reproductive mode of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum invading a wide climatic range

Sebastián Martel, Carmen Ossa, Jean-Christophe Simon, Chrisitian Figueroa & Francisco Bozinovic
The maintenance of sexuality is a puzzling phenomenon in evolutionary biology. Many universal hypotheses have been proposed to explain the prevalence of sex despite its costs, but it has been hypothesized that sex could be also retained by lineage-specific mechanisms that would confer some short-term advantage. Aphids are good models to study the maintenance of sex because they exhibit coexistence of both sexual and asexual populations within the same species and because they invade a...

Data from: Fine-scale spatial associations between functional traits and tree growth

Alex Fajardo & Eduardo Velázquez
This data set relates to a 40x60 m2 stem-mapped plot that was established in a temperate rainforest of southern Chile. It contains data for each individual stem located within the plot. Each individual is characterized by a species code, diameter at breast height (dbh, 1.35 m), diameter at coring height (dch, ca. 30 cm), x and y coordinates, basal area index of the last 10 years (bai, cm2), and growth efficiency (ge, cm2/cm2).

Interactive effects of shading and disturbance on plant invasion in an arid shrubland: assembly processes and CSR-strategies

Víctor Escobedo, Rodrigo Rios & Ernesto Gianoli
Disturbance by small mammals and shrub canopies are ecological factors typical of arid ecosystems that may influence plant invasion through environmental and community changes. Whereas disturbance beneath shrub canopies may promote invasion by removing dominant species, disturbance in open areas may hinder plant invasion by increasing environmental harshness. However, we are unaware of studies explicitly addressing the interactive effects of disturbance by mammals and shading by shrubs on community assembly processes to understand plant invasion....

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Blue whale population structure along the eastern South Pacific Ocean: evidence of more than one population

Juan P. Torres-Florez, Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete, Rick LeDuc, Aimee Lang, Barbara Taylor, Lida E. Pimper, Luis Bedriñana-Romano, Howard C. Rosenbaum & Christian C. Figueroa
Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) were among the most intensively exploited species of whales in the world. As a consequence of this intense exploitation, blue whale sightings off the coast of Chile were uncommon by the end of the 20th century. In 2004, a feeding and nursing ground was reported in southern Chile (SCh). With the aim to investigate the genetic identity and relationship of these Chilean blue whales to those in other Southern Hemisphere areas,...

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