263 Works

Data from: Gene expression under thermal stress varies across a geographic range expansion front

Lesley Lancaster, Rachael Dudaniec, Pallavi Chauhan, Maren Wellenreuther, Erik Svensson, Bengt Hansson, Lesley T. Lancaster, Rachael Y. Dudaniec & Erik I. Svensson
Many ectothermic species are currently expanding their distributions polewards due to anthropogenic global warming. Molecular genetic mechanisms facilitating range expansion under these conditions are largely unknown, but understanding these could help mitigate expanding pests and disease vectors, or help explain why some species fail to track changing climates. Here, using RNA-seq data, we examine genome-wide changes in gene expression under heat and cold stress in the range-expanding damselfly Ischnura elegans in northern Europe. We find...

Data from: Temporal regularity increases with repertoire complexity in the Australian pied butcherbird’s song

Eathan Janney, Hollis Taylor, Constance Scharff, David Rothenberg, Lucas C. Parra & Ofer Tchernichovski
Music maintains a characteristic balance between repetition and novelty. Here, we report a similar balance in singing performances of free-living Australian pied butcherbirds. Their songs include many phrase types. The more phrase types in a bird's repertoire, the more diverse the singing performance can be. However, without sufficient temporal organization, avian listeners may find diverse singing performances difficult to perceive and memorize. We tested for a correlation between the complexity of song repertoire and the...

Data from: Does detection range matter for inferring social networks in a benthic shark using acoustic telemetry?

Johann Mourier, Nathan Charles Bass, Tristan L. Guttridge, Joanna Day & Culum Brown
Accurately estimating contacts between animals can be critical in ecological studies such as examining social structure, predator–prey interactions or transmission of information and disease. While biotelemetry has been used successfully for such studies in terrestrial systems, it is still under development in the aquatic environment. Acoustic telemetry represents an attractive tool to investigate spatio-temporal behaviour of marine fish and has recently been suggested for monitoring underwater animal interactions. To evaluate the effectiveness of acoustic telemetry...

Data from: Emerging Representational Geometries in the Visual System Predict Reaction Times for Object Categorization

J. Brendan Ritchie, David A. Tovar & Thomas A. Carlson
Recognizing an object takes just a fraction of a second, less than the blink of an eye. Applying multivariate pattern analysis, or "brain decoding", methods to magnetoencephalography (MEG) data has allowed researchers to characterize, in high temporal resolution, the emerging representation of objects that underlie our capacity for rapid recognition. Shortly after stimulus onset, exemplar stimuli cluster by category in high-dimensional activation spaces. In these emerging activation spaces, the decodability of exemplar category varies over...

Data from: Landscape context explains changes in the functional diversity of regenerating forests better than climate or species richness

Michael Sams, Hao Ran Lai, Stephen Bonser, Peter Vesk, Robert Kooyman, Daniel Metcalfe, John W. Morgan, Margaret Mayfield, M. A. Sams, D. J. Metcalfe, R. M. Kooyman & P. A. Vesk
Aim A rich literature on forest succession provides general expectations for the steps forests go through while reassembling after disturbance, yet we still have a surprisingly poor understanding of why the outcomes of forest recovery after logging (or other disturbances) vary so extensively. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that regional species pool, system productivity, climate and landscape structure are important drivers of forest reassembly outcomes. Location Transect 1,500 km in length along the...

Data from: To recycle or steal? Nutrient resorption in Australian and Brazilian mistletoes from three low-phosphorus sites

Marina Corrêa Scalon, Ian J. Wright & Augusto Cesar Franco
Resorption is the process by which nutrients are withdrawn from leaves prior to leaf fall. Mistletoes are generally thought not to rely on nutrient resorption; being xylem-tapping parasites, they instead derive the nutrients required for new growth from their host plant, at little or no cost. We measured nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) resorption in 18 parasitic mistletoe–host species pairs distributed across three sites with notably low-P soil, also quantifying relationships with leaf lifespan...

Data from: Natural selection in the water: freshwater invasion and adaptation by water color in the Amazonian pufferfish

Georgina M. Cooke, Ning L. Chao & Luciano B. Beheregaray
Natural selection and ecological adaptation are ultimately responsible for much of the origin of biodiversity. Yet the identification of divergent natural selection has been hindered by the spatial complexity of natural systems, the difficulty in identifying genes under selection and their relationship to environment, and the confounding genomic effects of time. Here we employed genome scans, population genetics and sequence-based phylogeographic methods to identify divergent natural selection on population boundaries in a freshwater invader, the...

Data from: Context-dependent sex allocation: constraints on the expression and evolution of maternal effects

Sarah R. Pryke, Lee Ann Rollins & Simon C. Griffith
Despite decades of research, whether vertebrates can and do adaptively adjust the sex ratio of their offspring is still highly debated. However, this may have resulted from the failure of empirical tests to identify large and predictable fitness returns to females from strategic adjustment. Here we test the effect of diet quality and maternal condition on facultative sex ratio adjustment in the color polymorphic Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae), a species that exhibits extreme maternal allocation...

Data from: Inhibition of histone deacetylases facilitates extinction and attenuates reinstatement of nicotine self-administration in rats

Matthew R. Castino, Jennifer L. Cornish & Kelly J. Clemens
Chromatin remodelling is integral to the formation of long-term memories. Recent evidence suggests that histone modification may play a role in the persistence of memories associated with drug use. The present series of experiments aimed to examine the effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition on the extinction and reinstatement of nicotine self-administration. Rats were trained to intravenously self-administer nicotine for 12 days on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule. In Experiment 1, responding was then extinguished through...

Data from: Differential proteomic responses of selectively bred and wild Sydney rock oyster populations exposed to elevated CO2

Emma L. Thompson, Wayne O'Connor, Laura Parker, Pauline Ross & David A. Raftos
Previous work suggests that larvae from Sydney rock oysters that have been selectively bred for fast growth and disease resistance are more resilient to the impacts of ocean acidification than nonselected, wild-type oysters. In this study, we used proteomics to investigate the molecular differences between oyster populations in adult Sydney rock oysters and to identify whether these form the basis for observations seen in larvae. Adult oysters from a selective breeding line (B2) and nonselected...

Data from: Burn or rot: leaf traits explain why flammability and decomposability are decoupled across species

Saskia Grootemaat, Ian J. Wright, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen & William K. Cornwell
In fire-prone ecosystems, two important alternative fates for leaves are burning in a wildfire (when alive or as litter) or they get consumed (as litter) by decomposers. The influence of leaf traits on litter decomposition rate is reasonably well understood. In contrast, less is known about the influence of leaf traits on leaf and litter flammability. The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to determine which morphological and chemical leaf traits drive flammability; and...

Data from: Riverscape genetics identifies replicated ecological divergence across an Amazonian ecotone

Georgina Margaret Cooke, Erin L. Landguth & Luciano B. Beheregaray
Ecological speciation involves the evolution of reproductive isolation and niche divergence in the absence of a physical barrier to gene flow. The process is one of the most controversial topics of the speciation debate, particularly in tropical regions. Here, we investigate ecologically based divergence across an Amazonian ecotone in the electric fish, Steatogenys elegans. We combine phylogenetics, genome scans, and population genetics with a recently developed individual-based evolutionary landscape genetics approach that incorporates selection. This...

Data from: Contrasting patterns of gene flow for Amazonian snakes that actively forage and those that wait in ambush

Rafael De Fraga, Albertina P. Lima, William E. Magnusson, Miquéias Ferrão & Adam J. Stow
Knowledge of genetic structure, geographic distance and environmental heterogeneity can be used to identify environmental features and natural history traits that influence dispersal and gene flow. Foraging mode is a trait that might predict dispersal capacity in snakes, because actively foragers typically have greater movement rates than ambush predators. Here we test the hypothesis that two actively foraging snakes have higher levels of gene flow than two ambush predators. We evaluated these four co-distributed species...

Data from: Genetic variation, multiple paternity and measures of reproductive success in the critically endangered hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)

Blanca Idalia González-Garza, Adam Stow, Lorenzo Felipe Sánchez-Teyer & Omar Zapata-Pérez
The Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico contains some of the largest breeding groups of the globally distributed and critically endangered hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata). An improved understanding of the breeding system of this species and how its genetic variation is structured among nesting areas is required before the threats to its survival can be properly evaluated. Here, we genotype 1195 hatchlings and 41 nesting females at 12 microsatellite loci to assess levels of multiple paternity, genetic...

Data from: Naiveté is not forever: responses of a vulnerable native rodent to its long term alien predators

Alexandra J. R. Carthey & Peter B. Banks
Alien predators have wreaked havoc on isolated endemic and island fauna worldwide, a phenomenon generally attributed to prey naiveté, or a failure to display effective antipredator behaviour due to a lack of experience. While the failure to recognise and/or respond to a novel predator has devastating impacts in the short term after predators are introduced, few studies have asked whether medium to long term experience with alien predators enables native species to overcome their naiveté....

Data from: Shoot growth of woody trees and shrubs is predicted by maximum plant height and associated traits

Sean M. Gleason, Andrea E.A. Stephens, Wade C. Tozer, Chris J. Blackman, Don W. Butler, Yvonne Chang, Alicia M. Cook, Julia Cooke, Claire A. Laws, Julieta A. Rosell, Stephanie A. Stuart, Mark Westoby & Andrea E. A. Stephens
1. The rate of elongation and thickening of individual branches (shoots) varies across plant species. This variation is important for the outcome of competition and other plant-plant interactions. Here we compared rates of shoot growth across 44 species from tropical, warm temperate, and cool temperate forests of eastern Australia. 2. Shoot growth rate was found to correlate with a suite of traits including the potential height of the species, xylem-specific conductivity, leaf size, leaf area...

Data from: Fine-scale analysis of an assassin bug's behaviour: predatory strategies to bypass the sensory systems of prey

Fernando G. Soley
Some predators sidestep environments that render them conspicuous to the sensory systems of prey. However, these challenging environments are unavoidable for certain predators. Stenolemus giraffa is an assassin bug that feeds on web-building spiders; the web is the environment in which this predator finds its prey, but it also forms part of its preys' sophisticated sensory apparatus, blurring the distinction between environment and sensory systems. Stenolemus giraffa needs to break threads in the web that...

Data from: Colour patch size and measurement error using reflectance spectrometry

Arnaud Badiane, Guillem Pérez I De Lanuza, María Del Carmen García-Custodio, Pau Carazo & Enrique Font
1. Over the past twenty years, portable and relatively affordable spectrophotometers have greatly advanced the study of animal coloration. However, the small size of many colour patches poses methodological challenges that have not, to date, been assessed in the literature. Here, we tackle this issue for a reflectance spectrophotometry set-up widely used in ecology and evolution (the beam method). 2. We reviewed the literature on animal coloration reporting the use of reflectance spectrophotometry to explore...

Data from: The hawk-dove game in a sexually reproducing species explains a colorful polymorphism of an endangered bird

Hanna Kokko, Simon C. Griffith & Sarah R. Pryke
The hawk–dove game famously introduced strategic game theory thinking into biology and forms the basis of arguments for limited aggression in animal populations. However, aggressive ‘hawks’ and peaceful ‘doves’, with strategies inherited in a discrete manner, have never been documented in a real animal population. Thus, the applicability of game-theoretic arguments to real populations might be contested. Here, we show that the head-colour polymorphism of red and black Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) provides a real-life...

Data from: Behavioural plasticity under a changing climate; how an experimental local climate affects the nest construction of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

Bridget L. Campbell, Laura L. Hurley & Simon C. Griffith
Successful reproduction in most avian species is dependent on the construction of a nest that provides protection and a suitable microclimate for the eggs and developing nestlings. Observational studies suggest that climatic variation may affect the structure of the nest, but to date there have been no attempts to experimentally determine the role that local climate plays in the construction of a suitable nest. Using a within-individual counter balanced design we investigated how nest composition...

Data from: Hydrological conditions explain wood density in riparian plants of south-eastern Australia

James R. Lawson, Kirstie A. Fryirs & Michelle R. Leishman
1. Wood density is a key plant functional trait which integrates the trade-offs characteristic to riparian plant ecological strategies. Although high-density wood is costly to construct, it confers mechanical stiffness to stems, increasing a plant's capacity to withstand flooding, and also enables increased tolerance to water stress. For riparian plants, fluctuations in soil moisture driven by surface hydrology should therefore be an important driver of variation in wood density. 2. We asked the following questions...

Data from: Genetics and evidence for balancing selection of a sex-linked colour polymorphism in a songbird

Kang-Wook Kim, Benjamin C. Jackson, Hanyuan Zhang, David P. L. Toews, Scott A. Taylor, Emma I. Greig, Irby J. Lovette, Mengning M. Liu, Angus Davison, Simon C. Griffith, Kai Zeng & Terry Burke
Colour polymorphisms play a key role in sexual selection and speciation, yet the mechanisms that generate and maintain them are not fully understood. Here, we use genomic and transcriptomic tools to identify the precise genetic architecture and evolutionary history of a sex-linked colour polymorphism in the Gouldian finch Erythrura gouldiae that is also accompanied by remarkable differences in behaviour and physiology. We find that differences in colour are associated with an ~72-kbp region of the...

Data from: The relationship between diet and body mass in terrestrial mammals

Silvia Pineda-Munoz, Alistair R. Evans & John Alroy
Diet and body mass are highly important factors in mammalian ecology, and they have also proven to be powerful paleoecological indicators. Our previous research has proposed a new classification scheme for mammals with more dietary divisions that emphasizes the primary resource in a given diet. We analyzed a database summarizing the dietary preferences of 139 species of marsupial and placental terrestrial mammals (including 14 orders) and their average body masses in order to explore whether...

Data from: How much of the world is woody?

Richard G. FitzJohn, Matt W. Pennell, Amy E. Zanne, Peter F. Stevens, David C. Tank, William K. Cornwell & Matthew W. Pennell
1.The question posed by the title of this paper is a basic one, and it is surprising that the answer is not known. Recently assembled trait datasets provide an opportunity to address this, but scaling these datasets to the global scale is challenging because of sampling bias. Although we currently know the growth form of tens of thousands of species, these data are not a random sample of global diversity; some clades are exhaustively characterised,...

Data from: Environmental DNA metabarcoding studies are critically affected by substrate selection

Adam Koziol, Michael Stat, Tiffany Simpson, Simon Jarman, Joseph D. DiBattista, Euan S. Harvey, Michael Marnane, Justin McDonald & Michael Bunce
Effective biomonitoring is critical for driving management outcomes that ensure long-term sustainability of the marine environment. In recent years environmental DNA (eDNA), coupled with metabarcoding methodologies, has emerged as a promising tool for generating biotic surveys of marine ecosystems, including those under anthropogenic pressure. However, more empirical data is needed on how to best implement eDNA field sampling approaches to maximise their utility for each specific application. The effect of the substrate chosen for eDNA...

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