25 Works

Data from: Modeling character change heterogeneity in phylogenetic analyses of morphology through the use of priors

April M. Wright, Graeme T. Lloyd & David M. Hillis
The Mk model was developed for estimating phylogenetic trees from discrete morphological data, whether for living or fossil taxa. Like any model, the Mk model makes a number of assumptions. One assumption is that transitions between character states are symmetric (i.e., the probability of changing from 0 to 1 is the same as 1 to 0). However, some characters in a data matrix may not satisfy this assumption. Here, we test methods for relaxing this...

Data from: Life in the unthinking depths: energetic constraints on encephalization in marine fishes

Teresa L. Iglesias, Alex Dornburg, Matthew C. Brandley, Michael E. Alfaro & Dan L. Warren
Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the limitation of brain size in vertebrates. Here we test three hypotheses of brain size evolution using marine teleost fishes: the direct metabolic constraints hypothesis, the expensive tissue hypothesis, and the temperature-dependent hypothesis. Our analyses indicate that there is a robust positive correlation between encephalization and basal metabolic rate that spans the full range of depths occupied by teleosts from the epipelagic (< 200m), mesopelagic (200-1000m), and bathypelagic...

Data from: Hydrological conditions explain wood density in riparian plants of south-eastern Australia

James R. Lawson, Kirstie A. Fryirs & Michelle R. Leishman
1. Wood density is a key plant functional trait which integrates the trade-offs characteristic to riparian plant ecological strategies. Although high-density wood is costly to construct, it confers mechanical stiffness to stems, increasing a plant's capacity to withstand flooding, and also enables increased tolerance to water stress. For riparian plants, fluctuations in soil moisture driven by surface hydrology should therefore be an important driver of variation in wood density. 2. We asked the following questions...

Data from: Emerging Representational Geometries in the Visual System Predict Reaction Times for Object Categorization

J. Brendan Ritchie, David A. Tovar & Thomas A. Carlson
Recognizing an object takes just a fraction of a second, less than the blink of an eye. Applying multivariate pattern analysis, or "brain decoding", methods to magnetoencephalography (MEG) data has allowed researchers to characterize, in high temporal resolution, the emerging representation of objects that underlie our capacity for rapid recognition. Shortly after stimulus onset, exemplar stimuli cluster by category in high-dimensional activation spaces. In these emerging activation spaces, the decodability of exemplar category varies over...

Data from: Naiveté is not forever: responses of a vulnerable native rodent to its long term alien predators

Alexandra J. R. Carthey & Peter B. Banks
Alien predators have wreaked havoc on isolated endemic and island fauna worldwide, a phenomenon generally attributed to prey naiveté, or a failure to display effective antipredator behaviour due to a lack of experience. While the failure to recognise and/or respond to a novel predator has devastating impacts in the short term after predators are introduced, few studies have asked whether medium to long term experience with alien predators enables native species to overcome their naiveté....

Data from: Genetic variation, multiple paternity and measures of reproductive success in the critically endangered hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)

Blanca Idalia González-Garza, Adam Stow, Lorenzo Felipe Sánchez-Teyer & Omar Zapata-Pérez
The Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico contains some of the largest breeding groups of the globally distributed and critically endangered hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata). An improved understanding of the breeding system of this species and how its genetic variation is structured among nesting areas is required before the threats to its survival can be properly evaluated. Here, we genotype 1195 hatchlings and 41 nesting females at 12 microsatellite loci to assess levels of multiple paternity, genetic...

Data from: Inhibition of histone deacetylases facilitates extinction and attenuates reinstatement of nicotine self-administration in rats

Matthew R. Castino, Jennifer L. Cornish & Kelly J. Clemens
Chromatin remodelling is integral to the formation of long-term memories. Recent evidence suggests that histone modification may play a role in the persistence of memories associated with drug use. The present series of experiments aimed to examine the effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition on the extinction and reinstatement of nicotine self-administration. Rats were trained to intravenously self-administer nicotine for 12 days on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule. In Experiment 1, responding was then extinguished through...

Data from: Differential proteomic responses of selectively bred and wild Sydney rock oyster populations exposed to elevated CO2

Emma L. Thompson, Wayne O'Connor, Laura Parker, Pauline Ross & David A. Raftos
Previous work suggests that larvae from Sydney rock oysters that have been selectively bred for fast growth and disease resistance are more resilient to the impacts of ocean acidification than nonselected, wild-type oysters. In this study, we used proteomics to investigate the molecular differences between oyster populations in adult Sydney rock oysters and to identify whether these form the basis for observations seen in larvae. Adult oysters from a selective breeding line (B2) and nonselected...

Data from: Burn or rot: leaf traits explain why flammability and decomposability are decoupled across species

Saskia Grootemaat, Ian J. Wright, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen & William K. Cornwell
In fire-prone ecosystems, two important alternative fates for leaves are burning in a wildfire (when alive or as litter) or they get consumed (as litter) by decomposers. The influence of leaf traits on litter decomposition rate is reasonably well understood. In contrast, less is known about the influence of leaf traits on leaf and litter flammability. The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to determine which morphological and chemical leaf traits drive flammability; and...

Data from: Prolific observer bias in the life sciences: why we need blind data recording

Luke Holman, Megan L. Head, Robert Lanfear & Michael D. Jennions
Observer bias and other “experimenter effects” occur when researchers’ expectations influence study outcome. These biases are strongest when researchers expect a particular result, are measuring subjective variables, and have an incentive to produce data that confirm predictions. To minimize bias, it is good practice to work “blind,” meaning that experimenters are unaware of the identity or treatment group of their subjects while conducting research. Here, using text mining and a literature review, we find evidence...

Data from: Trade-offs in juvenile growth potential vs. shade tolerance among subtropical rainforest trees on soils of contrasting fertility

Kerrie M. Sendall, Christopher H. Lusk & Peter B. Reich
Plant adaptation to gradients of light availability involves a well-studied functional trade-off, as does adaptation to gradients of nutrient availability. However, little is known about how these two major trade-offs interact, and thus, it remains unclear whether and how the nature of the growth–shade tolerance trade-off differs on soils of contrasting fertility. We asked whether juvenile growth–shade tolerance trade-offs differed in slope and elevation between tree assemblages on nutrient-rich basalt and nutrient-poor rhyolite soils in...

Data from: The extent and consequences of p-hacking in science

Megan L. Head, Luke Holman, Rob Lanfear, Andrew T. Kahn & Michael D. Jennions
A focus on novel, confirmatory, and statistically significant results leads to substantial bias in the scientific literature. One type of bias, known as “p-hacking,” occurs when researchers collect or select data or statistical analyses until nonsignificant results become significant. Here, we use text-mining to demonstrate that p-hacking is widespread throughout science. We then illustrate how one can test for p-hacking when performing a meta-analysis and show that, while p-hacking is probably common, its effect seems...

Data from: Cultural traditions across a migratory network shape the genetic structure of southern right whales around Australia and New Zealand

E. L. Carroll, C. S. Baker, M. Watson, R. Alderman, J. Bannister, O. E. Gaggiotti, D. R. Gröcke, N. Patenaude & R. Harcourt
Fidelity to migratory destinations is an important driver of connectivity in marine and avian species. Here we assess the role of maternally directed learning of migratory habitats, or migratory culture, on the population structure of the endangered Australian and New Zealand southern right whale. Using DNA profiles, comprising mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes (500 bp), microsatellite genotypes (17 loci) and sex from 128 individually-identified whales, we find significant differentiation among winter calving grounds based on both...

Data from: Linkage mapping of a polymorphic plumage locus associated with intermorph incompatibility in the Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae)

Kang-Wook Kim, Simon C. Griffith & Terry Burke
Colour polymorphism is known to facilitate speciation but the genetic basis of animal pigmentation and how colour polymorphisms contribute to speciation is poorly understood. Restricted recombination may promote linkage disequilibrium between the colour locus and incompatibility genes. Genomic rearrangement and the position of relevant loci within a chromosome are important factors that influence the frequency of recombination. Therefore, it is important to know the position of the colour locus, gene order and recombination landscape of...

Data from: Near-stasis in the long-term diversification of Mesozoic tetrapods

Roger B. J. Benson, Richard J. Butler, John Alroy, Philip D. Mannion, Matthew T. Carrano & Graeme T. Lloyd
How did evolution generate the extraordinary diversity of vertebrates on land? Zero species are known prior to ~380 million years ago, and more than 30,000 are present today. An expansionist model suggests this was achieved by large and unbounded increases, leading to substantially greater diversity in the present than at any time in the geological past. This model contrasts starkly with empirical support for constrained diversification in marine animals, suggesting different macroevolutionary processes on land...

Data from: Estimating morphological diversity and tempo with discrete character-taxon matrices: implementation, challenges, progress, and future directions

Graeme T. Lloyd
Discrete character-taxon matrices are increasingly being used in an attempt to understand the pattern and tempo of morphological evolution; however, methodological sophistication and bespoke software implementations have lagged behind. In the present study, an attempt is made to provide a state-of-the-art description of methodologies and introduce a new R package (Claddis) for performing foundational disparity (morphologic diversity) and rate calculations. Simulations using its core functions show that: (1) of the two most commonly used distance...

Data from: Energetic and Ecological Constraints on Population Density of Reef Fishes

Diego R. Barneche, Michel Kulbicki, Sergio R. Floeter, Alan M. Friedlander & Andrew P. Allen
Population ecology has classically focused on pairwise species interactions, hindering the description of general patterns and processes of population abundance at large spatial scales. Here we use the Metabolic Theory of Ecology as a framework to formulate and test a model that yields predictions linking population density to the physiological constraints of body size and temperature on individual metabolism, and the ecological constraints of trophic structure and species richness on energy partitioning among species. Our...

Data from: Stable recombination hotspots in birds

Sonal Singhal, Ellen M. Leffler, Keerthi Sannareddy, Isaac Turner, Oliver Venn, Daniel M. Hooper, Alva I. Strand, Qiye Li, Brian Raney, Christopher N. Balakrishnan, Simon C. Griffith, Gil McVean & Molly Przeworski
The DNA-binding protein PRDM9 has a critical role in specifying meiotic recombination hotspots in mice and apes, but it appears to be absent from other vertebrate species, including birds. To study the evolution and determinants of recombination in species lacking the gene that encodes PRDM9, we inferred fine-scale genetic maps from population resequencing data for two bird species: the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, and the long-tailed finch, Poephila acuticauda. We found that both species have...

Data from: Evidence for a mid-Jurassic adaptive radiation in mammals

Roger A. Close, Matt Friedman, Graeme T. Lloyd & Roger B. J. Benson
A series of spectacular discoveries have transformed our understanding of Mesozoic mammals in recent years. These finds reveal hitherto-unsuspected ecomorphological diversity that suggests that mammals experienced a major adaptive radiation during the Middle to Late Jurassic. Patterns of mammalian macroevolution must be reinterpreted in light of these new discoveries, but only taxonomic diversity and limited aspects of morphological disparity have been quantified. We assess rates of morphological evolution and temporal patterns of disparity using large...

Data from: Where did all the trees come from? A novel multispecies approach reveals the impacts of biogeographical history and functional diversity on rain forest assembly

Maurizio Rossetto, Hannah McPherson, Juelian Siow, Robert Kooyman, Marlien Van Der Merwe & Peter D. Wilson
Aim: We take advantage of next generation sequencing-based technology to assess how landscape-level dynamics, biogeographical history and functional factors shape the distribution of genetic diversity in rain forest trees. To achieve this, we explore chloroplast genomic diversity and divergence patterns across multiple, co-distributed species from three major centres of rain forest diversity. Location: Subtropical rain forests in south-eastern Australia: Nightcap–Border Ranges, Dorrigo and Washpool. Methods: We assembled chloroplast genomic data from whole-genome shotgun libraries for...

Data from: Dealing with uncertainty in landscape genetic resistance models: a case of three co-occurring marsupials

Rachael Y. Dudaniec, Jessica Worthington-Wilmer, Jeffrey O. Hanson, Matthew Warren, Sarah Bell, Jonathan R. Rhodes & Jessica Worthington Wilmer
Landscape genetics lacks explicit methods for dealing with the uncertainty in landscape resistance estimation, which is particularly problematic when sample sizes of individuals are small. Unless uncertainty can be quantified, valuable but small datasets may be rendered unusable for conservation purposes. We offer a method to quantify uncertainty in landscape resistance estimates using multi-model inference as an improvement over single-model based inference. We illustrate the approach empirically using co-occurring, woodland-preferring Australian marsupials within a common...

Data from: A simple approach for maximizing the overlap of phylogenetic and comparative data

Matthew W. Pennell, Richard G. FitzJohn & William K. Cornwell
Biologists are increasingly using curated, public data sets to conduct phylogenetic comparative analyses. Unfortunately, there is often a mismatch between species for which there is phylogenetic data and those for which other data are available. As a result, researchers are commonly forced to either drop species from analyses entirely or else impute the missing data. A simple strategy to improve the overlap of phylogenetic and comparative data is to swap species in the tree that...

Data from: Connectivity in grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) determined using empirical and simulated genetic data

Paolo Momigliano, Robert Harcourt, William D. Robbins & Adam Stow
Grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) can be one of the numerically dominant high order predators on pristine coral reefs, yet their numbers have declined even in the highly regulated Australian Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Marine Park. Knowledge of both large scale and fine scale genetic connectivity of grey reef sharks is essential for their effective management, but no genetic data are yet available. We investigated grey reef shark genetic structure in the GBR across a...

Data from: Global effects of soil and climate on leaf photosynthetic traits and rates

Vincent Maire, Ian J. Wright, I. Colin Prentice, Niels H. Batjes, Radika Bhaskar, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Will K. Cornwell, David Ellsworth, Ülo Niinemets, Alejandro Ordoñez, Peter B. Reich & Louis S. Santiago
Aim: The influence of soil properties on photosynthetic traits in higher plants is poorly quantified in comparison with that of climate. We address this situation by quantifying the unique and joint contributions to global leaf-trait variation from soils and climate. Location: Terrestrial ecosystems world-wide. Methods: Using a trait dataset comprising 1509 species from 288 sites, with climate and soil data derived from global datasets, we quantified the effects of 20 soil and 26 climate variables...

Data from: Susceptibility of amphibians to chytridiomycosis is associated with MHC class II conformation

Arnaud Bataille, Scott D. Cashins, Laura Grogan, Lee F. Skerratt, David Hunter, Michael McFaddan, Benjamin Scheele, Laura A. Brannelly, Amy Macris, Peter S. Harlow, Sara Bell, Lee Berger & Bruce Waldman
The pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause precipitous population declines in its amphibian hosts. Responses of individuals to infection vary greatly with the capacity of their immune system to respond to the pathogen. We used a combination of comparative and experimental approaches to identify major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) alleles encoding molecules that foster the survival of Bd-infected amphibians. We found that Bd-resistant amphibians across four continents share common amino acids in...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Macquarie University
  • UNSW Sydney
  • Australian National University
  • Western Sydney University
  • VU University Amsterdam
  • University of Minnesota
  • Leiden University
  • University of Sydney
  • James Cook University
  • University of Oxford