15 Works

Data from: Diversity dynamics of Phanerozoic terrestrial tetrapods at the local-community scale

Roger A. Close, Roger B. J. Benson, John Alroy, Anna K. Behrensmeyer, Juan Benito, Matthew T. Carrano, Terri J. Cleary, Emma M. Dunne, Philip D. Mannion, Mark D. Uhen & Richard J. Butler
The fossil record provides one of the strongest tests of the hypothesis that diversity within local communities is constrained over geological timescales. Constraints to diversity are particularly controversial in modern terrestrial ecosystems, yet long-term patterns are poorly understood. Here we document patterns of local richness in Phanerozoic terrestrial tetrapods using a global data set comprising 145,332 taxon occurrences from 27,531 collections. We show that the local richness of non-flying terrestrial tetrapods has risen asymptotically since...

Data from: Genetics and evidence for balancing selection of a sex-linked colour polymorphism in a songbird

Kang-Wook Kim, Benjamin C. Jackson, Hanyuan Zhang, David P. L. Toews, Scott A. Taylor, Emma I. Greig, Irby J. Lovette, Mengning M. Liu, Angus Davison, Simon C. Griffith, Kai Zeng & Terry Burke
Colour polymorphisms play a key role in sexual selection and speciation, yet the mechanisms that generate and maintain them are not fully understood. Here, we use genomic and transcriptomic tools to identify the precise genetic architecture and evolutionary history of a sex-linked colour polymorphism in the Gouldian finch Erythrura gouldiae that is also accompanied by remarkable differences in behaviour and physiology. We find that differences in colour are associated with an ~72-kbp region of the...

Data from: Discovering biogeographic and ecological clusters with a graph theoretic spin on factor analysis

John Alroy
Factor analysis (FA) has the advantage of highlighting each semi-distinct cluster of samples in a data set with one axis at a time, as opposed to simply arranging samples across axes to represent gradients. However, in the case of presence-absence data it is confounded by absences when gradients are long. No statistical model can cope with this problem because the raw data simply do not present underlying information about the length of such gradients. Here...

Macronutrients modulate survival to infection and immunity in Drosophila

Fleur Ponton, Juliano Morimoto, Katie Robinson, Sheemal S. Kumar, Sheena C. Cotter, Kenneth Wilson & Stephen J. Simpson
Immunity and nutrition are two essential modulators of individual fitness. However, while the implications of immune function and nutrition on an individual’s lifespan and reproduction are well established, the interplay between feeding behaviour, infection, and immune function, remains poorly understood. Asking how ecological and physiological factors affect immune responses and resistance to infections is a central theme of eco-immunology. In this study, we used the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate how infection through septic...

Data from: It’s not all black and white: investigating colour polymorphism in manta rays across Indo-Pacific populations

Stephanie Venables, Andrea Marshall, Elitza Germanov, Robert Perryman, Ricardo Tapilatu, I. Gede Hendrawan, Anna Flam, Mike Van Keulen, Joseph Tomkins & Jason Kennington
Intraspecific colour polymorphisms have been the focus of numerous studies, yet processes affecting melanism in the marine environment remain poorly understood. Arguably the most prominent example of melanism in marine species occurs in manta rays (Mobula birostris and M. alfredi). Here, we use photo identification catalogues to document the frequency variation of melanism across Indo-Pacific manta ray populations and test for evidence of selection by predation acting on colour morph variants. We use mark-recapture modeling...

Urbanization and translocation disrupt the relationship between host density and parasite abundance

Jayna L. DeVore, Richard Shine & Simon Ducatez
1.) The species interactions that structure natural communities are increasingly disrupted by radical habitat change resulting from the widespread processes of urbanization and species translocations. Although many species are disadvantaged by these changes, others thrive in these new environments, achieving densities exceeding those found in natural habitats. Often the same species that benefit from urbanization are successful invaders in introduced habitats, suggesting that similar processes promote these species in both environments. 2.) Both processes may...

Data from: Unscrambling variation in avian eggshell colour and patterning in a continent-wide study

Kiara L. L'Herpiniere, Louis G. O'Neill, Andrew F. Russell, Daisy E. Duursma & Simon C. Griffith
The evolutionary drivers underlying marked variation in the pigmentation of eggs within many avian species remains unclear. The leading hypotheses proposed to explain such variation advocate the roles of genetic differences, signalling and/or structural integrity. One means of testing amongst these hypotheses is to capitalise on museum collections of eggs obtained throughout a broad geographic range of a species to ensure sufficient variation in predictors pertaining to each hypothesis. Here we measured colouration and patterning...

Data from: Detection of environmental and morphological adaptation despite high landscape genetic connectivity in a pest grasshopper (Phaulacridium vittatum)

Sonu Yadav, Adam J. Stow & Rachael Y. Dudaniec
Widespread species that exhibit both high gene flow and the capacity to occupy heterogeneous environments make excellent models for examining local selection processes along environmental gradients. Here we evaluate the influence of temperature and landscape variables on genetic connectivity and signatures of local adaptation in Phaulacridium vittatum, a widespread agricultural pest grasshopper, endemic to Australia. With sampling across a 900 km latitudinal gradient, we genotyped 185 P. vittatum from 19 sites at 11,408 single nucleotide...

Data from: Implicit violent imagery processing among fans and non-fans of violent music

Yanan Sun, Xuejing Lu, Mark Williams & William Forde Thompson
It is suggested that long-term exposure to violent media may decrease sensitivity to depictions of violence. However, it is unknown whether persistent exposure to music with violent themes affects implicit violent imagery processing. Using a binocular rivalry paradigm, we investigated whether the presence of violent music influences conscious awareness of violent imagery among fans and non-fans of such music. Thirty-two fans and 48 non-fans participated in the study. Violent and neutral pictures were simultaneously presented...

Data from: Latitudinal gradients in the ecology of New World bats

John Alroy
Aim: To quantify gradients in local richness levels, feeding strategies, and body mass distributions in bats and relate them to environmental variation and habitat disturbance. Location: The New World. Time period: Present day. Major taxa studied: Bats. Methods: I assembled 152 local species inventories including 245 species from the published literature, as well as body mass measurements and dietary categorisations. I quantified species richness using the Chao 1 extrapolator, obtained mean mass values for the...

Data from: Viviparity does not affect the numbers and sizes of reptile offspring

Shai Meiri, Anat Feldman, Rachel Schwarz & Richard Shine
Viviparity (live-bearing) has independently evolved from oviparity (egg-laying) in more than 100 lineages of squamates (lizards and snakes). We might expect consequent shifts in selective forces to affect per-brood reproductive investment (RI = total mass of offspring relative to maternal mass) and in the way in which that output is partitioned (number versus size of offspring per brood). Based on the assumption that newly-born offspring are heavier than eggs, we predicted that live-bearing must entail...

Niche partitioning within a population of seasnakes is constrained by ambient thermal homogeneity and small prey size

Richard Shine, Claire Goiran & Gregory Brown
In many populations of terrestrial snakes, an individual’s phenotype (e.g. body size, sex, colour) affects its habitat use. One cause for that link is gape-limitation, which can result in larger snakes eating prey that are found in different habitats. A second factor involves thermoregulatory opportunities, whereby individuals select habitats based upon thermal conditions. These ideas predict minimal intraspecific variation in habitat use in a species that eats small prey and lives in a thermally uniform...

Data from: Interactions between ecological factors in the developmental environment modulate pupal and adult traits in a polyphagous fly

Binh Nguyen, Fleur Ponton, Anh Than, Phillip W. Taylor, Toni Chapman & Juliano Morimoto
1. In holometabolous insects, adult fitness depends on the quantity and quality of resource acquired at the larval stage. Diverse ecological factors can influence larval resource acquisition, but little is known about how these factors in the larval environment interact to modulate larval development and adult traits. 2. Here, we addressed this gap by considering how key ecological factors of larval density, diet nutritional composition, and microbial growth interact to modulate pupal and adult traits...

Data from: Crowded developmental environment promotes adult sex-specific nutrient consumption in a polyphagous fly

Juliano Morimoto, Binh Nguyen, Hue Dinh, Ahn The Than, Phillip W. Taylor & Fleur Ponton
Background: The fitness of holometabolous insects depends largely on resources acquired at the larval stage. Larval density is an important factor modulating larval resource-acquisition, influencing adult survival, reproduction, and population maintenance. To date, however, our understanding of how larval crowding affects adult physiology and behaviour is limited, and little is known about how larval crowding affects adult non-reproductive ecological traits. Here, larval density in the rearing environment of the polyphagous fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (‘Queensland...

Data from: Climate warming and plant biomechanical defences: silicon addition contributes to herbivore suppression in a pasture grass

Scott N. Johnson, James M. W. Ryalls, Craig V. M. Barton, Mark G. Tjoelker, Ian J. Wright & Ben D. Moore
1. Plants, notably the Poacae, often accumulate large amounts of silicon (Si) from the soil. Si has multiple functional roles, particularly for alleviating abiotic and biotic stresses (e.g. defence against herbivores). Recent evidence suggests that environmental change, including temperature changes, can diminish Si accumulation which could affect functions such as herbivore defence. 2. Using a field warming experiment, we grew a pasture grass (Phalaris aquatica) that was either supplemented or untreated with Si (+Si and...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    15

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    15

Affiliations

  • Macquarie University
    15
  • University of Sydney
    2
  • Marine Megafauna Foundation
    1
  • National Museum of Natural History
    1
  • Murdoch University
    1
  • University of Nottingham
    1
  • George Mason University
    1
  • University of New Caledonia
    1
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
    1
  • Udayana University
    1