48 Works

Sea snake approaches to divers

Richard Shine, Tim Lynch & Ross Alford
Scuba-divers on tropical coral-reefs often report unprovoked “attacks” by highly venomous Olive sea snakes (Aipysurus laevis). Snakes swim directly towards divers, sometimes wrapping coils around the diver’s limbs and biting. Based on a focal animal observation study of free-ranging Olive sea snakes in the southern Great Barrier Reef, we suggest that these “attacks” are misdirected courtship responses. Approaches to divers were most common during the breeding season (winter) and were by males rather than by...

Dispersal distances of radio-tracked cane toads in French Guiana

Richard Shine, Jayna DeVore & Simon Ducatez
Like most invasive species, cane toads have attracted less research in their native range than in invaded areas. We radio-tracked 34 free-ranging toads in French Guiana, a source region for most invasive populations, across two coastal and two rainforest sites. Coastal toads generally sheltered in pools of fresh or brackish water but nocturnally foraged on beaches, whereas rainforest toads sheltered in forested habitats, moving into open areas at night. Over five days of monitoring, native...

Building behaviour does not drive rates of phenotypic evolution in spiders

Jonas Wolff
This data set contains raw data tables, scripts and supplemental figures supporting the article Wolff et al. (2021, PNAS 118: e2102693118). In our study we assembled morphometric and ecological trait data of spiders from literature and de novo measurements and observations and used this data to infer the rates of morphological change over deep time in relation to web building behaviour.

Data from: Go large or go conical: allometric trajectory of an early Cambrian acrotretide brachiopod

Zhiliang Zhang, Timothy Topper, Yanlong Chen, Luke Stroze, Feiyang Chen, Lars Holmer, Glenn Brock & Zhifei Zhang
Acrotretides are extinct micromorphic brachiopods that exhibited considerable morphological variation during their rapid evolution in the early Palaeozoic. The plano-conical shells of acrotretides are distinct in comparison to other brachiopod groups and despite their diversity and abundance in early Palaeozoic communities, their origins, early evolution, life history and phylogeny are poorly understood. Here, we employ advanced geometric morphometrics to quantitatively investigate ontogenetic variation and allometry in the ventral valve of the oldest known acrotretide species...

Data from: Economics, life history and international trade data for seven turtle species in Malaysia and Indonesian farms

Dalia A. Conde, Simon Kaae Andersen, Johanna Staerk, Elham Kalhor, Daniel J. D. Natusch, Rita Da Silva & Pfau Beate
We collected data on the wildlife trade of seven turtle and tortoise species endemic to Indonesia and Malaysia (Amyda cartilaginea, Batagur borneoensis, Cuora amboinensis, Carettochelys insculpta, Heosemys annandalii, Heosemys grandis, and Heosemys spinosa). We collated data for: the operations and economics of three breeding farms and one ranching facility; species life-history traits; and species international legal trade and confiscation data. We collected data for the facilities (one in Malaysia and three in Indonesia) using field...

Mimicry in motion and morphology: do information limitation, trade-offs or compensation relax selection for mimetic accuracy?

Donald McLean & Marie Herberstein
Many animals mimic dangerous or undesirable prey as a defence from predators. We would expect predators to reliably and exclusively avoid animals that closely resemble dangerous prey, yet imperfect mimics are common. There have been many hypotheses suggested to explain imperfect mimicry, but comparative tests across multiple mimicry systems are needed to determine which are applicable, and which—if any—represent general principles of imperfect mimicry. We tested four hypotheses on Australian ant mimics and found support...

Selection for male weapons boosts female fecundity, eliminating sexual conflict in the bulb mite

Bruno Buzatto & Huon Clark
Extreme differences between the sexes are usually explained by intense sexual selection on male weapons or ornaments. Sexually antagonistic genes, with a positive effect on male traits but a negative effect on female fitness, create a negative inter-sexual correlation for fitness (sexual conflict). However, such antagonism might not be apparent if sexually selected male traits are condition-dependent, and condition elevates female fitness. Here we reveal a surprising positive genetic correlation between male weaponry and female...

Larval and metamorph traits of cane toads

Richard Shine, Uditha Wijethunga, Matthew Greenlees & Melanie Elphick
As an invasive organism spreads into a novel environment, it may encounter strong selective pressures to adapt to abiotic challenges. We examined the effect of water temperature during larval life on rates of survival and growth of the early life-history stages of cane toads (Rhinella marina) from two geographic regions (tropical vs. temperate) in the species’ invaded range in eastern Australia. If local adaptation at the southern (cool-climate) invasion front has extended the cold-tolerance of...

Fossil evidence unveils an early Cambrian origin for Bryozoa

Zhiliang Zhang, Zhifei Zhang, Junye Ma, Paul Taylor, Luke Strotz, Sarah Jacquet, Christian Skovsted, Feiyang Chen, Jian Han & Glenn Brock
Bryozoans (ectoprocts or moss animals) are aquatic, dominantly sessile, filter-feeding lophophorates that construct an organic or calcareous modular colonial (clonal) exoskeleton. The presence of six major orders of bryozoans with advanced polymorphisms in lower Ordovician rocks strongly suggests a Cambrian origin for the largest and most diverse lophophorate phylum. However, a lack of convincing bryozoan fossils from the Cambrian has hampered resolution of the true origins and character assembly of earliest members of the group....

Silencing circular RNA circ_0054537 and upregulating microRNA-640 suppress malignant progression of renal cell carcinoma via regulating neuronal pentraxin-2 (NPTX2)

Long Pei, Xianqiang Lv, Gaopei Jia, Xiaoliang Tan, Ming Li & Aili Zhang
Hsa_circ_0054537 (circ_0054537) is a novel tumor-related circular RNA in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and we intended to ascertain its dysregulation and functions in RCC malignant progression, as well as the underlying mechanism via serving as competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA). In this research, using real-time quantitative PCR, we found circ_0054537 was upregulated in RCC tissues and cells, and distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Then, functional effects of circ_0054537 in RCC were detected using cell counting kit-8, transwell,...

Genomic and transcriptomic data for the frog Platyplectrum ornatum

Scott Edwards, Sangeet Lamichhaney, Renee Catullo, Scott Keogh, Simon Clulow & Tariq Ezaz
The diversity of genome sizes across the tree of life is of key interest in evolutionary biology. Various correlates of variation in genome size, such as accumulation of transposable elements or rate of DNA gain and loss, are well known, but the underlying molecular mechanisms that drive or constrain genome size are poorly understood. Here we study one of the smallest genomes among frogs characterized thus far, that of the ornate burrowing frog (Platyplectrum ornatum)...

Evaluating evidence of mitonuclear incompatibilities with the sex chromosomes in an avian hybrid zone

Daniel Hooper, Kelsie A Lopez, Callum S McDiarmid, Simon Griffith & Irby Lovette
The exploration of hybrid zones and the intergenomic conflicts exposed through hybridization provide windows into the processes of divergence and speciation. Sex chromosomes and mitonuclear incompatibilities have strong associations with the genetics of hybrid dysfunction. In ZW sex-determining systems, maternal co-inheritance of the mitochondrial and W chromosomes immediately exposes incompatibilities between these maternal contributions of one species and the Z chromosome of another. We analyze mitochondrial and Z chromosome admixture in the long-tailed finch (Poephila...

Avian vampire fly (Philornis downsi) intensity and mortality

Lauren K Common, Petra Sumasgutner, Rachael Y Dudaniec, Diane Colombelli-Negrel & Sonia Kleindorfer
In invasive parasites, generalism is considered advantageous during the initial phase of introduction. Thereafter, fitness costs to parasites, such as host-specific mortality, can drive parasites towards specialism to avoid costly hosts. It is important to determine changes in host specificity of invasive populations to understand host-parasite dynamics and their effects on vulnerable host populations. We examined changes in mortality in the introduced avian vampire fly (Philornis downsi) (Diptera: Muscidae), a generalist myasis-causing ectoparasite, between 2004...

A fossil-calibrated time-tree of all Australian freshwater fishes

Amy Tims, Simon Ho & Peter Unmack
Australian freshwater fishes are a relatively species-poor assemblage, comprising a small number of Gondwanan lineages and a number of groups derived from repeated freshwater invasions by marine ancestors. In addition to being a comparatively small assemblage, they are both highly endemic and highly threatened. However, a comprehensive phylogeny for these taxa is lacking, which has hampered efforts to study their phylogenetic diversity, distribution of extinction risk, speciation rate, and rates of trait evolution. Here, we...

Rates of attraction of cane toad tadpoles to chemicals

Richard Shine
Chemical cues produced by late-stage embryos of the cane toad (Rhinella marina) attract older conspecific larvae, which are highly cannibalistic and can consume an entire clutch. To clarify the molecular basis of this attraction response, we presented captive tadpoles with components present in toad eggs. As previously reported, attractivity arises from the distinctive toxins (bufadienolides) produced by cane toads, with some toxins (e.g., bufagenins) much stronger attractants than others (e.g., bufotoxins). Extracts of frozen toad...

High fire frequency and the impact of the 2019–2020 megafires on Australian plant diversity

Rachael Gallagher, Stuart Allen, Berin MacKenzie, Colin Yates, Gosper Carl, David Keith, Cory Merow, Matthew White, Elizabeth Wenk, Brian Maitner, Kang He, Vanessa Adams, Tony Auld, Rachael V. Gallagher, Berin D. E. Mackenzie, Colin J. Yates, Carl R. Gosper, David A. Keith, Matthew D. White, Brian S. Maitner, Vanessa M. Adams & Tony D. Auld
This dataset details the proportion of the geographic range of 26,062 Australian plant species burnt in the 2019-2020 megafire; threatened listing status on state and Commonwealth threatened species legislation; species endemic status in each state/territory according to the Australian Plant Census; and risk ranking for exposure to high fire frequency (short intervals between fires) and cumulative impacts of fire (populations dominated by immature individuals). Further details are provided in the users should consult and cite...

Population dynamics of the sea snake Emydocephalus annulatus

Richard Shine, Gregory Brown & Claire Goiran
For sea snakes as for many types of animals, long-term studies on population biology are rare and hence, we do not understand the degree to which annual variation in population sizes is driven by density-dependent regulation versus by stochastic abiotic factors. We monitored three populations of turtle-headed sea snakes (Emydocephalus annulatus) in New Caledonia over an 18-year period. Annual recruitment (% change in numbers) showed negative density-dependence: that is, recruitment increased when population densities were...

Incubation attentiveness in zebra finches

Riccardo Ton, Laura Hurley & Simon Griffith
In birds ambient temperature can influence adult incubation behaviour, energy budget, egg temperature, and embryonic development with downstream effects on offspring survival. Surprisingly, experimental manipulations of the whole nesting environment to test causes and consequences of variation in incubation pattern, energy balance, egg temperature, and the duration of development are lacking to date. Here, we bred pairs of Zebra Finches Taeniopygia guttataunder controlled conditions at 18°and 30°C and measured clutch size, temperature, hatching success, parental...

2020 NRAUS Australia New Zealand Food Category Cost Dataset

Michelle Blumfield, Carlene Starck, Tim Keighley, Peter Petocz, Anna Roesler, Elif Inan-Eroglu, Tim Cassettari, Skye Marshall & Flavia Fayet-Moore
This Australian and New Zealand food category cost dataset was created to inform diet and economic modelling for low and medium socioeconomic households in Australia and New Zealand. The dataset was created according to the INFORMAS protocol, which details the methods to systematically and consistently collect and analyse information on the price of foods, meals and affordability of diets in different countries globally. Food categories were informed by the Food Standards Australian New Zealand (FSANZ)...

Fish avoid visually noisy environments where prey targeting is reduced

Joanna Attwell, Christos Ioannou, Chris Reid & James Herbert-Read
The environment contains different forms of ecological no­­­ise that can reduce the ability of animals to detect information. Here we ask whether animals adapt their behaviour to either exploit or avoid areas of their environment with increased dynamic visual noise. Three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were immersed into environments with a simulated form of naturally occurring visual noise – moving light bands that form on underwater substrates caused by the refraction of light through surface waves....

Temporal and regional trends of antibiotic use in long-term aged care facilities across 39 countries, 1985-2019: systematic review and meta-analysis

Magdalena Raban, Peter Gates, Claudia Gasparini & Johanna Westbrook
Background Antibiotic misuse is a key contributor to antimicrobial resistance and a concern in long-term aged care facilities (LTCFs). Our objectives were to: i) summarise key indicators of systemic antibiotic use and appropriateness of use, and ii) examine temporal and regional variations in antibiotic use, in LTCFs (PROSPERO registration CRD42018107125). Methods & Findings Medline and EMBASE were searched for studies published between 1990-2021 reporting antibiotic use rates in LTCFs. Random effects meta-analysis provided pooled estimates...

Temporal and spatial variation in sex-specific abundance of the avian vampire fly (Philornis downsi)

Lauren K. Common, Petra Sumasgutner, Shane C. Sumasgutner, Diane Colombelli-Négrel, Rachael Y. Dudaniec & Sonia Kleindorfer
Understanding the range and behaviour of an invasive species is critical to identify key habitat areas to focus control efforts. Patterns of range use in parasites can differ temporally, across life stages and between sexes. The invasive avian vampire fly, Philornis downsi, spends the larval stage of its life within bird nests, feeding on developing nestlings and causing high levels of mortality and deformation. However, little is known of the ecology and behaviour of the...

Data from: The evolution of polymorphism in the warning coloration of the Amazonian poison frog Adelphobates galactonotus

Diana Rojas, Paolo Momigliano, Albertina Pimentel Lima, Pedro Ivo Simões, Rachel Y. Dudaniec, Teresa C. S. Avila-Pires, Marinus S. Hoogmoed, Youszef O. C. Bitar, Igor Luis Kaefer, Adolfo Amézquita & Adam Stow
While intraspecific variation in aposematic signals can be selected for by different predatory responses, their evolution is also contingent on other processes shaping genetic variation. We evaluate the relative contributions of selection, geographic isolation and random genetic drift to the evolution of aposematic color polymorphism in the poison frog Adelphobates galactonotus, distributed throughout eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Dorsal coloration was measured for 111 individuals and genetic data were obtained from 220 individuals at two mitochondrial genes...

Code and data for: Increasing sensitivity of terrestrial nitrous oxide emissions to precipitation variations

Yuanyuan Huang, Philippe Ciais, Olivier Boucher, Ying-ping Wang, Hanqin Tian, FENG ZHOU, Jinfeng Chang, Zhaolei Li, Daniel S Goll, Ray L Langenfelds, Hao Shi, Naiqing Pan, HANG-WEI HU, Shu Kee Lam & Ning Dong
This dataset contains python code and datasets generated from the study: Increasing sensitivity of terrestrial nitrous oxide emissions to precipitation variations

Comparison of an extracellular vs. total DNA extraction approach for environmental DNA-based monitoring of sediment biota

Anthony Chariton, Johan Pansu, Grant Hose & Michelle Chapman
Monitoring sediment biota is an essential step for the quality assessment of aquatic ecosystems. Environmental DNA-based approaches for biomonitoring are increasing in popularity; yet, commercial kits and protocols for extracting total DNA from sediments remain expensive and time-consuming. Furthermore, they can accommodate only small amounts of sediments, potentially preventing an adequate representation of local biodiversity, especially for macro-organisms. Here, we assessed the reliability of a cost- and time- effective extracellular DNA extraction approach, able to...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Macquarie University
  • University of Sydney
  • Flinders University
  • UNSW Sydney
  • Guilin Medical University
  • Affiliated Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College
  • Tianjin Medical University General Hospital
  • Sun Yat-sen University
  • Institute of Hydrobiology
  • University of Michigan–Ann Arbor