In order to resolve better the deep relationships among salticid spiders, we compiled and analyzed a molecular dataset of 169 salticid taxa (and 7 outgroups) and 8 gene regions. This dataset adds many new taxa to previous analyses, especially among the non-salticoid salticids, as well as two new genes – wingless and myosin heavy chain. Both of these genes, and especially the better sampled wingless, confirm many of the relationships indicated by other genes. The...
Data from: Mate preference for a phenotypically plastic trait is learned, and may facilitate preference-phenotype matchingErica L. Westerman, Napon Chirathivat, Elizabeth Schyling & Antónia Monteiro
Fixed, genetically determined, mate preferences for species whose adult phenotype varies with rearing environment may be maladaptive, as the phenotype that is most fit in the parental environment may be absent in the offspring environment. Mate preference in species with polyphenisms (environmentally dependent alternative phenotypes) should therefore either not focus on polyphenic traits, be polyphenic themselves, or learned each generation. Here we test these alternative hypotheses by first describing a female-limited seasonal polyphenism in a...
One-third of the world's reef-building corals are facing heightened extinction risk from climate change and other anthropogenic impacts. Previous studies have shown that such threats are not distributed randomly across the coral tree of life, and future extinctions have the potential to disproportionately reduce the phylogenetic diversity of this group on a global scale. However, the impact of such losses on a regional scale remains poorly known. In this study, we use phylogenetic metrics in...
Data from: Analysing small insect glands with UV-LDI MS: high-resolution spatial analysis reveals the chemical composition and use of the osmeterium secretion in Themira superba (Sepsidae: Diptera)Diego P. Araujo, Mindy J. M. Tuan, Joanne Y. Yew & Rudolf Meier
For many insect species, pheromones are important communication tools, but chemical analysis and experimental study can be technically challenging because they require the detection and handling of complex chemicals in small quantities. One drawback of traditional mass spectrometry methods such as gas chromatography mass spectrometry is that whole-body extractions from one to several hundred individuals are required, with the consequence that intra- and interindividual differences cannot be detected. Here, we used the recently introduced UV-LDI...
Vegetated habitats contain a variety of fine-scale features that can ameliorate temperate extremes. These buffered microhabitats may be used by species to evade extreme weather and novel climates in the future. Yet, the magnitude and extent of this buffering on a global scale remains unknown. Across all tropical continents and using 36 published studies, we assessed temperature buffering from within microhabitats across various habitat strata and structures (e.g. soil, logs, epiphytes and tree holes) and...
Data from: Comparing the effectiveness of metagenomics and metabarcoding for diet analysis of a leaf-feeding monkey (Pygathrix nemaeus)Amrita Srivathsan, John C. M. Sha, Alfried P. Vogler & Rudolf Meier
Fecal samples are of great value as a non-invasive means to gather information on the genetics, distribution, demography, diet, and parasite infestation of endangered species. Direct shotgun sequencing of fecal DNA could give information on these simultaneously, but this approach is largely untested. Here we use two fecal samples to characterize the diet of two Red-Shanked Doucs Langurs (Pygathrix nemaeus) that were fed a known combination of foliage, fruits, vegetables and cereals. Illumina HiSeq sequencing...
Data from: Eyespots deflect predator attack increasing fitness and promoting the evolution of phenotypic plasticityKathleen L. Prudic, Andrew M. Stoehr, Bethany R. Wasik & Antónia Monteiro
Some eyespots are thought to deflect attack away from the vulnerable body, yet there is limited empirical evidence for this function and its adaptive advantage. Here, we demonstrate the conspicuous ventral hindwing eyespots found on Bicyclus anynana butterflies protect against invertebrate predators, specifically praying mantids. Wet season (WS) butterflies with larger, brighter eyespots were easier for mantids to detect, but more difficult to capture compared to dry season (DS) butterflies with small, dull eyespots. Mantids...
Serial homologues are repeated traits that share similar development but occur in different parts of the body. Variation in number of repeats accounts for substantial diversity in animal form and considerable work has focused on identifying the factors accounting for this variation. Little is known, however, about how serial homologues originally become repeated, or about the relative timing of repeat individuation relative to repeat origin. Here, we show that the serially repeated eyespots on nymphalid...
Data from: “Direct PCR” optimization yields a rapid, cost-effective, non-destructive, and efficient method for obtaining DNA barcodes without DNA extractionWing Hing Wong, Ywee Chieh Tay, Jayanthi Puniamoorthy, Michael Balke, Peter S. Cranston & Rudolf Meier
Macroinvertebrates that are collected in large numbers pose major problems in basic and applied biodiversity research: identification to species via morphology is often difficult, slow, and/or expensive. DNA barcodes are an attractive alternative or complementary source of information. Unfortunately obtaining DNA barcodes from specimens requires many steps and thus time and money. Here, we promote a short-cut to DNA barcoding; i.e., a non-destructive PCR method that skips DNA extraction (“direct PCR”) and that can be...
Data from: Degenerate adaptor sequences for detecting PCR duplicates in reduced representation sequencing data improve genotype calling accuracyMandy M. Y. Tin, Frank E. Rheindt, Emilie Cros & Alexander S. Mikheyev
RAD-tag is a powerful tool for high-throughput genotyping. It relies on PCR amplification of the starting material, following enzymatic digestion and sequencing adaptor ligation. Amplification introduces duplicate reads into the data, which arise from the same template molecule and are statistically nonindependent, potentially introducing errors into genotype calling. In shotgun sequencing, data duplicates are removed by filtering reads starting at the same position in the alignment. However, restriction enzymes target specific locations within the genome,...
National University of Singapore10
Oregon State University1
University of California, San Diego1
Australian National University1
University of Tennessee at Knoxville1
University of Chicago1
Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology1
University of British Columbia1