22 Works

Data from: Predation favours Bicyclus anynana butterflies with fewer forewing eyespots

Ian ZW Chan, Zhe Ching Ngan, Lin Naing, Yueying Lee & Antónia Monteiro
There are fewer eyespots on the forewings versus hindwings of nymphalids but the reasons for this uneven distribution remain unclear. One possibility is, in many butterflies, the hindwing covers part of the ventral forewing at rest and there are fewer forewing sectors to display eyespots (covered eyespots are not continuously-visible and are less likely to be under positive selection). A second explanation is that having fewer forewing eyespots confers a selective advantage against predators. We...

Lineage-specific variation in the evolutionary stability of coral photosymbiosis.

Jordan Gault, Bastian Bentlage, Danwei Huang & Alexander Kerr
Over half of reef-building corals (Scleractinia) participate in a nutritional symbiosis, known as photosymbiosis, with photosynthetic dinoflagellates that ranges from obligate to facultative dependence. Fitting hidden-rates models allowing among-lineage variation in the rate of trait evolution to supertree and molecular phylogenies of Scleractinia, we reconstruct the history of photosymbiosis within Scleractinia and characterize its evolutionary stability. We find that most lineages of scleractinians are extraordinarily stable for the trait, evincing no instances of loss, but...

Morphological traits mediate fish occurrences in oil palm-impacted tropical streams

Kenny Chua, Felix Lim, Amirrudin Ahmad, Heok Hui Tan & Darren Yeo
Land-use change is a leading driver of biodiversity loss, especially in tropical fresh waters where the conversion of natural forest to monoculture plantations impacts freshwater fish assemblages. The environmental pathways underpinning shifts in fish assemblages, however, are poorly understood, but could potentially be inferred from trait-environment relationships. We addressed this knowledge gap using eco-morphological traits to explain fish occurrences in oil palm-impacted streams of the Endau drainage in Peninsular Malaysia. We also investigated how traits...

Land-use change erodes trophic redundancy in tropical forest streams: Evidence from amino acid stable isotope analysis

Kenny Chua, Jia Huan Liew, Clare Wilkinson, Amirrudin Ahmad, Heok Hui Tan & Darren Yeo
Studies have shown that food chain length is governed by interactions between species richness, ecosystem size, and resource availability. While redundant trophic links may buffer impacts of species loss on food chain length, higher extinction risks associated with predators may result in bottom-heavy food webs with shorter food chains. The lack of consensus in earlier empirical studies relating species richness and food chain length reflects the need to account robustly for the factors described above....

Development of a multi-excitation fluorescence (MEF) imaging method to improve the information content of benthic coral reef surveys

Elena Bollati
Benthic surveys are a key component of monitoring and conservation efforts for coral reefs worldwide. While traditional image-based surveys rely on manual annotation of photographs to characterise benthic composition, automatic image annotation based on computer vision is becoming increasingly common. However, accurate classification of some benthic groups from reflectance images presents a challenge to local ecologists and computers alike. Most coral reef organisms produce one or a combination of fluorescent pigments, such as Green Fluorescent...

Indoor temperature - office work performance database

Jose Ali Porras-Salazar, Stefano Schiavon, Pawel Wargocki, Toby Cheung & Kwok Wai Tham
The objective of developing this database was to summarise all relevant published studies that have linked the thermal environment to office work performance within the most representative temperature range for office buildings (20 °C to 30 °C). We conducted a comprehensive literature review and collected the relevant published data into our database. A variety of combinations of keywords including temperature, thermal sensation, work, cognitive, and task performance, and office and commercial buildings, were used. In...

The Cenozoic history of palms: Global diversification, biogeography, and the decline of megathermal forests

Jun Ying Lim, Huasheng Huang, Alexander Farnsworth, Daniel Lunt, William Baker, Robert Morley, W. Daniel Kissling & Carina Hoorn
Aim: Megathermal rainforests and mangroves are much smaller in extent today than in the early Cenozoic, primarily due to global cooling and drying trends since the Eocene--Oligocene Transition (~ 34 Ma). The general reduction of these biomes is hypothesized to shape the diversity and biogeographic history of tropical plant clades. However, this has rarely been examined due to a paucity of good fossil records of tropical taxa and the difficulty in assigning them to modern...

Data from: Barriers and corridors of gene flow in an urbanised tropical reef system

Lutfi Afiq-Rosli
Information about the distribution of alleles among marine populations is critical for determining patterns of genetic connectivity that are essential in modern conservation planning. To estimate population connectivity in Singapore’s urbanised equatorial reef system, we analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from two species of reef-building corals with distinct life histories. For Porites sp., a broadcast-spawning coral, we found cryptic lineages which were differentially distributed at inshore and central-offshore sites that could be attributed to contemporary...

Morphology and mini-barcodes: The inclusion of larval sampling and NGS-based barcoding improves robustness of ecological analyses of mosquito communities

Huiqing Yeo, Tze Xuan Yeoh, Huicong Ding, Theodore Lee & Nalini Puniamoorthy
A significant proportion of vector-borne diseases are transmitted by blood-sucking dipterans, including mosquitoes. Understanding transmission risks requires accurate identification of species across heterogenous habitats, but many cryptic and polymorphic species are overlooked when using morphological identification. Estimates of mosquito diversity are typically based on adult female trapping methods which tend to target host-seeking species and may represent a biased snapshot of community structure. Unfortunately, diversity estimates based on larval data are rarely included in mosquito...

Empirical food webs of 12 tropical reservoirs in Singapore

Clare Wilkinson, Rayson B. H. Lim, Jia Huan Liew, Jeffrey T. B. Kwik, Darren C. J. Yeo, Claudia L. Y. Tan & Heok Hui Tan
We present 12 food webs from tropical reservoir communities in Singapore, and summarise the topology of each with widely used network indices (e.g., connectance, link density). Each reservoir was surveyed over 4–6 sampling occasions, during which, representative animal groups (i.e., fish species, and taxonomic/functional groups of zooplankton and benthic macroinvertebrates) and all likely sources of primary production (i.e., macrophytes, periphyton, phytoplankton, and riparian terrestrial plants) were collected. We determined and measured gut content in fishes...

Factors influencing nature interactions vary between cities and types of nature interactions

Rui Ying Rachel Oh, Kelly Fielding, Thi Phuong Le Nghiem, Chia-Chen Chang, Danielle Shanahan, Kevin Gaston, Román Carrasco & Richard Fuller
1. There is mounting concern that people living more urbanised, modern lifestyles have fewer and lower quality interactions with nature, and therefore have limited access to the associated health and wellbeing benefits. Yet, variation in the different types of nature interactions and the factors that influence these interactions across populations are poorly understood. 2. We compared four types of nature interactions by administering surveys across two cities that differ markedly in urbanisation pattern and population...

Data from: Tolerability and efficacy of long-term medical therapy in primary aldosteronism

Fengjie Tang, Lih M Loh, Roger S Foo, Wann J Loh, Dawn ST Lim, Meifen Zhang, Pei T Tan, Lynette Lee, Du S Swee, Joan Khoo, Donovan Tay, Eberta Tan, Shui B Soh, Ling Zhu, Sarah Y Tan, Peng C Kek & Troy Hai Puar
Introduction: Patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) have increased cardiovascular risk and studies have found that medical therapy fails to ameliorate this. This may be due to side effects and limited efficacy of medications at tolerable doses. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on 201 patients with PA treated with medical therapy (spironolactone, eplerenone or amiloride) for PA from 2000-2020 at two tertiary centres. Patients were assessed for efficacy to achieve clinical and biochemical control, and...

Post‐agriculture rain forest succession on a tropical Pacific island

Edward L. Webb, Avele Iofi Lalogafu’afu’a, Martin Van De Bult, Wei Kit Lee, Siaifoi Fa'aumu, Muhammad Izuddin, Mark A. MacDonald, Roger Meyer, Rachel Rui Ying Oh, Alden P. Tagarino, Rachel C. Webb, Adam C. Miles & Martin Bult
We surveyed the tree and seedling community in 34 vegetation plots in mature and >50 y old secondary lowland rain forest on the Polynesian island of Tutuila, American Samoa. The main data set includes original data from the tree surveys as well as all repeat surveys of seedling plots. We also include all R code and data sets used in analyses, including soil and environmental data, species by plot matrices for NMDS, and processed data...

The different fates of two Asian horseshoe crab species with different dispersal abilities

Qian Tang, Prashant Shingate, Yusli Wardiatno, Akbar John, Boon Hui Tay, Ywee Chieh Tay, Laura-Marie Yap, Jasmin Lim, Hor Yee Tong, Karenne Tun, Byrappa Venkatesh & Frank E. Rheindt
Impending anthropogenic climate change will severely impact coastal organisms at unprecedented speed. Knowledge on organisms’ evolutionary responses to past sea level fluctuations and estimation of their evolutionary potential is therefore indispensable in efforts to mitigate the effects of future climate change. We sampled tens of thousands of genomic markers of ~300 individuals in two of the four extant horseshoe crab species across the complex archipelagic Singapore Straits. Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda Latreille, a less mobile mangrove species,...

Gene flow increases phylogenetic structure and inflates cryptic species estimations: a case study on widespread Philippine puddle frogs (Occidozyga laevis)

Kin Onn Chan
In cryptic amphibian complexes, there is a growing trend to equate high levels of genetic structure with hidden cryptic species diversity. Typically, phylogenetic structure and distance-based approaches are used to demonstrate the distinctness of clades and justify the recognition of new cryptic species. However, this approach does not account for gene flow, spatial, and environmental processes that can obfuscate phylogenetic inference and bias species delimitation. As a case study, we sequenced genome-wide exons and introns...

Genome-wide markers redeem the lost identity of a heavily managed gamebird

Qian Tang, Giovanni Forcina, Qian Tang, Emilie Cros, Monica Guerrini, Frank Rheindt & Filippo Barbanera
Heavily managed wildlife may suffer from genetic homogenisation and reshuffling of locally adapted genotypes with non-native ones. This phenomenon often affects natural populations by reducing their evolutionary potential and speeding up the ongoing biodiversity crisis. For decades, the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa), an intensively managed gamebird of conservation concern and considerable socio-economic importance, has been subjected to extensive releases of farm-reared hybrids with the chukar partridge (A. chukar) and translocations irrespective of subspecific affinity. These...

Untangling the molecular basis of coral response to sedimentation

Elena Bollati
Urbanized coral reefs are often chronically affected by sedimentation and reduced light levels, yet many species of corals appear to be able to thrive under these highly disturbed conditions. Recently, these marginal ecosystems have gained attention as potential climate change refugia due to the shading effect of suspended sediment, as well as potential reservoirs for stress-tolerant species. However, little research exists on the impact of sedimentation on coral physiology, particularly at the molecular level. Here,...

Phylogenomic analysis of ultraconserved elements resolves the evolutionary and biogeographic history of Segmented Trapdoor Spiders

Xin Xu, Yong-Chao Su, Simon Y. W. Ho, Matjaž Kuntner, Hirotsugu Ono, Fengxiang Liu, Chia-Chen Chang, Natapot Warrit, Varat Sivayyapram, Khin Pyae Pyae Aung, Dinh Sac Pham, Y. Norma-Rashid & Daiqin Li
The segmented trapdoor spiders (Liphistiidae) are the sole surviving family of the suborder Mesothelae, which forms the sister lineage to all other living spiders. Liphistiids have retained a number of plesiomorphic traits and their present-day distribution is limited to East and Southeast Asia. Studying this group has the potential to shed light on the deep evolutionary history of spiders, but the phylogeny and divergence times of the family have not been resolved with confidence. We...

Fear effects and group size interact to shape herbivory on coral reefs

Andrew Bauman, Andrew Hoey, Glenn Dunshea, Jenny Fong, Ian Chan & Peter Todd
1. Fear of predators (‘fear effects’) are an important determinant of foraging decisions by consumers across a range of ecosystems. Group size is one of the main behavioural mechanisms for mitigating fear effects but also provides foraging benefits to group members. Within coral reef ecosystems, fear effects have been shown to influence the feeding rates of herbivorous fishes (i.e. browsers), a key functional group that prevent macroalgal overgrowth. Yet, how fear effects and group size...

Illustrative inpatient blood glucose datasets for QcDM project

Ying Chen, Yilin Ning, Prem Thomas, Mark Salloway, Maudrene Luor Shyuan Tan, E-Shyong Tai, Shih Ling Kao & Chuen Seng Tan
Glucometrics is a set of measures designed to assess whether the blood glucose of patients with diabetes mellitus are effectively managed, and is useful in regular surveillance for adverse events such as hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia. To evaluate the quality of glycemic control using glucometrics, routinely collected blood glucose data needs to be consolidated, processed, and analysed in different units of analysis (i.e., patient-sample, patient-day, and patient-stay). Such procedure is challenging without dedicated manpower with specific...

Sexual selection on jumping spider colour pattern: investigation with a new quantitative approach

Wei Zhou, Long Yu, Bernetta Z.W. Kwek, Jin Ge, Hua Zeng & Daiqin Li
How animals assess information encoded in individual colour patches have been extensively studied, yet the role of both individual colour patches and gross colour pattern (i.e. the combination of colour patches) remains understudied. We tested the functioning of both individual colour patches and gross colour pattern in sexual selection using the jumping spider Siler semiglaucus as a study system. We first quantified sexual dimorphism in S. semiglaucus in both individual patches and gross colour pattern...

Discoid decorations function to shield juvenile Argiope spiders from avian predator attacks

Bingjun Wang, Long Yu, Nina Ma, Zengtao Zhang, Qian Liu, Wenrui Fan, Yu Rong, Shichang Zhang & Daiqin Li
Decorating behavior is common in various animal taxa and serves a variety of functions from camouflage to communication. One predominant function cited for decoration is to avoid predators. Conspicuous, disc-like (discoid) silk decorations spun by orb-web Argiope juvenile spiders are hypothesized, among others, to defend spiders against visual predators by concealing spider outlines on the web, deflecting attacks, shielding them from view or masquerading as bird-droppings. However, the direct evidence is limited for a specific...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • National University of Singapore
  • Hubei University
  • University of Queensland
  • Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
  • Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory
  • University of Guam
  • University of Malaya
  • Royal Botanic Gardens
  • Employment Development Department
  • University of California, Berkeley