217 Works

Biological traits of seabirds predict extinction risk and vulnerability to anthropogenic threats

Cerren Richards, Robert Cooke & Amanda Bates
Aim Seabirds are heavily threatened by anthropogenic activities and their conservation status is deteriorating rapidly. Yet, these pressures are unlikely to uniformly impact all species. It remains an open question if seabirds with similar ecological roles are responding similarly to human pressures. Here we aim to: 1) test whether threatened vs non-threatened seabirds are separated in trait space; 2) quantify the similarity of species’ roles (redundancy) per IUCN Red List Category; and 3) identify traits...

The code used to simulate range expansion in \"The effect of the recombination rate between adaptive loci on the capacity of a population to expand its range\"

Martin Eriksson & Marina Rafajlović
Previous theoretical work on range expansions over heterogeneous environments showed that there is a critical environmental gradient where range expansion stops. For populations with freely recombining loci underlying the trait under selection (hereafter adaptive loci), the critical gradient in one-dimensional habitats depends on the fitness cost of dispersal, and the strength of selection relative to genetic drift. Here, we extend the previous work in two directions and ask: What is the role of the recombination...

Datasets for: Genome wide analysis reveals genetic divergence between Goldsinny wrasse populations

Eeva Jansson, Francois Besnier, Ketil Malde, Carl André, Geir Dahle & Kevin A. Glover
Background: Marine fish populations are often characterized by high levels of gene flow and correspondingly low genetic divergence. This presents a challenge to define management units. Goldsinny wrasse (Ctenolabrus rupestris) is a heavily exploited species due to its importance as a cleaner-fish in commercial salmonid aquaculture. However, at the present, the population genetic structure of this species is still largely unresolved. Here, full-genome sequencing was used to produce the first genomic reference for this species,...

A molecular phylogeny of historical and contemporary specimens of an under-studied micro-invertebrate group

Russell Orr, Maja Sannum, Sanne Boessenkool, Emanuela Di Martino, Dennis Gordon, Hannah Mello, Matthias Obst, Mali Ramsfjell, Abigail Smith & Lee-Hsiang Liow
Resolution of relationships at lower taxonomic levels is crucial for answering many evolutionary questions, and as such, sufficiently varied species representation is vital. This latter goal is not always achievable with relatively fresh samples. To alleviate the difficulties in procuring rarer taxa, we have seen increasing utilization of historical specimens in building molecular phylogenies using high throughput sequencing. This effort, however, has mainly focused on large-bodied or well-studied groups, with small-bodied and under-studied taxa under-prioritized....

Data from: Larval development in the Pacific oyster and the impacts of ocean acidification: differential genetic effects in wild and domesticated stocks

Evan Durland, Pierre De Wit, Eli Meyer & Chris Langdon
The adaptive capacity of marine calcifiers to ocean acidification (OA) is a topic of great interest to evolutionary biologists and ecologists. Previous studies have provided evidence to suggest that larval resilience to high pCO­2 seawater for these species is a trait with a genetic basis and variability in natural populations. To date, however, it remains unclear how the selective effects of OA occur within the context of complex genetic interactions underpinning larval development in many...

Data from: Museums and cradles of diversity are geographically coincident for narrowly distributed Neotropical snakes

Josué Anderson Rêgo Azevedo, Thaís Guedes, Cristiano Nogueira, Paulo Passos, Ricardo Sawaya, Ana Prudente, Fausto Barbo, Christine Strussmann, Francisco Franco, Vanesa Arzamendia, Alejandro Giraudo, Antônio Argôlo, Martin Jansen, Hussam Zaher, João Tonini, Soren Faurby & Alexandre Antonelli
Factors driving the spatial configuration of centres of endemism have long been a topic of broad interest and debate. Due to different eco-evolutionary processes, these highly biodiverse areas may harbour different amounts of ancient and recently diverged organisms (paleo- and neo-endemism, respectively). Patterns of endemism still need to be measured at distinct phylogenetic levels for most clades and, consequently, little is known about the distribution, the age and the causes of such patterns. Here we...

Data from: Animal models to understand the etiology and pathophysiology in polycystic ovary syndrome

Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Vasantha Padmanabhan, Kirsty A Walters, Rebecca E Campbell, Anna Benrick, Paolo Giacobini, Daniel A Dumesic & David H Abbott
More than one out of ten women worldwide are diagnosed with the leading cause of female reproductive and metabolic dysfunction, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Despite its high prevalence, PCOS and its accompanying morbidities are likely under-diagnosed, averaging >2 years and 3 physicians changes before women are diagnosed. Despite intensive research, the underlying cause(s) of PCOS have yet to be defined. In order to understand PCOS pathophysiology, its developmental origins, and how to predict and prevent...

Data from: Population structure in Atlantic cod in the eastern North Sea-Skagerrak-Kattegat: early life stage dispersal and adult migration

Carl André, Henrik Svedäng, Halvor Knutsen, Geir Dahle, Patrik Jonsson, Anna-Karin Ring, Mattias Sköld & Per Erik Jorde
Background: In marine fish species, where pelagic egg and larvae drift with ocean currents, population structure has been suggested to be maintained by larval retention due to hydrographic structuring and by homing of adult fish to natal areas. Whilst natal homing of adults has been demonstrated for anadromous and coral reef fishes, there are few documented examples of philopatric migration in temperate marine fish species. Results: Here, we demonstrate temporally stable genetic differentiation among spawning...

Data from: Range-wide population structure of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax

Erika L. Souche, Bart Hellemans, Massimiliano Babbucci, Eoin MacAoidh, Bruno Guinand, Luca Bargelloni, Dimitry Alexandrovich Chistiakov, Tomaso Patarnello, François Bonhomme, Jann T. Martinsohn & Filip A. M. Volckaert
The euryhaline European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax L., inhabiting the coasts of the eastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, has had many opportunities for differentiation throughout its large natural range. However, evidence for this has been incompletely documented geographically and with an insufficient number of markers. Therefore, its full range was sampled at 22 sites and individuals were genotyped with a suite of mapped markers, including 14 microsatellite loci (N = 536) and 46 neutral...

Data from: Oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program: a cross-sectional study

Maria Anderson, Margaret Grindefjord, Göran Dahllöf, Gunnar Dahlén & Svante Twetman
Background: To compare the oral microflora in preschool children attending a fluoride varnish program with a reference group receiving a standard oral health program without fluoride varnish applications. A second aim was to relate the microbial composition to the caries prevalence. Methods: Five hundred seven 3-year-old children were enrolled from a cohort of 3403 preschool children taking part in a community based oral health project. Two hundred sixty-three of them had attended caries-preventive program with...

Data from: Testosterone activates sexual dimorphism including male-typical carotenoid but not melanin plumage pigmentation in a female bird

Willow R. Lindsay, Douglas G. Barron, Michael S. Webster & Hubert Schwabl
In males it is frequently testosterone (T) that activates the expression of sexually selected morphological and behavioral displays, but the role of T in regulating similar traits in females is less clear. Here we combine correlational data with results from T and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) manipulations in both sexes to assess the role of T in mediating sexually dimorphic coloration and morphology in the red-backed fairy-wren (Malurus melanocephalus). We show that (1) natural variation in...

Data from: Shared and non-shared genomic divergence in parallel ecotypes of Littorina saxatilis at a local scale

Mark Ravinet, Anja Westram, Kerstin Johannesson, Roger Butlin, Carl André & Marina Panova
Parallel speciation occurs when selection drives repeated, independent adaptive divergence that reduces gene flow between ecotypes. Classical examples show parallel speciation originating from shared genomic variation, but this does not seem to be the case in the rough periwinkle (Littorina saxatilis) that has evolved considerable phenotypic diversity across Europe, including several distinct ecotypes. Small ‘wave’ ecotype snails inhabit exposed rocks and experience strong wave action, while thick-shelled, ‘crab’ ecotype snails are larger and experience crab...

Data from: A total evidence approach to understanding phylogenetic relationships and ecological diversity in Selaginella subg. Tetragonostachys

Nils Arrigo, James Therrien, Cajsa Lisa Anderson, Michael D. Windham, Christopher H. Haufler & Michael S. Barker
Premise of the Study: Several members of Selaginella are renowned for their ability to survive extreme drought and “resurrect” when conditions improve. Many of these belong to subgenus Tetragonostachys, a group of ∼45 species primarily found in North and Central America, with substantial diversity in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts. We evaluated the monophyly and the age of subgenus Tetragonostachys and assess how drought tolerance contributed to the evolution of this clade. Methods: Our study...

Data from: Integration of molecules and new fossils supports a Triassic origin for Lepidosauria (lizards, snakes, and tuatara)

Marc E. H. Jones, Cajsa Lisa Anderson, Christy A. Hipsley, Johannes Müller, Susan E. Evans & Rainer R. Schoch
Background: Lepidosauria (lizards, snakes, tuatara) is a globally distributed and ecologically important group of over 9,000 reptile species. The earliest fossil records are currently restricted to the Late Triassic and often dated to 227 million years ago (Mya). As these early records include taxa that are relatively derived in their morphology (e.g. Brachyrhinodon), an earlier unknown history of Lepidosauria is implied. However, molecular age estimates for Lepidosauria have been problematic; dates for the most recent...

Data from: The influence of balanced and imbalanced resource supply on biodiversity-functioning relationship across ecosystems

Aleksandra M. Lewandowska, Antje Biermann, Elizabeth T. Borer, Miguel A. Cebrian-Piqueras, Steven A. J. Declerck, Luc De Meester, Ellen Van Donk, Lars Gamfeldt, Daniel S. Gruner, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Kevin P. Kirkman, Christopher A. Klausmeier, Michael Kleyer, Johannes M. H. Knops, Pieter Lemmens, Eric M. Lind, Elena Litchman, Jasmin Mantilla-Contreras, Koen Martens, Sandra Meier, Vanessa Minden, Joslin L. Moore, Harry Olde Venterink, Eric W. Seabloom … & Helmut Hillebrand
Numerous studies show that increasing species richness leads to higher ecosystem productivity. This effect is often attributed to more efficient portioning of multiple resources in communities with higher numbers of competing species, indicating the role of resource supply and stoichiometry for biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships. Here, we merged theory on ecological stoichiometry with a framework of biodiversity–ecosystem functioning to understand how resource use transfers into primary production. We applied a structural equation model to define patterns...

Data from: Taxon cycle predictions supported by model-based inference in Indo-Pacific trap-jaw ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Odontomachus)

Pável Matos-Maraví, Nicholas J. Matzke, Fredrick J. Larabee, Ronald M. Clouse, Ward C. Wheeler, Daniela Magdalena Sorger, Andrew V. Suarez & Milan Janda
Non-equilibrium dynamics and non-neutral processes, such as trait-dependent dispersal, are often missing from quantitative island biogeography models despite their potential explanatory value. One of the most influential non-equilibrium models is the taxon cycle, but it has been difficult to test its validity as a general biogeographical framework. Here, we test predictions of the taxon-cycle model using six expected phylogenetic patterns and a time-calibrated phylogeny of Indo-Pacific Odontomachus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae), one of the ant genera...

Data from: Locality or habitat? Exploring predictors of biodiversity in Amazonia

Camila D. Ritter, Alexander Zizka, Christopher Barnes, R. Henrik Nilsson, Fabian Roger & Alexandre Antonelli
Amazonia is an environmentally heterogeneous and biologically megadiverse region, and its biodiversity varies considerably over space. However, existing knowledge on Amazonian biodiversity and its environmental determinants stems almost exclusively from studies of macroscopic above‐ground organisms, notably vertebrates and trees. In contrast, diversity patterns of most other organisms remain elusive, although some of them, for instance microorganisms, constitute the overwhelming majority of taxa in any given location, both in terms of diversity and abundance. Here, we...

Data from: Targeted resequencing reveals geographical patterns of differentiation for loci implicated in parallel evolution

Anja M. Westram, Marina Panova, Juan Galindo & Roger K. Butlin
Parallel divergence and speciation provide evidence for the role of divergent selection in generating biological diversity. Recent studies indicate that parallel phenotypic divergence may not have the same genetic basis in different geographical locations - “outlier loci” (loci potentially affected by divergent selection) are often not shared among parallel instances of phenotypic divergence. However, limited sharing may be due, in part, to technical issues if false positive outliers occur. Here, we test this idea in...

Data from: Multiple chromosomal rearrangements in a hybrid zone between Littorina saxatilis ecotypes

Rui Faria, Pragya Chaube, Hernan E. Morales, Tomas Larsson, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Marina Rafajlovic, Marina Panova, Mark Ravinet, Kerstin Johannesson, Anja M. Westram & Roger K. Butlin
Both classical and recent studies suggest that chromosomal inversion polymorphisms are important in adaptation and speciation. However, biases in discovery and reporting of inversions make it difficult to assess their prevalence and biological importance. Here, we use an approach based on linkage disequilibrium among markers genotyped for samples collected across a transect between contrasting habitats to detect chromosomal rearrangements de novo. We report 17 polymorphic rearrangements in a single locality for the coastal marine snail,...

Data from: Clines on the seashore: the genomic architecture underlying rapid divergence in the face of gene flow

Anja Marie Westram, Marina Rafajlovic, Pragya Chaube, Rui Faria, Tomas Larsson, Marina Panova, Mark Ravinet, Anders Blomberg, Bernhard Mehlig, Kerstin Johannesson & Roger Butlin
Adaptive divergence and speciation may happen despite opposition by gene flow. Identifying the genomic basis underlying divergence with gene flow is a major task in evolutionary genomics. Most approaches (e.g. outlier scans) focus on genomic regions of high differentiation. However, not all genomic architectures potentially underlying divergence are expected to show extreme differentiation. Here, we develop an approach that combines hybrid zone analysis (i.e. focuses on spatial patterns of allele frequency change) with system-specific simulations...

Data from: The story of a hitchhiker: population genetic patterns in the invasive barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) improvisus Darwin 1854

Anna-Lisa Wrange, Gregory Charrier, Anne Thonig, Magnus Alm Rosenblad, Anders Blomberg, Jonathan N. Havenhand, Per R. Jonsson & Carl André
Understanding the ecological and evolutionary forces that determine the genetic structure and spread of invasive species is a key component of invasion biology. The bay barnacle, Balanus improvisus (= Amphibalanus improvisus), is one of the most successful aquatic invaders worldwide, and is characterised by broad environmental tolerance. Although the species can spread through natural larval dispersal, human-mediated transport through (primarily) shipping has almost certainly contributed to the current global distribution of this species. Despite its...

Data from: Rapid growth accelerates telomere attrition in a transgenic fish

Angela Pauliny, Robert H. Devlin, Jörgen I. Johnsson & Donald Blomqvist
Background: Individuals rarely grow as fast as their physiologies permit despite the fitness advantages of being large. One reason may be that rapid growth is costly, resulting for example in somatic damage. The chromosomal ends, the telomeres, are particularly vulnerable to such damage, and telomere attrition thus influences the rate of ageing. Here, we used a transgenic salmon model with an artificially increased growth rate to test the hypothesis that rapid growth is traded off...

Data from: Importance of the coronary circulation for cardiac and metabolic performance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Andreas Ekström, Michael Axelsson, Albin Gräns, Jeroen Brijs & Erik Sandblom
Cardiac oxygenation is achieved via both coronary arterial and luminal venous oxygen supply routes in many fish species. However, the relative importance of these supplies for cardiac and aerobic metabolic performance is not fully understood. Here, we investigated how coronary artery ligation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), implanted with heart rate loggers, affected cardiorespiratory performance in vivo. While coronary ligation significantly elevated resting heart rate, the standard metabolic rate was unchanged compared to sham treated...

Data from: Katatopygia gen. n., a monophyletic branch segregated from Boletina (Diptera, Mycetophilidae)

Svante Martinsson, Jostein Kjærandsen & Jostein Kjaerandsen
The genus Katatopygia gen. n. is proposed for the Boletina erythropyga/punctus-group that was first introduced by Garrett (1924, 1925) and currently comprises eight described species. Molecular studies have strongly indicated that this group forms a monophyletic sister-group to a clade consisting of all other Boletina, Coelosia and Gnoriste, and its monophyly is supported by morphological data as well. The new genus includes the following species: Katatopygia antoma (Garrett, 1924), comb. n., Katatopygia antica (Garrett, 1924),...

Data from: Genome architecture enables local adaptation of Atlantic cod despite high connectivity

Julia M. I. Barth, Paul R. Berg, Per R. Jonsson, Sara Bonanomi, Hanna Corell, Jakob Hemmer-Hansen, Kjetill S. Jakobsen, Kerstin Johannesson, Per Erik Jorde, Halvor Knutsen, Per-Olav Moksnes, Bastiaan Star, Nils Chr. Stenseth, Henrik Svedäng, Sissel Jentoft & Carl André
Adaptation to local conditions is a fundamental process in evolution; however, mechanisms maintaining local adaptation despite high gene flow are still poorly understood. Marine ecosystems provide a wide array of diverse habitats that frequently promote ecological adaptation even in species characterized by strong levels of gene flow. As one example, populations of the marine fish Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are highly connected due to immense dispersal capabilities but nevertheless show local adaptation in several key...

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