28 Works

Rethinking megafauna

Marcos Moleón, José Sánchez-Zapata, José Donázar, Eloy Revilla, Berta Martín-López, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Wayne Getz, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Larry Crowder, Mauro Galetti, Manuela González-Suárez, Fengzhi He, Pedro Jordano, Rebecca Lewison, Robin Naidoo, Norman Owen-Smith, Nuria Selva, Jens-Christian Svenning, José Tella, Christiane Zarfl, Sonja Jähnig, Matt Hayward, Søren Faurby, Nuria García … & Klement Tochner
Concern for megafauna is increasing among scientists and non-scientists. Many studies have emphasized that megafauna play prominent ecological roles and provide important ecosystem services to humanity. But, what precisely are “megafauna”? Here we critically assess the concept of megafauna and propose a goal-oriented framework for megafaunal research. First, we review definitions of megafauna and analyze associated terminology in the scientific literature. Second, we conduct a survey among ecologists and paleontologists to assess the species traits...

Data from: “A cleaner break”: genetic divergence between geographic groups and sympatric phenotypes revealed in ballan wrasse (Labrus bergylta)

Gaute Seljestad, Maria Quintela, Ellika Faust, Kim Halvorsen, Francois Besnier, Eeva Jansson, Geir Dahle, Halvor Knutsen, Carl Andre, Arild Folkvord & Kevin Glover
Capture and long-distance translocation of cleaner fish to control lice infestations on marine salmonid farms has the potential to influence wild populations via overexploitation in source regions, and introgression in recipient regions. Knowledge of population genetic structure is therefore required. We studied the genetics of ballan wrasse, a phenotypically diverse and extensively used cleaner fish, from 18 locations in Norway and Sweden, and from Galicia, Spain. We detected two very distinct genetic groups in Scandinavia,...

Data from: Anthropogenic extinctions conceal widespread evolution of flightlessness in birds

Ferran Sayol, Manuel J. Steinbauer, Tim M. Blackburn, Alexandre Antonelli & Søren Faurby
Human-driven extinctions can affect our understanding of evolution, through the nonrandom loss of certain types of species. Here, we explore how knowledge of a major evolutionary transition—the evolution of flightlessness in birds—is biased by anthropogenic extinctions. Adding data on 581 known anthropogenic extinctions to the extant avifauna increases the number of species by 5%, but quadruples the number of flightless species. The evolution of flightlessness in birds is a widespread phenomenon, occurring in more than...

Global biogeography and diversification of a group of brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae) driven by clade-specific evolutionary processes

Christophe Vieira, Frederique Steen, Sofie D'hondt, Quinten Bafort, Cindy Fernandez-García, Brian Wysor, Lennert Tyberghein, Ana Tronholm, Lydiane Mattio, Claude Payri, Gary Saunders, Frederik Leliaert, Heroen Verbruggen & Olivier De Clerck
Aim: Historical processes that shaped current diversity patterns of seaweeds remain poorly understood. Using Dictyotales, a globally distributed order of brown seaweeds as a model, we test if historical biogeographical and diversification patterns are comparable across clades. Dictyotales contain some 22 genera, three of which, Dictyota, Lobophora and Padina, are exceptionally diverse. Specifically we test if the evolutionary processes in these clades that shaped their latitudinal diversity patterns are in line with the tropical conservatism,...

Novel immunoassay detecting p-Tau Thr217 distinguishes Alzheimer’s Disease from other dementias

Jozef Hanes, Andrej Kovac, Hlin Kvartsberg, Eva Kontsekova, Lubica Fialova, Stanislav Katina, Branislav Kovacech, Eva Stevens, Jakub Hort, Martin Vyhnalek, Lynn Boonkamp, Michal Novak, Henrik Zetterberg, Oskar Hansson, Philip Scheltens, Kaj Blennow, Charlotte E. Teunissen & Norbert Zilka
Objective To investigate whether p-tau T217 assay in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can distinguishes Alzheimer’s disease from other dementias and healthy controls. Methods We developed and validated a novel Simoa immunoassay to detect p-tau T217 in CSF. There was a total of 190 participants from three cohorts with AD (n = 77) and other neurodegenerative diseases (n = 69) as well as healthy subjects (n = 44). Results The p-tau T217 assay (cut-off 242 pg/ml) identified...

Data from: Post‐glacial establishment of locally adapted fish populations over a steep salinity gradient

Erica H. Leder, Carl André, Alan Le Moan, Mats Töpel, Anders Blomberg, Jonathan N. Havenhand, Kai Lindström, Filip A. M. Volckaert, Charlotta Kvarnemo, Kerstin Johannesson & Ola Svensson
Studies of colonization of new habitats that appear from rapidly changing environments are interesting and highly relevant to our understanding of divergence and speciation. Here, we analyse phenotypic and genetic variation involved in the successful establishment of a marine fish (sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus) over a steep salinity drop from 35 PSU in the North Sea (NE Atlantic) to two PSU in the inner parts of the post-glacial Baltic Sea. We first show that populations...

CA10 regulates neurexin heparan sulfate addition via a direct binding in the secretory pathway

Laia Montoliu Gaya, Daniel Tietze, Debora Kaminski, Ekaterina Mirgorodskaya, Alesia A Tietze & Fredrik Sterky
Neurexins are presynaptic adhesion molecules that shape the molecular composition of synapses. Diversification of neurexins in numerous isoforms is believed to confer synapse-specific properties by engaging with distinct ligands. For example, a subset of neurexin molecules carry a heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycan that controls ligand binding, but how this posttranslational modification is controlled is not known. Here, we observe that CA10, a ligand to neurexin in the secretory pathway, regulates neurexin-HS formation. CA10 is exclusively...

Data from: Electroacupuncture mimics exercise-induced changes in skeletal muscle gene expression in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Anna Benrick
Context: Autonomic nervous system activation mediates the increase in whole-body glucose uptake in response to electroacupuncture but the mechanisms are largely unknown. Objective: To identify the molecular mechanisms underlying electroacupuncture-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in insulin-resistant overweight/obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design/Participants: In a case-control study, skeletal muscle biopsies were collected from 15 women with PCOS and 14 controls before and after electroacupuncture. Gene expression and methylation was analyzed using...

Moose (Alces alces) parturition dates, Sweden

Wiebke Neumann, Navinder J. Singh, Fredrik Stenbacka, Jonas Malmsten, Kjell Wallin, John P. Ball & Göran Ericsson
In northern environments, the period of access to high-quality forage is limited, exerting strong selective pressure to optimize the timing of parturition. We analysed timing and variation in moose parturition dates of 555 females at 18 study sites across 12ᵒ of latitude (56-68ᵒ N, 1,350 km) in Sweden. We found evidence for a spatial match of parturition timing to vegetation onset, but no evidence that moose adjust parturition to vegetation onset in a given year....

Modelled annual average production loss due to ozone damage for four global staple crops 2010-2012

K. Sharps, G Mills, D. Simpson, H. Pleijel, M. Frei, K. Burkey, L. Emberson, J. Uddling, M. Broberg, Z. Feng, K. Kobayashi & M. Agrawal
Modelled annual average production loss (thousand tonnes per 1 degree by 1 degree grid cell) due to ground-level ozone pollution is presented for the crops maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), for the period 2010-2012. Data are on a global scale, based on the distribution of production for each crop, according to the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) Global Agro-Ecological Zones (GAEZ) crop production data for the year...

Survival probability in a small shorebird decreases with the time an individual carries a tracking device

Veli-Matti Pakanen, Nelli Rönkä, Robert L Thomson, Donald Blomqvist & Kari Koivula
Effects of tracking devices on survival are generally considered to be small. However, most studies to date have been conducted over a time-period of only one year, neglecting the possible accumulation of negative effects and consequently stronger negative impacts on survival when the individuals have carried the tracking devices for longer periods. We studied the effects of geolocators in a closely monitored and colour-ringed southern dunlin (Calidris alpina schinzii) population breeding in Finland. Our capture-recapture...

Modelled average percentage yield loss due to ozone damage for four global staple crops (2010-2012)

K. Sharps, G. Mills, D. Simpson, H. Pleijel, M. Frei, K. Burkey, L. Emberson, J. Uddling, M. Broberg, Z. Feng, K. Kobayashi & M. Agrawal
Modelled average percentage yield loss due to ground-level ozone pollution (per 1 degree by 1 degree grid cell) are presented for the crops maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) for the period 2010-2012. Data are on a global scale, based on the distribution of production for each crop, according to the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) Global Agro-Ecological Zones (GAEZ) crop production data for the year 2000. Modelled...

Data from: Endemism patterns are scale dependent

Barnabas H. Daru, Harith Farooq, Alexandre Antonelli & Søren Faurby
Areas of endemism are important in biogeography because they capture facets of biodiversity not represented elsewhere. However, the scales at which they are relevant to research and conservation are poorly analysed. Here, we calculate weighted endemism (WE) and phylogenetic endemism (PE) separately for all birds and amphibians across the globe. We show that scale dependence is widespread for both indices and manifests across grain sizes, spatial extents and taxonomic treatments. Variations in taxonomic opinions –...

Time course and diagnostic utility of NfL, tau, GFAp, and UCH-L1 in subacute and chronic TBI

Pashtun Shahim, Adam Politis, Andre Van Der Merwe, Brian Moore, Vindhya Ekanayake, Sara Lippa, Yi-Yu Chou, Dzung Pham, John Butman, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Jessica Gill, David Brody & Leighton Chan
Objective: To determine whether neurofilament light (NfL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), tau, and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) measured in serum relate to traumatic brain injury (TBI) diagnosis, injury severity, brain volume, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of traumatic axonal injury (TAI) in patients with TBI. Methods: Patients with TBI (n = 162) and controls (n = 68) were prospectively enrolled between 2011 and 2019. Patients with TBI also underwent serum, functional outcome, and...

Data from: Animal models to understand the etiology and pathophysiology in polycystic ovary syndrome

Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Vasantha Padmanabhan, Kirsty A Walters, Rebecca E Campbell, Anna Benrick, Paolo Giacobini, Daniel A Dumesic & David H Abbott
More than one out of ten women worldwide are diagnosed with the leading cause of female reproductive and metabolic dysfunction, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Despite its high prevalence, PCOS and its accompanying morbidities are likely under-diagnosed, averaging >2 years and 3 physicians changes before women are diagnosed. Despite intensive research, the underlying cause(s) of PCOS have yet to be defined. In order to understand PCOS pathophysiology, its developmental origins, and how to predict and prevent...

A molecular phylogeny of historical and contemporary specimens of an under-studied micro-invertebrate group

Russell Orr, Maja Sannum, Sanne Boessenkool, Emanuela Di Martino, Dennis Gordon, Hannah Mello, Matthias Obst, Mali Ramsfjell, Abigail Smith & Lee-Hsiang Liow
Resolution of relationships at lower taxonomic levels is crucial for answering many evolutionary questions, and as such, sufficiently varied species representation is vital. This latter goal is not always achievable with relatively fresh samples. To alleviate the difficulties in procuring rarer taxa, we have seen increasing utilization of historical specimens in building molecular phylogenies using high throughput sequencing. This effort, however, has mainly focused on large-bodied or well-studied groups, with small-bodied and under-studied taxa under-prioritized....

Mapping Africa’s biodiversity: more of the same is just not good enough

Harith Farooq, Josué Azevedo, Amadeu Soares, Alexandre Antonelli & Søren Faurby
Species distribution data are fundamental to the understanding of biodiversity patterns and processes. Yet, such data are strongly affected by sampling biases, mostly related to site accessibility. The understanding of these biases is therefore crucial in systematics, biogeography and conservation. Here we present a novel approach for quantifying sampling effort and its impact on biodiversity knowledge, focusing on Africa. In contrast to previous studies assessing sampling completeness (percentage of species recorded in relation to predicted),...

Return to work following diagnosis of low-grade glioma: A nationwide matched cohort study

Isabelle Rydén, Louise Carstam, Sasha Gulati, Anja Smits, Katharina S. Sunnerhagen, Per Hellström, Roger Henriksson, , Øyvind Salvesen & Asgeir Jakola
Objective: Return-to-work (RTW) following diagnosis of infiltrative low-grade gliomas (LGG) is unknown. Methods: Swedish patients with histopathological verified WHO grade II diffuse glioma diagnosed between 2005-2015 were included. Data were acquired from several Swedish registries. A total of 381 patients aged 18-60 were eligible. A matched control population (n=1900) was acquired. Individual data on sick leave, compensations, comorbidity, and treatments assigned were assessed. Predictors were explored using multivariable logistic regression. Results: One year before surgery/index...

Behavioural plasticity is associated with reduced extinction risk in birds

Simon Ducatez, Daniel Sol, Ferran Sayol & Louis Lefebvre
Behavioural plasticity is believed to reduce species vulnerability to extinction, yet global evidence supporting this hypothesis is lacking. We address this gap by quantifying the extent to which birds are observed behaving in novel ways to obtain food in the wild: based on a unique dataset of >3,800 novel behaviours, we show that species with a higher propensity to innovate are at a lower risk of global extinction and are more likely to have increasing...

Data from: Megafauna decline have reduced pathogen dispersal which may have increased emergent infectious diseases

Chris Doughty, Tomos Prys-Jones, Soren Faurby, Crystal Hepp, Viacheslav Fofanov, Andrew Abraham, Victor Leshyk, Nathan Nieto, Jens-Christian Svenning & Mauro Galetti
The Late Quaternary extinctions of megafauna (defined as animal species > 44.5 kg) reduced the dispersal of seeds and nutrients, and likely also microbes and parasites. Here we use body-mass based scaling and range maps for extinct and extant mammal species to show that these extinctions led to an almost seven-fold reduction in the movement of gut-transported microbes, such as Escherichia coli (3.3–0.5 km 2 d − 1 ). Similarly, the extinctions led to a...

Data from: Chemo-mechanical characterisation of carious dentine using Raman microscopy and Knoop microhardness

Mohammed Alturki, Garrit Koller, Ulrica Almhöjd & Avijit Banerjee
One of the aims in the clinical operative management of dental carious lesions is to remove selectively, the highly infected and structurally denatured dentine tissue, while retaining the deeper, repairable affected and intact, healthy tissues for long-term mechanical strength. The present study examined the correlation of chemical functional groups and the microhardness through the different depths of a carious lesion using Raman spectroscopy and Knoop microhardness testing. The null hypothesis investigated was that there was...

Neurofilament light as a biomarker in traumatic brain injury

Pashtun Shahim, Adam Politis, Andre Van Der Merwe, Brian Moore, Yi-Yu Chou, Dzung Pham, John Butman, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Jessica Gill, David Brody, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow & Leighton Chan
Objective: To determine whether serum neurofilament light (NfL) correlates with CSF NfL, traumatic brain injury (TBI) diagnosis, injury severity, brain volume, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) estimates of traumatic axonal injury (TAI). Methods: Participants were prospectively enrolled in Sweden and the United States between 2011 and 2019. The Swedish cohort included 45 hockey players with acute concussion sampled at 6 days, 31 with repetitive concussion with persistent postconcussive symptoms (PCS) assessed with paired CSF and...

Genomic landscape of reproductive isolation in Lucania killifish: The role of sex loci and salinity

Genevieve Kozak, Emma Berdan & Becky Fuller
Adaptation to different environments can directly and indirectly generate reproductive isolation between species. Bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) and rainwater killifish (L. parva) are sister species that have diverged across a salinity gradient and are reproductively isolated by habitat, behavioral, extrinsic, and intrinsic postzygotic ­­isolation. We asked if salinity adaptation contributes indirectly to other forms of reproductive isolation via linked selection and hypothesized that low recombination regions, such as sex chromosomes or chromosomal rearrangements, might facilitate...

Data and code for: Past and future extinctions shape the body size - fruit size relationship between palms and mammalian frugivores

Jun Ying Lim, Jens-Christian Svenning, Bastian Göldel, Søren Faurby & W. Daniel Kissling
The dispersal of seeds by mammalian frugivores influences the structure and composition of plant communities, but most ecosystems have undergone defaunation over thousands of years, a process that continues today. Understanding how past defaunation has affected fruit-frugivore interactions will thus provide insights into how ecosystems may respond to future frugivore loss. By integrating palm and mammalian frugivore trait and occurrence data worldwide, we reveal a global positive relationship between fruit size and body size of...

Modelled annual average percentage yield loss due to ozone damage for four global staple crops, 2010-2012 version 2

K. Sharps, G. Mills, D. Simpson, H. Pleijel, M. Frei, K. Burkey, L. Emberson, J. Uddling, M. Broberg, Z. Feng, K. Kobayashi & M. Agrawal
Modelled average percentage yield loss due to ground-level ozone pollution (per 1 degree by 1 degree grid cell) are presented for the crops maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa), soybean (Glycine max) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) for the period 2010-2012. Data are on a global scale, based on the distribution of production for each crop, according to the Food and Agriculture Organisation’s (FAO) Global Agro-Ecological Zones (GAEZ) crop production data for the year 2000. Modelled...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    28

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    28

Affiliations

  • University of Gothenburg
    28
  • UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
    4
  • Aarhus University
    3
  • University of Bonn
    3
  • Banaras Hindu University
    3
  • Norwegian Meteorological Institute
    2
  • National Institutes of Health
    2
  • University of Otago
    2
  • United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service (USDA‐ARS)
    2
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
    2