139 Works

Data from: Rapid scavenging of jellyfish carcasses reveals the importance of gelatinous material to deep-sea food webs

Andrew K. Sweetman, Craig R. Smith, Trine Dale & Daniel O. B. Jones
Jellyfish blooms are common in many oceans, and anthropogenic changes appear to have increased their magnitude in some regions. Although mass falls of jellyfish carcasses have been observed recently at the deep seafloor, the dense necrophage aggregations and rapid consumption rates typical for vertebrate carrion have not been documented. This has led to a paradigm of limited energy transfer to higher trophic levels at jelly falls relative to vertebrate organic falls. We show from baited...

Data from: Towards automated annotation of benthic survey images: variability of human experts and operational modes of automation

Oscar Beijbom, Peter J. Edmunds, Chris Roelfsema, Jennifer Smith, David I. Kline, Benjamin Neal, Matthew J. Dunlap, Vincent Moriarty, Tung-Yung Fan, Chih-Jui Tan, Stephen Chan, Tali Treibitz, Anthony Gamst, B. Greg Mitchell, David Kriegman & Benjamin P. Neal
Global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have heightened the need to rapidly characterize ecological changes in marine benthic communities across large scales. Digital photography enables rapid collection of survey images to meet this need, but the subsequent image annotation is typically a time consuming, manual task. We investigated the feasibility of using automated point-annotation to expedite cover estimation of the 17 dominant benthic categories from survey-images captured at four Pacific coral reefs. Inter- and...

Data from: Transpacific coalescent pathways of coconut rhinoceros beetle biotypes: resistance to biological control catalyzes resurgence of an old pest

Jonathan Bradley Reil, Camiel Doorenweerd, Michael San Jose, Sheina B. Sim, Scott M. Geib & Daniel Rubinoff
Biological control agents have several advantages over chemical control for pest management, including the capability to restore ecosystem balance with minimal non-target effects and a lower propensity for targets to develop resistance. These factors are particularly important in the invasive species control. The coconut rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Linnaeus) is a major palm pest that invaded many Pacific islands in the early 20th century through human-mediated dispersal. Application of the Oryctes nudivirus in the 1960’s...

Data from: Exotic flower visitors exploit large floral trait spaces resulting in asymmetric resource partitioning with native visitors

Jonas Kuppler, Maren K. Höfers, Wolfgang Trutschnig, Arne C. Bathke, Jesse A. Eiben, Curtis C. Daehler & Robert R. Junker
1.Exotic species often cause severe alterations in native communities due to their ability to rapidly and efficiently utilize a broad spectrum of resources. In flower-visitor interactions, the breadth of resource use by native and exotic animals as well as the partitioning of resources among them is often estimated based on the number of (shared) plant species used as resources. However, whether a flower visitor is able to exploit plant resources has been shown to be...

Data from: Biotic resistance to tropical ornamental invasion

Jennifer L. Bufford, Matthew H. Lurie & Curtis C. Daehler
We examined invasive, casual (found occasionally outside cultivation) and non-invasive (found only in cultivation) species to investigate the role of species traits and two forms of biotic resistance (plant neighbours and herbivores) in limiting invasion in Hawaiian lowlands. Seeds of 21 species of common woody ornamentals from three plant families (Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae) that are non-invasive, casual or invasive in Hawai'i were outplanted at two field sites. We measured germination of seeds and growth and...

Data from: Population genetic structure between Yap and Palau for the coral Acropora hyacinthus

Annick Cros, Robert J. Toonen, Sarah W. Davies & Stephen A. Karl
Information on connectivity is becoming increasingly in demand as marine protected areas are being designed as an integral part of a network to protect marine resources at the ecosystem level. Larval dispersal and population structure, however, remain very difficult to assess. Here, we tested the predictions of a detailed oceanographic connectivity model of larval dispersal and coral recruitment within Palau and between Palau and Yap, which was developed to support the review of the existing...

Data from: Marine biodiversity at the end of the world: Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez islands

Alan M. Friedlander, Enric Ballesteros, Tom W. Bell, Jonatha Giddens, Brad Henning, Mathias Hüne, Alex Muñoz, Pelayo Salinas-De-León & Enric Sala
The vast and complex coast of the Magellan Region of extreme southern Chile possesses a diversity of habitats including fjords, deep channels, and extensive kelp forests, with a unique mix of temperate and sub-Antarctic species. The Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez archipelagos are the most southerly locations in the Americas, with the southernmost kelp forests, and some of the least explored places on earth. The giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera plays a key role in structuring...

Data from: Combining fish and benthic communities into multiple regimes reveals complex reef dynamics

Mary K. Donovan, Alan M. Friedlander, Joey Lecky, Jean-Baptiste Jouffray, Gareth J. Williams, Lisa M. Wedding, Larry B. Crowder, Ashley L. Erickson, Nick A. J. Graham, Jamison M. Gove, Carrie V. Kappel, Kendra Karr, John N. Kittinger, Albert V. Norström, Magnus Nyström, Kirsten L. L. Oleson, Kostantinos A. Stamoulis, Crow White, Ivor D. Williams & Kimberly A. Selkoe
Coral reefs worldwide face an uncertain future with many reefs reported to transition from being dominated by corals to macroalgae. However, given the complexity and diversity of the ecosystem, research on how regimes vary spatially and temporally is needed. Reef regimes are most often characterised by their benthic components; however, complex dynamics are associated with losses and gains in both fish and benthic assemblages. To capture this complexity, we synthesised 3,345 surveys from Hawai‘i to...

Data from: Genetic relatedness does not retain spatial pattern across multiple spatial scales: dispersal and colonization in the coral, Pocillopora damicornis

Kelvin D. Gorospe & Stephen A. Karl
Patterns of isolation-by-distance are uncommon in coral populations. Here, we depart from historical trends of large-scale, geographic genetic analyses by scaling down to a single patch reef in Kāne‘ohe Bay, Hawai‘i, and map and genotype all colonies of the coral, Pocillopora damicornis. Six polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to assess population genetic and clonal structure and to calculate individual colony pairwise relatedness values. Our results point to an inbred, highly clonal reef (between 53 and...

Data from: Adaptive morphological shifts to novel habitats in marine sculpin fishes

Matthew L. Knope & Jeffrey A. Scales
Sculpin fishes of the North American Pacific Coast provide an ideal opportunity to examine whether adaptive morphological character shifts have facilitated occupation of novel habitat types because of their well-described phylogeny and ecology. In this group, the basal-rooted species primarily occupy the subtidal habitat, whereas the species in the most distal clades are found in the intertidal. We tested multiple evolutionary models to determine whether changes in body size and changes in number of scales...

Data from: The molecular biogeography of the Indo-Pacific: testing hypotheses with multispecies genetic patterns

Eric D. Crandall, Cynthia Riginos, Chris E. Bird, Libby Liggins, Eric Treml, Maria Beger, Paul H. Barber, Sean R. Connolly, Peter F. Cowman, Joseph D. Dibattista, Jeff A. Eble, Sharon F. Magnuson, John B. Horne, Marc Kochzius, Harilaos A. Lessios, Shang Yin Vanson Liu, William B. Ludt, Hawis Madduppa, John M. Pandolfi, Robert R. Toonen, Contributing Members Of Diversity Of The Indo-Pacific Network & Michelle R. Gaither
Aim: To test hypothesized biogeographic partitions of the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean with phylogeographic data from 56 taxa, and to evaluate the strength and nature of barriers emerging from this test. Location: The Indo-Pacific Ocean. Time Period: Pliocene through the Holocene. Major Taxa Studied: 56 marine species. Methods: We tested eight biogeographic hypotheses for partitioning of the Indo-Pacific using a novel modification to analysis of molecular variance. Putative barriers to gene flow emerging from this analysis...

Data from: Properties of Markov chain Monte Carlo performance across many empirical alignments -- part I

Sean M Harrington, Van Wishingrad & Robert C Thomson
Nearly all current Bayesian phylogenetic applications rely on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to approximate the posterior distribution for trees and other parameters of the model. These approximations are only reliable if Markov chains adequately converge and sample from the joint posterior distribution. While several studies of phylogenetic MCMC convergence exist, these have focused on simulated datasets or select empirical examples. Therefore, much that is considered common knowledge about MCMC in empirical systems derives...

Data from: Fishes alleviate the impacts of sediments on host corals

Tory J. Chase, Morgan S. Pratchett, Michael J. McWilliam, Margaux Y. Hein, Sterling B. Tebbett & Mia O. Hoogenboom
Mutualisms play a critical role in ecological communities, however the importance and prevalence of mutualistic associations can be modified by external stressors. On coral reefs, elevated sediments are a major stressor, reducing the health of corals and damaging reef resilience. Here, we investigated the influence of sediment stress on the mutualistic relationship between small damselfishes (Dascyllus aruanus and Pomacentrus moluccensis) and their coral host (Pocillopora damicornis). In an aquaria experiment, corals were exposed to sedimentation...

Scaling and development of elastic mechanisms: the tiny strikes of larval mantis shrimp

Jacob Harrison, Megan Porter, Matthew McHenry, H. Eve Robinson & Sheila Patek
Latch-mediated spring actuation (LaMSA) is used by small organisms to produce high acceleration movements. Mathematical models predict that acceleration increases as LaMSA systems decrease in size. Adult mantis shrimp use a LaMSA mechanism in their raptorial appendages to produce extremely fast strikes. Until now, however, it was unclear whether mantis shrimp at earlier life-history stages also strike using elastic recoil and latch mediation. We tested whether larval mantis shrimp (Gonodactylaceus falcatus) use LaMSA and, because...

Spatial drivers of composition and connectivity across endangered tropical dry forests

Chris Balzotti, Gregory Asner, Edith Adkins & Elliott Parsons
1. Tropical dry forests are among the most threatened ecosystems in the world. Rapid loss, degradation, and fragmentation of these native ecosystems in a changing climate have driven a time-sensitive need to improve our understanding and management of remaining dry forests. 2. We used advanced remote sensing technologies, combined with extensive field data and machine learning, to better understand how spatial drivers (e.g., climate, fire, human) of canopy species composition vary in importance and correlate...

Data for: The paradoxical rarity of a parasitic fruit fly fungus attacking a broad range of hosts

Camiel Doorenweerd, Sebastian Sievert, Walter Rossi & Daniel Rubinoff
Understanding the factors that determine the realized and potential distribution of a species requires knowledge of abiotic, physiological, limitations as well as ecological interactions. Entomopathogenic fungi of the order Laboulbeniales specialize on arthropod hosts and are typically thought to be highly specialized on a single host or closely related group of hosts. Because infections are solely transmitted through direct contact of the hosts, the host ecology to a large extent determines the distribution and occurrence...

Data from: Mean annual temperature influences local fine root proliferation in tropical montane wet forest

Suzanne Pierre, Timothy J. Fahey, Creighton Litton, Christian Giardina & Jed Sparks
Mean annual temperature (MAT) is an influential climate factor affecting the bioavailability of growth-limiting nutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). In tropical montane wet forests, warmer MAT drives higher N bioavailability, while patterns of P availability are inconsistent across MAT. Two important nutrient acquisition strategies, fine root proliferation into bulk soil and root association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, are dependent on C availability to the plant via primary production. The case study presented here tests...

Data from: Surf and Turf Vision: Patterns and predictors of visual acuity in compound eye evolution

Kathryn Feller, Lorian Schweikert, Camilla Sharkey, Alyssa McDuffee-Altekruse, Heather Bracken-Grissom, Nathan Lord & Megan Porter
Eyes have the flexibility to evolve to meet the ecological demands of their users. Relative to camera-type eyes, the fundamental limits of optical diffraction in arthropod compound eyes restricts the ability to resolve fine detail (visual acuity) to much lower degrees. We tested the capacity of several ecological factors to predict arthropod visual acuity, while simultaneously controlling for shared phylogenetic history. In this study, we have generated the most comprehensive review of compound eye visual...

Making sense of virus size and the tradeoffs shaping viral fitness

Kyle Edwards, Grieg Steward & Christopher Schvarcz
Viruses span an impressive size range, with genome length varying a thousandfold and virion volume nearly a millionfold. For cellular organisms the scaling of traits with size is a pervasive influence on ecological processes, but whether size plays a central role in viral ecology is unknown. Here we focus on viruses of aquatic unicellular organisms, which exhibit the greatest known range of virus size. We outline hypotheses within a quantitative framework, and analyze data where...

Pico-phytoplankton abundance, growth and grazing rates along 110°E in the eastern Indian Ocean

Michael Landry & Selph Karen
Dilution experiments were conducted on R/V Investigator cruise IN2019v03 (17 May to 5 June 2019) on a south-to-north transect along longitude 110°E, west of Australia. Population abundances were measured by flow cytometry. Instantaneous rates of growth and grazing mortality were calculated from 2-treatment dilution incubations at six light levels.

A genome for Bidens hawaiensis: a member of a hexaploid Hawaiian plant adaptive radiation

M. Renee Bellinger, Erin M Datlof, Karen E Selph, Timothy J Gallaher & Matthew L Knope
Abstract The plant genus Bidens (Asteraceae or Compositae; Coreopsidae) is a species-rich and circumglobally distributed taxon. The 19 hexaploid species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands are considered an iconic example of adaptive radiation, of which many are imperiled and of high conservation concern. Until now, no genomic resources were available for this genus, which may serve as a model system for understanding the evolutionary genomics of explosive plant diversification. Here, we present a high-quality reference...

Fungal infection alters the selection, dispersal, and drift processes structuring the amphibian skin microbiome

Mark Q Wilber, Andrea J Jani, Joseph R Mihaljevic & Cheryl J Briggs
Symbiotic microbial communities are important for host health, but the processes shaping these communities are poorly understood. Understanding how community assembly processes jointly affect microbial community composition is limited because inflexible community models rely on rejecting dispersal and drift before considering selection. We developed a flexible community assembly model based on neutral theory to ask: How do dispersal, drift, and selection concurrently affect the microbiome across environmental gradients? We applied this approach to examine how...

Data from: Developmental constraints and resource environment shape early emergence and investment in spines in saplings

Mohammed Armani, Tristan Charles-Dominique, Kasey E. Barton & Kyle W. Tomlinson
Abstract Background and Aims Herbivory by large mammals imposes a critical recruitment bottleneck on plants in many systems. Spines defend plants against large herbivores and how early they emerge in saplings may be one of the strongest predictors of sapling survival in herbivore-rich environments. Yet little effort has been directed at understanding the variability in spine emergence across saplings. Methods We present a multi-species study examining whether and how sapling size,spine type and species’ environmental...

Additive and non-additive responses of seedlings to simulated herbivory and drought data

Kasey Barton & Aaron Shiels
Drought is a global threat, increasing in severity and frequency throughout tropical ecosystems. Although plants often face drought in conjunction with biotic stressors, such as herbivory or disease, experimental studies infrequently test the simultaneous effects of drought and biotic stress. Because multiple simultaneous stressors may have non-additive and complex effects on plant performance, it is difficult to predict plant responses to multiple threats from research examining one stress at a time. Using an experimental approach...

Best-practice forestry management delivers diminishing returns for coral reefs with increased land-clearing

Amelia Wenger, Daniel Harris, Samuel Weber, Ferguson Vaghi, Yashika Nand, Waisea Naisilisili, Alec Hughes, Jade Delevaux, Carissa Klein, James Watson, Peter Mumby & Stacy Jupiter
Protection of coastal ecosystems from deforestation may be the best way to protect coral reefs from sediment runoff. However, given the importance of generating economic activities for coastal livelihoods, the prohibition of development is often not feasible. In light of this, logging codes-of-practice have been developed to mitigate the impacts of logging on downstream ecosystems. However, no studies have assessed whether managed land-clearing can occur in tandem with coral reef conservation goals. This study quantifies...

Registration Year

  • 2022
  • 2021
  • 2020
  • 2019
  • 2018
  • 2017
  • 2016
  • 2015
  • 2014
  • 2013

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Hawaii at Manoa
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
  • Stanford University
  • National Geographic Society
  • University of California System
  • University of California Los Angeles
  • University of Queensland
  • The University of Texas at Austin
  • Duke University