175 Works

Data from: Genetic signature of a range expansion and leap-frog event after the recent invasion of Europe by the grapevine downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola

Michael C. Fontaine, Frederic Austerlitz, Tatiana Giraud, Frederic Labbé, Daciana Papura, Sylvie Richard-Cervera & Francois Delmotte
Biologic invasions can have important ecological, economic and social consequences, particularly when they involve the introduction and spread of plant invasive pathogens, as they can threaten natural ecosystems and jeopardize the production of human food. Examples include the grapevine downy mildew, caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola, an invasive species native to North America, introduced into Europe in the 1870s. We investigated the introduction and spread of this invasive pathogen, by analysing its genetic structure...

Data from: Nest height is affected by lamppost lighting proximity in addition to nestbox size in urban great tits

Marie-Jeanne Holveck, Arnaud Gregoire, Claire Doutrelant & Marcel M. Lambrechts
Both natural and artificial light have proximate influences on many aspects of avian biology, physiology and behaviour. To date artificial light at night is mostly considered as being a nuisance disrupting for instance sleep and reproduction of diurnal species. Here, we investigate if lamppost night lighting affects cavity-nesting bird species inside their breeding cavity. Nest height in secondary cavity-nesting species is the result of trade-offs between several selective forces. Predation is the prevailing force leading...

Data from: Temporal sampling helps unravel the genetic structure of naturally occurring populations of a phytoparasitic nematode. 2. Separating the relative effects of gene flow and genetic drift

Cécile Gracianne, Pierre-Loup Jan, Sylvain Fournet, Eric Olivier, Jean-François Arnaud, Catherine Porte, Sylvie Bardou-Valette, Marie-Christine Denis, Eric Petit & Eric J. Petit
Studying wild pathogen populations in natural ecosystems offers the opportunity to better understand the evolutionary dynamics of biotic diseases in crops and to enhance pest control strategies. We used simulations and genetic markers to investigate the spatial and temporal population genetic structure of wild populations of the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii on a wild host plant species, the sea beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima), the wild ancestor of cultivated beets. Our analysis of the...

Data from: Extending the use of ecological models without sacrificing details: a generic and parsimonious meta-modelling approach

Guillaume Marie & Guillaume Simioni
Process-based models (PBMs, see table 1 for a list of abbreviations) are essential tools to assess ecosystem response to climate change, land use changes, extreme weather patterns, or other environmental disturbances. PBMs allow to deal with the high level of interactions and feedbacks which are intrinsic to ecological processes, but their complexity comes at the cost of computation time and memory. Because of that, there is a trade-off between the resolution satisfactory to describe ecological...

Data from: Correlation between the green-island phenotype and Wolbachia infections during the evolutionary diversification of Gracillariidae leaf-mining moths

Florence Gutzwiller, Franck Dedeine, Wilfried Kaiser, David Giron & Carlos Lopez-Vaamonde
Internally feeding herbivorous insects such as leaf miners have developed the ability to manipulate the physiology of their host plants in a way to best meet their metabolic needs and compensate for variation in food nutritional composition. For instance, some leaf miners can induce green-islands on yellow leaves in autumn, which are characterized by photosynthetically active green patches in otherwise senescing leaves. It has been shown that endosymbionts, and most likely bacteria of the genus...

Data from: Fine-scale environmental control of hybridization in oaks

Lélia Lagache, Etienne K. Klein, Erwan Guichoux & Rémy J. Petit
Natural hybridization is attracting much interest in modern speciation and conservation biology studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear why environmental changes often increase hybridization rates. To study this question, we surveyed mating events in a mixed oak stand and developed a spatially-explicit individual-based hybridization model. This model, where hybridization is frequency dependent, pollen is non-limiting and which allows immigrant pollen to compete with local pollen, takes into account...

Data from: Are assortative mating and genital divergence driven by reinforcement?

Johan Hollander, Mauricio Montaño-Rendón, Giuseppe Bianco, Xi Yang, Anja M. Westram, Ludovic Duvaux, David G. Reid & Roger K. Butlin
The evolution of assortative mating is a key part of the speciation process. Stronger assortment, or greater divergence in mating traits, between species pairs with overlapping ranges is commonly observed, but possible causes of this pattern of reproductive character displacement are difficult to distinguish. We use a multidisciplinary approach to provide a rare example where it is possible to distinguish among hypotheses concerning the evolution of reproductive character displacement. We build on an earlier comparative...

Data from: Melanin-based coloration of sneaker male Atlantic salmon is linked to viability and emergence timing of their offspring

Lucas Marie-Orleach, Jean-Marc Roussel, Jérôme Bugeon, Julien Tremblay, Dominique Ombredane & Guillaume Evanno
The ‘good genes’ hypothesis of sexual selection predicts that male ornaments are favoured by female mate choice because male ornament reveals genetic quality. In species with different male reproductive tactics, variation in genetic quality among ‘sneaking’ males has rarely been investigated, as usually ‘sneakers’ are thought not to be chosen by females. Here we focused on the alternative reproductive tactic in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758) to test whether the skin colour of sneakers...

Data from: Adaptive plasticity and niche expansion in an invasive thistle

Kathryn G. Turner, Hélène Fréville & Loren H. Rieseberg
Phenotypic differentiation in size and fecundity between native and invasive populations of a species has been suggested as a causal driver of invasion in plants. Local adaptation to novel environmental conditions through a micro-evolutionary response to natural selection may lead to phenotypic differentiation and fitness advantages in the invaded range. Local adaptation may occur along a stress tolerance trade-off, favoring individuals that, in benign conditions, shift resource allocation from stress tolerance to increased vigor and...

Data from: Neutral and adaptive drivers of microgeographic genetic divergence within continuous populations: the case of the Neotropical tree Eperua falcata (Aubl.)

Louise Brousseau, Matthieu Foll, Caroline Scotti-Saintagne & Ivan Scotti
Background: In wild plant populations, genetic divergence within continuous stands is common, sometimes at very short geographical scales. While restrictions to gene flow combined with local inbreeding and genetic drift may cause neutral differentiation among subpopulations, microgeographical variations in environmental conditions can drive adaptive divergence through natural selection at some targeted loci. Such phenomena have recurrently been observed in plant populations occurring across sharp environmental boundaries, but the interplay between selective processes and neutral genetic...

Data from: Rare species contribute disproportionately to the functional structure of species assemblages

Rafael P. Leitão, Jansen Zuanon, Sebastien Villeger, Stephen E. Williams, Christopher Baraloto, Claire Fortunel, Fernando P. Mendonça & David Mouillot
There is broad consensus that the diversity of functional traits within species assemblages drives several ecological processes. It is also widely recognized that rare species are the first to go extinct following human-induced disturbances. Surprisingly, however, the functional importance of rare species is still poorly understood, particularly in tropical species-rich assemblages where the majority of species are rare and the rate of species extinction can be high. Here we investigated the consequences of local and...

Data from: Unusually limited pollen dispersal and connectivity of Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) refugial populations at the species' southern range margin

Eva Moracho, Gerardo Moreno, Arndt Hampe & Pedro Jordano
Low-latitudinal range margins of temperate and boreal plant species typically consist of scattered populations that persist locally in microrefugia. It remains poorly understood how their refugial habitats affect patterns of gene flow and connectivity, key components for their long-term viability and evolution. We examine landscape-scale patterns of historical and contemporary gene flow in refugial populations of the widespread European forest tree Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) at the species' southwestern range margin. We sampled all adult...

Data from: Modeling spatial expansion of invasive alien species: relative contributions of environmental and anthropogenic factors to the spreading of the harlequin ladybird in France

Sophie Veran, Sylvain Piry, Vincent Ternois, Christine N. Meynard, Benoit Facon & Arnaud Estoup
Species distribution models (SDM) have often been used to predict the potential ranges of introduced species and prioritize management strategies. However, this approach assumes equilibrium between occurrences and environmental gradients, an assumption which is violated during the invasion process, where many suitable sites are empty because the species has not yet reached them. Here we considered the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis as a case study to show the benefits of using a dynamic colonization–extinction model...

Data from: Unveiling the diet of elusive rainforest herbivores in next generation sequencing era? The tapir as a case study

Fabrice Hibert, Pierre Taberlet, Jérôme Chave, Caroline Scotti-Saintagne, Daniel Sabatier & Cécile Richard-Hansen
Characterizing the trophic relationships between large herbivores and the outstanding plant diversity in rainforest is a major challenge because of their elusiveness. This is crucial to understand the role of these herbivores in the functioning of the rainforest ecosystems. We tested a non-invasive approach based on the high-throughput sequencing of environmental samples using small plant plastid sequences (the trnL P6 loop) and ribosomal ITS1 primers, referred to as DNA metabarcoding, to investigate the diet of...

Data from: Patterns of selection on Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigens after the colonisation of the New World

Erhan Yalcindag, Virginie Rougeron, Eric Elguero, Céline Arnathau, Patrick Durand, Sylvain Brisse, Laure Diancourt, Agnes Aubouy, Pierre Becquart, Umberto D'Alessandro, Didier Fontenille, Dionicia Gamboa, Amanda Maestre, Didier Ménard, Lise Musset, Oscar Noya, Vincent Veron, Albina Wide, Bernard Carme, Eric Legrand, Christine Chevillon, Francisco J. Ayala, François Renaud & Franck Prugnolle
Pathogens, which have recently colonized a new host species or new populations of the same host, are interesting models for understanding how populations may evolve in response to novel environments. During its colonization of South America from Africa Plasmodium falciparum, the main agent of malaria, has been exposed to new conditions in distinctive new human populations (Amerindian and populations of mixed origins), that likely exerted new selective pressures on the parasite's genome. Among the genes...

Data from: Phylogenetic affiliation of SSU rRNA genes generated by massively parallel sequencing: new insights into the freshwater protist diversity

Najwa Taib, Jean-François Mangot, Isabelle Domaizon, Gisèle Bronner & Didier Debroas
Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies spur progress in determining the microbial diversity in various ecosystems by highlighting, for example, the rare biosphere. Currently, high-throughput pyrotag sequencing of PCR-amplified SSU rRNA gene regions is mainly used to characterize bacterial and archaeal communities, and rarely to characterize protist communities. In addition, although taxonomic assessment through phylogeny is considered as the most robust approach, similarity and probabilistic approaches remain the most commonly used for taxonomic affiliation....

Data from: Modelling the probability of microhabitat formation on trees using cross-sectional data

Laurent Larrieu & Alain Cabanettes
1. Context: Tree-related microhabitats (TreMs), such as trunk cavities, peeled bark, cracks or sporophores of lignicolous fungi, are essential to support forest biodiversity because they are used as substrate, foraging, roosting or breeding places by bryophytes, fungi, invertebrates and vertebrates. Biodiversity conservation requires the continuous presence of TreMs in a forest. However, little is known about their dynamics. Moreover, we usually have only cross-sectional TreM data (observations of many trees at a single time), making...

Data from: Using terrestrial laser scanning data to estimate large tropical trees biomass and calibrate allometric models: a comparison with traditional destructive approach

Stéphane Momo Takoudjou, Pierre Ploton, Bonaventure Sonké, Jan Hackenberg, Sébastien Griffon, Francois De Coligny, Narcisse Guy Kamdem, Moses Libalah, Gislain Mofack, Gilles Le Moguédec, Raphaël Pélissier & Nicolas Barbier
1. Calibration of local, regional or global allometric equations to estimate biomass at the tree level constitutes a significant burden on projects aiming at reducing Carbon emissions from forest degradation and deforestation. The objective of this contribution is to assess the precision and accuracy of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) for estimating volumes and above-ground biomass (AGB) of the woody parts of tropical trees, and for the calibration of allometric models. 2. We used a destructive...

Data from: Biophysical dependences among functional wood traits

Jana Dlouhá, Tancrède Alméras, Jacques Beauchêne, Bruno Clair & Meriem Fournier
1. Wood properties and especially wood density have been used as functional traits organized along major axes of species life history and strategy. Beyond statistical analyses, a better mechanistic understanding of relationships among wood traits is essential for ecologically relevant interpretation of wood trait variations. 2. A set of theoretical relationships mechanistically linking wood basic density with some other wood traits is derived from cellular material physics. These theoretical models picture basic physical constraints and...

Data from: Species interactions increase the temporal stability of community productivity in Pinus sylvestris-Fagus sylvatica mixtures across Europe

Miren Del Río, Hans Pretzsch, Ricardo Ruiz-Peinado, Evy Ampoorter, Peter Annighöfer, Ignacio Barbeito, Kamil Bielak, Gediminas Brazaitis, Lluis Coll, Lars össler, Marek Fabrika, David I. Forrester, Michael Heym, Václav Hurt, Viktor Kurylyak, Magnus Löf, Fabio Lombardi, Ekaterina Makrickiene, Bratislav Matovic, Frits Mohren, Renzo Motta, Jan Den Ouden, Maciej Pach, Quentin Ponette, Gerhard Schütze … & Lars Drössler
1.There is increasing evidence that species diversity enhances the temporal stability of community productivity in different ecosystems, although its effect at population and tree levels seems to be negative or neutral. Asynchrony in species responses to environmental conditions was found to be one of the main drivers of this stabilizing process. However, the effect of species mixing on the stability of productivity, and the relative importance of the associated mechanisms, remain poorly understood in forest...

Tree communities and soil properties influence fungal community assembly in neotropical forests

Heidy Schimann, Jason Vleminckx, Christopher Baraloto, Julien Engel, Gaelle Jaouen, Eliane Louisanna, Sophie Manzi, Audrey Sagne & Mélanie Roy
The influence exerted by tree communities, topography and soil chemistry on the assembly of macrofungal communities remains poorly understood, especially in highly diverse tropical forests. Here, we used a large dataset that combines inventories of macrofungal Basidiomycetes fruiting bodies, tree species composition and measurements for 16 soil physico-chemical parameters, collected in 34 plots located in four sites of lowland rainforests in French Guiana. Plots were established on three different topographical conditions: hilltop, slope and seasonally...

Disentangling the assembly mechanisms of ant cuticular bacterial communities of two Amazonian ant species sharing a common arboreal nest

Caroline Birer, Corrie S. Moreau, Niklas Tysklind, Lucie Zinger & Christophe Duplais
Bacteria living on the cuticle of ants are generally studied for their protective role against pathogens, especially in the clade of fungus-growing ants. However, little is known of the diversity of cuticular bacteria in other ant host species, as well as of the mechanisms leading to the composition of these communities. Here, we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to study the influence of host species, species interactions, and the pool of bacteria from the...

Drivers of longitudinal telomere dynamics in the long-lived bat species, Myotis myotis

Nicole Foley, Eric Petit, Thomas Brazier, John Finarelli, Graham Hughes, Frederic Touzalin, Sebastien Puechmaille & Emma Teeling
Age related telomere shortening is considered a hallmark of the ageing process. However, a recent cross-sectional ageing study of relative telomere length (rTL) in bats failed to detect a relationship between rTL and age in the long-lived genus Myotis (M. myotis and M. bechsteinii), suggesting some other factors are responsible for driving telomere dynamics in these species. Here, we test if longitudinal rTL data show signatures of age-associated telomere attrition in M. myotis and differentiate...

Associational resistance to both insect and pathogen damage in mixed forests is modulated by tree neighbour identity and drought

Elsa Field, Bastien Castagneyrol, Melanie Gibbs, Hervé Jactel, Nadia Barsoum, Karsten Schonrogge & Andrew Hector
Tree health declines can be caused by interactions between pests and pathogens and many studies have shown a reduction in their damage in mixed species forests compared to monocultures. Yet few authors have considered tree diversity effects on both groups simultaneously. Moreover, it is unclear whether diversity effects on tree pests and pathogens are robust to changes in abiotic conditions, such as drought. We addressed tree diversity effects on foliar insect herbivory, oak powdery mildew...

Data from: Leaf drought tolerance cannot be inferred from classic leaf traits in a tropical rainforest

Isabelle Maréchaux, Laurent Saint-André, Megan K. Bartlett, Lawren Sack & Jérôme Chave
Plants are enormously diverse in their traits and ecological adaptation, even within given ecosystems, such as tropical rainforests. Accounting for this diversity in vegetation models poses serious challenges. Global plant functional trait databases have highlighted general trait correlations across species that have considerably advanced this research program. However, it remains unclear whether trait correlations found globally hold within communities, and whether they extend to drought tolerance traits. For 134 individual plants spanning a range of...

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