10 Works

Data from: Lysozyme-associated bactericidal activity in the ejaculate of a wild passerine

Melissah Rowe, Gábor Árpád Czirják, Jan Lifjeld, Mathieu T. Giraudeau, Jan T. Lifjeld & Mathieu Giraudeau
Numerous antibacterial substances have been identified in the ejaculates of animals and are suggested to protect sperm from bacterial-induced damage in both the male and female reproductive tracts. Lysozymes, enzymes that exhibit bactericidal activity through their ability to break down bacterial cell walls, are likely to be particularly important for sperm defence as they are part of the constitutive innate immune system and are thus immediately available to protect sperm from bacterial attack. Birds are...

Data from: Fungi ahoy! Diversity on marine wooden substrata in the high North

Teppo Rämä, Jenni Nordén, Marie L. Davey, Geir H. Mathiassen, Joseph W. Spatafora & Håvard Kauserud
Marine fungi are severely understudied in the polar regions. We used molecularly identified cultures to study fungi inhabiting 50 intertidal and sea-floor logs along the North Norwegian coast. The aim was to explore the taxonomic and ecological diversity and to examine factors shaping the marine wood-inhabiting fungal communities. The 577 pure cultures analyzed clustered into 147 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97 % ITS sequence similarity. Ascomycota dominated, but OTUs belonging to Basidiomycota, Mucoromycotina...

Data from: Use of ancient sedimentary DNA as a novel conservation tool for high-altitude tropical biodiversity

Sanne Boessenkool, Gayle McGlynn, Laura S. Epp, David Taylor, Manuel Pimentel, Abel Gizaw, Sileshi Nemomissa, Christian Brochmann & Magnus Popp
Conservation of biodiversity may in the future increasingly depend upon the availability of scientific information to set suitable restoration targets. In traditional paleoecology, sediment-based pollen provides a means to define preanthropogenic impact conditions, but problems in establishing the exact provenance and ecologically meaningful levels of taxonomic resolution of the evidence are limiting. We explored the extent to which the use of sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) may complement pollen data in reconstructing past alpine environments in...

Data from: Allometric constraints and the evolution of allometry

Kjetil Lysne Voje, Thomas F. Hansen, Camilla K. Egset, Geir H. Bolstad & Christophe Pélabon
Morphological traits often covary within and among species according to simple power laws referred to as allometry. Such allometric relationships may result from common growth regulation, and this has given rise to the hypothesis that allometric exponents may have low evolvability and constrain trait evolution. We formalize hypotheses for how allometry may constrain morphological trait evolution across taxa, and test these using more than 300 empirical estimates of static (within-species) allometric relations of animal morphological...

Data from: Genetic and morphometric divergence in threespine stickleback in the Chignik catchment, Alaska

Annette Taugbøl, Claudia Junge, Thomas P. Quinn, Anders Herland & Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad
Divergent selection pressures induced by different environmental conditions typically lead to variation in life history, behaviour and morphology. When populations are locally adapted to their current environment, selection may limit movement into novel sites, leading to neutral and adaptive genetic divergence in allopatric populations. Subsequently, divergence can be reinforced by development of pre- or post-zygotic barriers to gene flow. The threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, is a primarily marine fish that has invaded freshwater repeatedly in...

Data from: Separating mortality and emigration: modelling space use, dispersal and survival with robust-design spatial-capture-recapture data

Torbjørn Ergon, Xavier Lambin & Beth Gardner
1. Capture-recapture (CR) techniques are commonly used to gain information about population dynamics, demography and life-history traits of populations. However, traditional CR models cannot separate mortality from emigration. Recently developed spatial-capture-recapture (SCR) models explicitly incorporate spatial information into traditional CR models, thus allowing for individuals’ movements to be modelled explicitly. 2. In this paper, we extend SCR models using robust-design data to allow for both processes in which individuals can disappear from the population, mortality...

Data from: Substantial compositional turnover of fungal communities in an alpine ridge-to-snowbed gradient

Fang Yao, Unni Vik, Anne K. Brysting, Tor Carlsen, Rune Halvorsen & Håvard Kauserud
The main gradient in vascular plant, bryophyte and lichen species composition in alpine areas, structured by the topographic gradient from wind-exposed ridges to snowbeds, has been extensively studied. Tolerance to environmental stress, resulting from wind abrasion and desiccation towards windswept ridges or reduced growing season due to prolonged snow cover towards snowbeds, is an important ecological mechanism in this gradient. The extent to which belowground fungal communities are structured by the same topographic gradient, and...

Data from: Local adaptation within a hybrid species

Fabrice Eroukhmanoff, Jo S. Hermansen, Richard I. Bailey, Stein Are Saether & Glenn-Peter Sætre
Ecological divergence among populations may be strongly influenced by their genetic background. For instance, genetic admixture through introgressive hybridization or hybrid speciation is likely to affect the genetic variation and evolvability of phenotypic traits. We studied geographic variation in two beak dimensions and three other phenotypic traits of the Italian sparrow (Passer italiae), a young hybrid species formed through interbreeding between house sparrows (P. domesticus) and Spanish sparrows (P. hispaniolensis). We found that beak morphology...

Data from: Deleterious consequences of antioxidant supplementation on lifespan in a wild-derived mammal

Colin Selman, Jane S. McLaren, Andrew R. Collins, Garry G. Duthie & John R. Speakman
While oxidative damage due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) often increases with advancing age and is associated with many age-related diseases, its causative role in ageing is controversial. In particular, studies that have attempted to modulate ROS-induced damage, either upwards or downward, using antioxidant or genetic approaches, generally do not show a predictable effect on lifespan. Here we investigated whether dietary supplementation with either vitamin E (α-tocopherol) or vitamin C (ascorbic acid) affected oxidative damage...

Data from: Fifty thousand years of arctic vegetation and megafaunal diet

Eske Willerslev, John Davison, Mari Moora, Martin Zobel, Eric Coissac, Mary E. Edwards, Eline D. Lorenzen, Mette Vestergård, Galina Gussarova, James Haile, Joseph Craine, Gaddy Bergmann, Ludovic Gielly, Sanne Boessenkool, Laura S. Epp, Peter B. Pearman, Rachid Cheddadi, David Murray, Karri Anne Bråthen, Nigel Yoccoz, Heather Binney, Corinne Cruaud, Patrick Wincker, Tomasz Goslar, Inger Greve Alsos … & Pierre Taberlet
Although it is generally agreed that the arctic flora is among the youngest and least diverse on Earth, the processes that shaped it are poorly understood. Here we present 50 thousand years (kyr) of arctic vegetation history, derived from the first large-scale ancient DNA metabarcoding study of circumpolar plant diversity. For this interval we additionally explore nematode diversity as a proxy for modelling vegetation cover and soil quality, and diets of herbivorous megafaunal mammals, many...

Registration Year

  • 2013
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Affiliations

  • University of Oslo
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  • University of Adelaide
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  • University of Sussex
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  • University of Washington
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  • Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission
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  • University of Wollongong
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  • University of Glasgow
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  • The Arctic University of Norway
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  • Oregon State University
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  • Lund University
    1