42 Works

Data from: Sperm morphology, sperm motility and paternity success in the bluethroat (Luscinia svecica)

Camilla Lo Cascio Sætre, Arild Johnsen, Even Stensrud & Emily R. A. Cramer
Postcopulatory sexual selection may select for male primary sexual characteristics like sperm morphology and sperm motility, through sperm competition or cryptic female choice. However, how such characteristics influence male fertilization success remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigate possible correlations between sperm characteristics and paternity success in the socially monogamous bluethroat (Luscinia svecica svecica), predicting that sperm length and sperm swimming speed is positively correlated with paternity success. In total, 25 % (15/61) of...

Data from: Convergent morphology in Alpinieae (Zingiberaceae): recircumscribing Amomum as a monophyletic genus

Hugo De Boer, Mark Newman, Axel Dalberg Poulsen, A. Jane Droop, Tomas Fer, Le Thi Thu Hien, Kristyna Hlavata, Vichith Lamxay, James E. Richardson, Karin Steffen & Jana Leong-Škorničková
The tropical ginger genus Amomum (Zingiberaceae) has always posed challenges for classification based on morphological characters. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies showed Amomum to be paraphyletic but limited sampling and absence of the data of the type Amomum subulatum made it impossible to resolve the paraphyly and make nomenclatural changes. Here, Amomum is further investigated in a multi-marker phylogenetic framework using matK and nrITS including multiple accessions of the type, the genus Elettaria and additional accessions...

Data from: A method that accounts for differential detectability in mixed samples of long-term infections with applications to the case of Chronic Wasting Disease in cervids

Hildegunn Viljugrein, Petter Hopp, Sylvie L. Benestad, Erlend B. Nilsen, Jørn Våge, Saraya Tavornpanich, Christer M. Rolandsen, Olav Strand & Atle Mysterud
1. Surveillance of wildlife diseases is logistically difficult, and imperfect detection is a recurrent challenge for disease estimation. Using citizen science can increase sample sizes, but it is associated with a cost in terms of the anatomical type and quality of the sample. Additionally, biological tissue samples from remote areas lose quality due to autolysis. These challenges are faced in the case of emerging Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in cervids. 2. Here, we develop a...

Data from: Environmental determinism, and not interspecific competition, drive morphological variability in Australasian warblers (Acanthizidae)

Vicente García-Navas, Marta Rodriguez-Rey, Petter Z. Marki & Les Christidis
Interspecific competition is thought to play a key role in determining the coexistence of closely related species within adaptive radiations. Competition for ecological resources can lead to different outcomes from character displacement to, ultimately, competitive exclusion. Accordingly, divergent natural selection should disfavor those species that are the most similar to their competitor in resource use, thereby increasing morphological disparity. Here we examined ecomorphological variability within an Australo-Papuan bird radiation, the Acanthizidae, which include both allopatric...

Data from: Sperm head morphology is associated with sperm swimming speed: a comparative study of songbirds using electron microscopy

Hanna Nyborg Støstad, Arild Johnsen, Jan Terje Lifjeld & Melissah Rowe
Sperm exhibit extraordinary levels of morphological diversification across the animal kingdom. In songbirds, sperm have a helically shaped head incorporating a distinct acrosomal membrane or ‘helical keel’, the form and extent of which varies across species. The functional significance of this helical shape, however, remains unknown. Using scanning electron microscopy, we quantified inter- and intra-specific variation in sperm head morphology across 36 songbird species (Passeriformes: Passerida). Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we investigated the relationship between...

Data from: Dissecting the paleocontinental and paleoenvironmental dynamics of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification

Franziska Franeck & Lee Hsiang Liow
The Ordovician is a time of drastic biological and geological change. Previous work has suggested that there was a dramatic increase in global diversity during this time, but also indicated that regional dynamics and dynamics in specific environments might have been different. Here, we contrast two paleocontinents that have different geological histories through the Ordovician, namely Laurentia and Baltica. The first was situated close to the equator throughout the whole Ordovician, while the latter has...

Data from: Hepatocyte-specific deletion of TIPARP, a negative regulator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, is sufficient to increase sensitivity to dioxin-induced wasting syndrome

David Hutin, Laura Tamblyn, Alvin Gomez, Giulia Grimaldi, Helen Soelding, Tiffany Cho, Shaimaa Ahmed, Christin Lucas, Chakravarthi Kanduri, Denis M. Grant, Jason Matthews & Helen Soedling
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxic effects of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; TCDD), which include thymic atrophy, steatohepatitis, and a lethal wasting syndrome in laboratory rodents. Although the mechanisms of dioxin toxicity remain unknown, AHR signaling in hepatocytes is necessary for dioxin-induced liver toxicity. We previously reported that loss of TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (TIPARP/PARP7/ARTD14), an AHR target gene and mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, increases the sensitivity of mice to dioxin-induced toxicities. To test the hypothesis that TIPARP is...

Data from: Reply to ‘Inconclusive evidence for rapid adaptive evolution’

Camilla Lo Cascio Sætre, Charles Coleiro, Martin Austad, Mark Gauci, Glenn-Peter Sætre, Kjetil Lysne Voje & Fabrice Eroukhmanoff
In our study, we showed that a newly founded population of reed warblers in Malta had undergone a decrease in body mass through 19 years, following a trajectory consistent with a population ascending an adaptive peak, an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process (OU). Neto et al. claim that our result is an artifact of including migrants in the dataset, which inflated the average body mass in the initial years. Controlling for possible seasonal effects is important, which we...

Data from: A practical introduction to random forest for genetic association studies in ecology and evolution

Marine S.O. Brieuc, Charles D. Waters, Daniel P. Drinan, Kerry Ann Naish & Marine S. O. Brieuc
Large genomic studies are becoming increasingly common with advances in sequencing technology, and our ability to understand how genomic variation influences phenotypic variation between individuals has never been greater. The exploration of such relationships first requires the identification of associations between molecular markers and phenotypes. Here we explore the use of Random Forest (RF), a powerful machine learning algorithm, in genomic studies to discern loci underlying both discrete and quantitative traits, particularly when studying wild...

Data from: Examining community stability in the face of mass extinction in communities of digital organisms

Tian-Tong Luo, Lise Heier, Zaki Ahmad Khan, Faraz Hasan, Trond Reitan, , Zi-Xuan Xie, Jian-Long Zhu & Gabriel Yedid
Digital evolution is a computer-based instantiation of Darwinian evolution in which short self-replicating computer programs compete, mutate, and evolve. It is an excellent platform for addressing topics in long-term evolution and paleobiology, such as mass extinction and recovery, with experimental evolutionary approaches. We evolved model communities with ecological interdependence among community members, which were subjected to two principal types of mass extinction: a pulse extinction that killed randomly, and a selective press extinction involving an...

Data from: Size, weapons and armor as predictors of competitive outcomes in fossil and contemporary marine communities

Lee Hsiang Liow, Trond Reitan, Kjetil Voje, Paul Taylor & Emanuela Di Martino
Inter- and intraspecific competition are usually observed over a few generations but their patterns and consequences are seldom tractable in natural systems over longer timescales relevant to macroevolutionary change. Here, we use win-draw-lose competitive overgrowths for a marine benthic community of encrusting bryozoans that have evolved together in New Zealand for at least 2.3 million years to investigate battles for substrate space, a resource that is limiting for these colonial organisms. Using more than 6000...

Data from: Convergent evolution of the ladder-like ventral nerve cord in Annelida

Conrad Helm, Patrick Beckers, Thomas Bartolomaeus, Stephan H. Drukewitz, Ioannis Kourtesis, Anne Weigert, Günter Purschke, Katrine Worsaae, Torsten H. Struck & Christoph Bleidorn
Background: A median, segmented, annelid nerve cord has repeatedly been compared to the arthropod and vertebrate nerve cords and became the most used textbook representation of the annelid nervous system. Recent phylogenomic analyses, however, challenge the hypothesis that a subepidermal rope-ladder-like ventral nerve cord (VNC) composed of a paired serial chain of ganglia and somata-free connectives represents either a plesiomorphic or a typical condition in annelids. Results: Using a comparative approach by combining phylogenomic analyses...

Data from: Genomewide association analyses of fitness traits in captive-reared Chinook salmon: applications in evaluating conservation strategies

Charles D. Waters, Jeffrey J. Hard, Marine S.O. Brieuc, David E. Fast, Kenneth I. Warheit, Curtis M. Knudsen, William J. Bosch, Kerry A. Naish & Marine S. O. Brieuc
A novel application of genome-wide association analyses is to use trait-associated loci to monitor the effects of conservation strategies on potentially adaptive genetic variation. Comparisons of fitness between captive- and wild-origin individuals, for example, do not reveal how captive rearing affects genetic variation underlying fitness traits or which traits are most susceptible to domestication selection. Here, we used data collected across four generations to identify loci associated with six traits in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus...

Data from: The genomic landscape at a late stage of stickleback speciation: high genomic divergence interspersed by small localized regions of introgression

Mark Ravinet, Kohta Yoshida, Shuji Shigenobu, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama & Jun Kitano
Speciation is a continuous process and analysis of species pairs at different stages of divergence provides insight into how it unfolds. Previous genomic studies on young species pairs have revealed peaks of divergence and heterogeneous genomic differentiation. Yet less known is how localised peaks of differentiation progress to genome-wide divergence during the later stages of speciation in the presence of persistent gene flow. Spanning the speciation continuum, stickleback species pairs are ideal for investigating how...

Data from: Exclusion of invertebrates influences saprotrophic fungal community and wood decay rate in an experimental field study

Rannveig Margrete Jacobsen, Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson, Håvard Kauserud, Sunil Mundra & Tone Birkemoe
1. Decomposer communities perform an essential ecosystem function by recycling nutrients. However, the effect of higher trophic levels on microbial decomposer communities and rate of decomposition is poorly understood. We therefore conducted an exclusion experiment to test the effect of invertebrates on fungal decomposer communities in dead wood, repeated at 30 sites in two landscapes, and measured wood density to assess effect on decay rate. 2. Invertebrates were excluded from recently cut logs by cages...

Data from: Can we rely on selected genetic markers for population identification? evidence from coastal Atlantic cod

Per Erik Jorde, Ann-Elin Synnes, Sigurd Heiberg Espeland, Marte Sodeland & Halvor Knutsen
The use of genetic markers under putative selection in population studies carries the potential for erroneous identification of populations and misassignment of individuals to population of origin. Selected markers are nevertheless attractive, especially in marine organisms that are characterized by weak population structure at neutral loci. Highly fecund species may tolerate the cost of strong selective mortality during early life stages, potentially leading to a shift in offspring genotypes away from the parental proportions. In...

Data from: Horn growth variation and hunting selection of the Alpine ibex

Ulf Büntgen, Juan Diego Galván, Atle Mysterud, Paul J. Krusic, Lisa Hülsmann, Hannes Jenny, Josef Senn & Kurt Bollmann
Selective hunting can affect demographic characteristics and phenotypic traits of the targeted species. Hunting systems often involve harvesting quotas based on sex, age and/or size categories to avoid selective pressure. However, it is difficult to assess whether such regulations deter hunters from targeting larger “trophy” animals with longer horns that may have evolutionary consequences. Here, we compile 44,088 annually resolved and absolutely dated measurements of Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) horn growth increments from 8,355 males,...

Data from: Patterns of cross-resistance and collateral sensitivity between clinical antibiotics and natural antimicrobials

Abigail L. Colclough, Jukka Corander, Samuel Sheppard, Sion Bayliss, Michiel Vos, Abigail Colclough, Samuel K. Sheppard & Sion C. Bayliss
Bacteria interact with a multitude of other organisms, many of which produce antimicrobials. Selection for resistance to these antimicrobials has the potential to result in resistance to clinical antibiotics when active compounds target the same bacterial pathways. The possibility of such cross-resistance between natural antimicrobials and antibiotics has to our knowledge received very little attention. The antimicrobial activity of extracts from seaweeds, known to be prolific producers of antimicrobials, is here tested against Staphylococcus aureus...

Data from: Bryozoan genera Fenestrulina and Microporella no longer confamilial; multi-gene phylogeny supports separation

Russell J S Orr, Andrea Waeschenbach, Emily L. G. Enevoldsen, Jeroen P. Boeve, Marianne N. Haugen, Kjetil L. Voje, Joanne Porter, Kamil Zágoršek, Abigail M. Smith, Dennis P. Gordon & Lee Hsiang Liow
Bryozoans are a moderately diverse, mostly marine phylum with a fossil record extending to the early Ordovician. Compared to other phyla, little is known about their phylogenetic relationships at both lower and higher taxonomic levels. Hence, an effort is being made to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among bryozoans. Here, we present newly sequenced nuclear and mitochondrial genes for 21 cheilostome bryozoans and compile these with existing orthologous molecular data. Using these data, we focus on...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Multiple chromosomal rearrangements in a hybrid zone between Littorina saxatilis ecotypes

Rui Faria, Pragya Chaube, Hernan E. Morales, Tomas Larsson, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Marina Rafajlovic, Marina Panova, Mark Ravinet, Kerstin Johannesson, Anja M. Westram & Roger K. Butlin
Both classical and recent studies suggest that chromosomal inversion polymorphisms are important in adaptation and speciation. However, biases in discovery and reporting of inversions make it difficult to assess their prevalence and biological importance. Here, we use an approach based on linkage disequilibrium among markers genotyped for samples collected across a transect between contrasting habitats to detect chromosomal rearrangements de novo. We report 17 polymorphic rearrangements in a single locality for the coastal marine snail,...

Data from: Extreme diversity in the songs of Spitsbergen’s bowhead whales

Kathleen M. Stafford, Christian Lydersen, Oystein Wiig & Kit M. Kovacs
Almost all mammals communicate using sound, but few species produce complex songs. Two baleen whales sing complex songs that change annually, though only the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) has received much research attention. This study focuses on the other baleen whale singer, the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus). Members of the Spitsbergen bowhead whale population produced 184 different song types over a 3-year period, based on duty-cycled recordings from a site in Fram Strait in the...

Data from: Clines on the seashore: the genomic architecture underlying rapid divergence in the face of gene flow

Anja Marie Westram, Marina Rafajlovic, Pragya Chaube, Rui Faria, Tomas Larsson, Marina Panova, Mark Ravinet, Anders Blomberg, Bernhard Mehlig, Kerstin Johannesson & Roger Butlin
Adaptive divergence and speciation may happen despite opposition by gene flow. Identifying the genomic basis underlying divergence with gene flow is a major task in evolutionary genomics. Most approaches (e.g. outlier scans) focus on genomic regions of high differentiation. However, not all genomic architectures potentially underlying divergence are expected to show extreme differentiation. Here, we develop an approach that combines hybrid zone analysis (i.e. focuses on spatial patterns of allele frequency change) with system-specific simulations...

Data from: Spruce and beech as local determinants of forest fungal community structure in litter, humus and mineral soil

Johan Asplund, Håvard Kauserud, Mikael Ohlson & Line Nybakken
Beech forests reaches its native distribution limit in SE Norway, but is expected to expand substantially northwards due to climate warming. This may potentially result in a fundamental transformation of contemporary Northern European forests, with tentative effects on the associated belowground fungi. Fungal communities mediate vital ecosystem processes such as ecosystem productivity and carbon sequestration in boreal forests. To investigate how soil fungi is affected by the vegetation transition from spruce to beech forest, we...

Data from: The evolution of sexual imprinting through reinforcement

D. Justin Yeh, Janette W. Boughman, Glenn-Peter Saetre & Maria R. Servedio
Reinforcement is the process whereby assortative mating evolves due to selection against costly hybridization. Sexual imprinting could evolve as a mechanism of reinforcement, decreasing hybridization, or it could potentially increase hybridization in genetically purebred offspring of heterospecific social pairs. We use deterministic population genetic simulations to explore conditions under which sexual imprinting can evolve through reinforcement. We demonstrate that a sexual imprinting component of female preference can evolve as a one-allele assortative mating mechanism by...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    42

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    42

Affiliations

  • University of Oslo
    42
  • University of Gothenburg
    4
  • University of Agder
    4
  • University of Washington
    3
  • University of Copenhagen
    3
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
    3
  • Duke University
    2
  • University of Cambridge
    2
  • Charles University
    2
  • University of Basel
    2