42 Works

Data from: Convergent morphology in Alpinieae (Zingiberaceae): recircumscribing Amomum as a monophyletic genus

Hugo De Boer, Mark Newman, Axel Dalberg Poulsen, A. Jane Droop, Tomas Fer, Le Thi Thu Hien, Kristyna Hlavata, Vichith Lamxay, James E. Richardson, Karin Steffen & Jana Leong-Škorničková
The tropical ginger genus Amomum (Zingiberaceae) has always posed challenges for classification based on morphological characters. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies showed Amomum to be paraphyletic but limited sampling and absence of the data of the type Amomum subulatum made it impossible to resolve the paraphyly and make nomenclatural changes. Here, Amomum is further investigated in a multi-marker phylogenetic framework using matK and nrITS including multiple accessions of the type, the genus Elettaria and additional accessions...

Data from: Environmental determinism, and not interspecific competition, drive morphological variability in Australasian warblers (Acanthizidae)

Vicente García-Navas, Marta Rodriguez-Rey, Petter Z. Marki & Les Christidis
Interspecific competition is thought to play a key role in determining the coexistence of closely related species within adaptive radiations. Competition for ecological resources can lead to different outcomes from character displacement to, ultimately, competitive exclusion. Accordingly, divergent natural selection should disfavor those species that are the most similar to their competitor in resource use, thereby increasing morphological disparity. Here we examined ecomorphological variability within an Australo-Papuan bird radiation, the Acanthizidae, which include both allopatric...

Data from: Sperm morphology, sperm motility and paternity success in the bluethroat (Luscinia svecica)

Camilla Lo Cascio Sætre, Arild Johnsen, Even Stensrud & Emily R. A. Cramer
Postcopulatory sexual selection may select for male primary sexual characteristics like sperm morphology and sperm motility, through sperm competition or cryptic female choice. However, how such characteristics influence male fertilization success remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigate possible correlations between sperm characteristics and paternity success in the socially monogamous bluethroat (Luscinia svecica svecica), predicting that sperm length and sperm swimming speed is positively correlated with paternity success. In total, 25 % (15/61) of...

Data from: Sperm head morphology is associated with sperm swimming speed: a comparative study of songbirds using electron microscopy

Hanna Nyborg Støstad, Arild Johnsen, Jan Terje Lifjeld & Melissah Rowe
Sperm exhibit extraordinary levels of morphological diversification across the animal kingdom. In songbirds, sperm have a helically shaped head incorporating a distinct acrosomal membrane or ‘helical keel’, the form and extent of which varies across species. The functional significance of this helical shape, however, remains unknown. Using scanning electron microscopy, we quantified inter- and intra-specific variation in sperm head morphology across 36 songbird species (Passeriformes: Passerida). Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we investigated the relationship between...

Data from: Reply to ‘Inconclusive evidence for rapid adaptive evolution’

Camilla Lo Cascio Sætre, Charles Coleiro, Martin Austad, Mark Gauci, Glenn-Peter Sætre, Kjetil Lysne Voje & Fabrice Eroukhmanoff
In our study, we showed that a newly founded population of reed warblers in Malta had undergone a decrease in body mass through 19 years, following a trajectory consistent with a population ascending an adaptive peak, an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process (OU). Neto et al. claim that our result is an artifact of including migrants in the dataset, which inflated the average body mass in the initial years. Controlling for possible seasonal effects is important, which we...

Data from: Hepatocyte-specific deletion of TIPARP, a negative regulator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, is sufficient to increase sensitivity to dioxin-induced wasting syndrome

David Hutin, Laura Tamblyn, Alvin Gomez, Giulia Grimaldi, Helen Soelding, Tiffany Cho, Shaimaa Ahmed, Christin Lucas, Chakravarthi Kanduri, Denis M. Grant, Jason Matthews & Helen Soedling
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxic effects of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; TCDD), which include thymic atrophy, steatohepatitis, and a lethal wasting syndrome in laboratory rodents. Although the mechanisms of dioxin toxicity remain unknown, AHR signaling in hepatocytes is necessary for dioxin-induced liver toxicity. We previously reported that loss of TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (TIPARP/PARP7/ARTD14), an AHR target gene and mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, increases the sensitivity of mice to dioxin-induced toxicities. To test the hypothesis that TIPARP is...

Data from: A method that accounts for differential detectability in mixed samples of long-term infections with applications to the case of Chronic Wasting Disease in cervids

Hildegunn Viljugrein, Petter Hopp, Sylvie L. Benestad, Erlend B. Nilsen, Jørn Våge, Saraya Tavornpanich, Christer M. Rolandsen, Olav Strand & Atle Mysterud
1. Surveillance of wildlife diseases is logistically difficult, and imperfect detection is a recurrent challenge for disease estimation. Using citizen science can increase sample sizes, but it is associated with a cost in terms of the anatomical type and quality of the sample. Additionally, biological tissue samples from remote areas lose quality due to autolysis. These challenges are faced in the case of emerging Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in cervids. 2. Here, we develop a...

Data from: Dissecting the paleocontinental and paleoenvironmental dynamics of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification

Franziska Franeck & Lee Hsiang Liow
The Ordovician is a time of drastic biological and geological change. Previous work has suggested that there was a dramatic increase in global diversity during this time, but also indicated that regional dynamics and dynamics in specific environments might have been different. Here, we contrast two paleocontinents that have different geological histories through the Ordovician, namely Laurentia and Baltica. The first was situated close to the equator throughout the whole Ordovician, while the latter has...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Extreme diversity in the songs of Spitsbergen’s bowhead whales

Kathleen M. Stafford, Christian Lydersen, Oystein Wiig & Kit M. Kovacs
Almost all mammals communicate using sound, but few species produce complex songs. Two baleen whales sing complex songs that change annually, though only the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) has received much research attention. This study focuses on the other baleen whale singer, the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus). Members of the Spitsbergen bowhead whale population produced 184 different song types over a 3-year period, based on duty-cycled recordings from a site in Fram Strait in the...

Data from: Bryozoan genera Fenestrulina and Microporella no longer confamilial; multi-gene phylogeny supports separation

Russell J S Orr, Andrea Waeschenbach, Emily L. G. Enevoldsen, Jeroen P. Boeve, Marianne N. Haugen, Kjetil L. Voje, Joanne Porter, Kamil Zágoršek, Abigail M. Smith, Dennis P. Gordon & Lee Hsiang Liow
Bryozoans are a moderately diverse, mostly marine phylum with a fossil record extending to the early Ordovician. Compared to other phyla, little is known about their phylogenetic relationships at both lower and higher taxonomic levels. Hence, an effort is being made to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among bryozoans. Here, we present newly sequenced nuclear and mitochondrial genes for 21 cheilostome bryozoans and compile these with existing orthologous molecular data. Using these data, we focus on...

Data from: Clines on the seashore: the genomic architecture underlying rapid divergence in the face of gene flow

Anja Marie Westram, Marina Rafajlovic, Pragya Chaube, Rui Faria, Tomas Larsson, Marina Panova, Mark Ravinet, Anders Blomberg, Bernhard Mehlig, Kerstin Johannesson & Roger Butlin
Adaptive divergence and speciation may happen despite opposition by gene flow. Identifying the genomic basis underlying divergence with gene flow is a major task in evolutionary genomics. Most approaches (e.g. outlier scans) focus on genomic regions of high differentiation. However, not all genomic architectures potentially underlying divergence are expected to show extreme differentiation. Here, we develop an approach that combines hybrid zone analysis (i.e. focuses on spatial patterns of allele frequency change) with system-specific simulations...

Data from: Multiple chromosomal rearrangements in a hybrid zone between Littorina saxatilis ecotypes

Rui Faria, Pragya Chaube, Hernan E. Morales, Tomas Larsson, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Marina Rafajlovic, Marina Panova, Mark Ravinet, Kerstin Johannesson, Anja M. Westram & Roger K. Butlin
Both classical and recent studies suggest that chromosomal inversion polymorphisms are important in adaptation and speciation. However, biases in discovery and reporting of inversions make it difficult to assess their prevalence and biological importance. Here, we use an approach based on linkage disequilibrium among markers genotyped for samples collected across a transect between contrasting habitats to detect chromosomal rearrangements de novo. We report 17 polymorphic rearrangements in a single locality for the coastal marine snail,...

Data from: The evolution of sexual imprinting through reinforcement

D. Justin Yeh, Janette W. Boughman, Glenn-Peter Saetre & Maria R. Servedio
Reinforcement is the process whereby assortative mating evolves due to selection against costly hybridization. Sexual imprinting could evolve as a mechanism of reinforcement, decreasing hybridization, or it could potentially increase hybridization in genetically purebred offspring of heterospecific social pairs. We use deterministic population genetic simulations to explore conditions under which sexual imprinting can evolve through reinforcement. We demonstrate that a sexual imprinting component of female preference can evolve as a one-allele assortative mating mechanism by...

Data from: Spruce and beech as local determinants of forest fungal community structure in litter, humus and mineral soil

Johan Asplund, Håvard Kauserud, Mikael Ohlson & Line Nybakken
Beech forests reaches its native distribution limit in SE Norway, but is expected to expand substantially northwards due to climate warming. This may potentially result in a fundamental transformation of contemporary Northern European forests, with tentative effects on the associated belowground fungi. Fungal communities mediate vital ecosystem processes such as ecosystem productivity and carbon sequestration in boreal forests. To investigate how soil fungi is affected by the vegetation transition from spruce to beech forest, we...

Data from: Environmental drivers of varying selective optima in a small passerine: a multivariate, multiepisodic approach

Marlène Gamelon, Jarle Tufto, Anna L.K. Nilsson, Kurt Jerstad, Ole Wiggo Røstad, Nils Christian Stenseth & Bernt-Erik Saether
In changing environments, phenotypic traits are shaped by numerous agents of selection. The optimal phenotypic value maximizing the fitness of an individual thus varies through time and space with various environmental covariates. Selection may differ between different life cycle stages and act on correlated traits inducing changes in the distribution of several traits simultaneously. Despite increasing interests in environmental sensitivity of phenotypic selection, estimating varying selective optima on various traits throughout the life cycle, while...

Data from: Experimental heatwaves negatively impact sperm quality in the zebra finch

Laura L. Hurley, Callum S. McDiarmid, Christopher R. Friesen, Simon C. Griffith & Melissah Rowe
For sexually reproducing species, functionally competent sperm are critical to reproduction. While high atmospheric temperatures are known to influence the timing of breeding, incubation and reproductive success in birds, the effect of temperature on sperm quality remains largely unexplored. Here, we experimentally investigated the impact of ecologically relevant extreme temperatures on cloacal temperature and sperm morphology and motility in zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata. We periodically sampled males exposed to 30°C or 40°C temperatures daily for...

Data from: Bayesian divergence-time estimation with genome-wide SNP data of sea catfishes (Ariidae) supports Miocene closure of the Panamanian isthmus

Madlen Stange, Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra, Walter Salzburger & Michael Matschiner
The closure of the Isthmus of Panama has long been considered to be one of the best defined biogeographic calibration points for molecular divergence-time estimation. However, geological and biological evidence has recently cast doubt on the presumed timing of the initial isthmus closure around 3 Ma but has instead suggested the existence of temporary land bridges as early as the Middle or Late Miocene. The biological evidence supporting these earlier land bridges was based either...

Data from: Competition between sympatric wolf taxa: an example involving African and Ethiopian Wolves

Tariku Mekonnen Gutema, Anagaw Atickem, Afework Bekele, Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Mohammed Kasso, Diress Tsegaye, Vivek V. Venkataraman, Peter J. Fashing, Dietmar Zinner & Nils C. Stenseth
Carnivore populations are declining globally due to range contraction, persecution and prey depletion. One consequence of these patterns is increased range and niche overlap with other carnivores, and thus an elevated potential for competitive exclusion. Here we document competition between an endangered canid, the Ethiopian wolf (EW), and the newly discovered African wolf (AW) in central Ethiopia. The diet of the ecological specialist EW was dominated by rodents whereas the AW consumed more diverse diet...

Data from: Sperm divergence in a passerine contact zone: indication of reinforcement at the gametic level

Tomas Albrecht, Kamila Opletalova, Jiří Reif, Vaclav Janousek, Lubomir Pialek, Emily Rebecca Alison Cramer, Arild Johnsen & Radka Reifová
Postcopulatory sexual selection may promote evolutionary diversification in sperm form, but the contribution of between-species divergence in sperm morphology to the origin of reproductive isolation and speciation remains little understood. To assess the possible role of sperm diversification in reproductive isolation, we studied sperm morphology in two closely related species, the common nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) and the thrush nightingale (L. luscinia), that hybridize in a secondary contact zone spanning Central and Eastern Europe. We found:...

Data from: Disentangling structural genomic and behavioral barriers in a sea of connectivity

Julia M. I. Barth, David Villegas-Ríos, Carla Freitas, Even Moland, Bastiaan Star, Carl André, Halvor Knutsen, Ian Bradbury, Jan Dierking, Christoph Petereit, David Righton, Julian Metcalfe, Kjetill S. Jakobsen, Esben M. Olsen, Sissel Jentoft & Julia M.I. Barth
Genetic divergence among populations arises through natural selection or drift and is counteracted by connectivity and gene flow. In sympatric populations, isolating mechanisms are thus needed to limit the homogenizing effects of gene flow to allow for adaptation and speciation. Chromosomal inversions act as an important mechanism maintaining isolating barriers, yet their role in sympatric populations and divergence with gene flow is not entirely understood. Here, we revisit the question whether inversions play a role...

Data from: Harvesting changes mating behavior in European lobster

Tonje K. Sørdalen, Kim T. Halvorsen, Hugo B. Harrison, Charlie D. Ellis, Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad, Halvor Knutsen, Even Moland & Esben M. Olsen
Removing individuals from a wild population can affect the availability of prospective mates and the outcome of competitive interactions, with subsequent effects on mating patterns and sexual selection. Consequently, the rate of harvest-induced evolution is predicted to be strongly dependent on the strength and dynamics of sexual selection yet, there is limited empirical knowledge on the interplay between selective harvesting and the mating systems of exploited species. In this study, we used genetic parentage assignment...

Data from: Positive correlations between pre- and post-copulatory sexual traits in warblers

K. Supriya, Trevor D. Price & Melissah Rowe
Theoretical models predict that investment in pre-copulatory and post-copulatory sexually selected traits should trade-off. At the macroevolutionary scale, the majority of studies to date have focused on male weaponry as the target of pre-copulatory sexual selection, but the trade-off should equally apply to traits used to attract females, such as bird song and plumage. We studied the Old World leaf warblers (Phylloscopidae), a group of socially monogamous songbirds that experience relatively high levels of sperm...

Data from: Fine-scale population differences in Atlantic cod reproductive success: a potential mechanism for ecological speciation in a marine fish

Nancy E. Roney, Rebekah A. Oomen, Halvor Knutsen, Esben M. Olsen & Jeffrey A. Hutchings
Successful resource-management and conservation outcomes ideally depend on matching the spatial scales of population demography, local adaptation, and threat mitigation. For marine fish with high dispersal capabilities, this remains a fundamental challenge. Based on daily parentage assignments of more than 4000 offspring, we document fine-scaled temporal differences in individual reproductive success for two spatially adjacent (<10km) populations of a broadcast-spawning marine fish. Distinguished by differences in genetics and life history, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from...

Data from: Advancing restoration ecology: a new approach to predict time to recovery

Knut Rydgren, Rune Halvorsen, Joachim P. Töpper, Inger Auestad, Liv Norunn Hamre, Eelke Jongejans & Jan Sulavik
1. Species composition is a vital attribute of any ecosystem. Accordingly, ecological restoration often has the original, or ‘natural’, species composition as its target. However, we still lack adequate methods for predicting the expected time to compositional recovery in restoration studies. 2. We describe and explore a new, ordination regression-based approach (ORBA) for predicting time to recovery that allows both linear and asymptotic (logarithmic) relationships of compositional change with time. The approach uses distances between...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Oslo
  • University of Gothenburg
  • University of Agder
  • University of Washington
  • University of Copenhagen
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
  • Duke University
  • University of Cambridge
  • Charles University
  • University of Basel