49 Works

Data from: Landscape variation in tree regeneration and snag fall drive fuel loads in 25-yr old post-fire lodgepole pine forests

Kellen N. Nelson, Monica G. Turner, William H. Romme & Daniel B. Tinker
Escalating wildfire in subalpine forests with stand-replacing fire regimes is increasing the extent of early-seral forests throughout the western US. Post-fire succession generates the fuel for future fires, but little is known about fuel loads and their variability in young post-fire stands. We sampled fuel profiles in 24-year-old post-fire lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) stands (n=82) that regenerated from the 1988 Yellowstone Fires to answer three questions. (1) How do canopy and surface fuel...

Data from: Nematode-bacteria nutualism: selection within the mutualism supersedes selection outside of the mutualism

Levi T. Morran, McKenna J. Penley, Victoria S. Byrd, Andrew J. Meyer, Timothy S. O'Sullivan, Farrah Bashey-Visser, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, Curtis M. Lively & Farrah Bashey
The coevolution of interacting species can lead to codependent mutualists. Little is known about the effect of selection on partners within verses apart from the association. Here, we determined the effect of selection on bacteria (Xenorhabdus nematophila) both within and apart from its mutualistic partner (a nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae). In nature, the two species cooperatively infect and kill arthropods. We passaged the bacteria either together with (M+), or isolated from (M−), nematodes under two different...

Data from: Phytochemical traits underlie genotypic variation in susceptibility of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) to browsing by a keystone forest ungulate

Liza Holeski, Sean McKenzie, Eric Kruger, John J. Couture, Kennedy Rubert-Nason, Richard L. Lindroth, Liza M. Holeski, Sean C. McKenzie & Eric L. Kruger
1.Overbrowsing by ungulates is a major cause of poor aspen stand regeneration across North America and Eurasia. In general, factors driving ungulate browser preferences include concentrations of plant secondary compounds and the nutritional composition (non-structural carbohydrates, protein, and minerals) of foliage. While each of these phytochemical factors has been shown to independently influence ungulate preference, the relative impact of each factor is unknown, as no study to date has examined them simultaneously. 2.Plant fitness depends...

Data from: Whole genome duplication in coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and its implications for explaining the rarity of polyploidy in conifers

Alison Dawn Scott, Noah W. M. Stenz, Pär K. Ingvarsson & David A. Baum
Polyploidy is common and an important evolutionary factor in most land plant lineages, but it is rare in gymnosperms. Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is one of just two polyploid conifer species and the only hexaploid. Evidence from fossil guard cell size suggests that polyploidy in Sequoia dates to the Eocene. Numerous hypotheses about the mechanism of polyploidy and parental genome donors have been proposed, based primarily on morphological and cytological data, but it remains unclear...

Data from: A gene for genetic background in Zea mays: fine-mapping enhancer of teosinte branched1.2 to a YABBY class transcription factor

Chin Jian Yang, Lisa E. Kursel, Anthony J. Studer, Madelaine E. Bartlett, Clinton J. Whipple & John F. Doebley
The effects of an allelic substitution at a gene often depend critically on genetic background, i.e., the genotypes at other genes in the genome. During the domestication of maize from its wild ancestor (teosinte), an allelic substitution at teosinte branched (tb1) caused changes in both plant and ear architecture. The effects of tb1 on phenotype were shown to depend on multiple background loci, including one called enhancer of tb1.2 (etb1.2). We mapped etb1.2 to a...

Data from: Habitat, predators, and hosts regulate disease in Daphnia through direct and indirect pathways

Alexander T. Strauss, Marta S. Shocket, David J. Civitello, Jessica L. Hite, Rachel M. Penczykowski, Meghan A. Duffy, Carla E. Cáceres & Spencer R. Hall
Community ecology can link habitat to disease via interactions among habitat, focal hosts, other hosts, their parasites, and predators. However, complicated food web interactions (i.e., trophic interactions among predators, and their impacts on host density and diversity) often obscure the important pathways regulating disease. Here, we disentangle community drivers in a case study of planktonic disease, using a two-step approach. In step one, we tested univariate field patterns linking community interactions to two disease metrics....

Data from: Blood does not buy goodwill: allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore

Guillaume Chapron & Adrian Treves
Quantifying environmental crime and the effectiveness of policy interventions is difficult because perpetrators typically conceal evidence. To prevent illegal uses of natural resources, such as poaching endangered species, governments have advocated granting policy flexibility to local authorities by liberalizing culling or hunting of large carnivores. We present the first quantitative evaluation of the hypothesis that liberalizing culling will reduce poaching and improve population status of an endangered carnivore. We show that allowing wolf (Canis lupus)...

Data from: Ontogenetic responses of four plant species to additive and interactive effects of land-use history, canopy structure and herbivory

Philip G. Hahn & John L. Orrock
The strength of interactions among species is often highly variable in space and time, and a major challenge in understanding context-dependent effects of herbivores lies in disentangling habitat-mediated from herbivore-mediated effects on plant performance. We conducted a landscape-scale experiment that manipulated light availability in woodlands with either a history of agricultural use or no history of agricultural use and coupled this with performance measurements of three life stages on four perennial herbaceous species exposed to...

Data from: Statistical evidence for common ancestry: application to primates

David A. Baum, Cécile Ané, Bret Larget, Claudia Solís-Lemus, Lam Si Tung Ho, Peggy Boone, Chloe Drummond, Martin Bontrager, Steven Hunter, Bill Saucier, Chloe P. Drummond, Steven J. Hunter & William Saucier
Since Darwin, biologists have come to recognize that the theory of descent from common ancestry is very well supported by diverse lines of evidence. However, while the qualitative evidence is overwhelming, we also need formal methods for quantifying the evidential support for common ancestry (CA) over the alternative hypothesis of separate ancestry (SA). In this paper we explore a diversity of statistical methods, using data from the primates. We focus on two alternatives to CA,...

Data from: Spatial variability in tree regeneration after wildfire delays and dampens future bark beetle outbreaks

Rupert Seidl, Daniel C. Donato, Kenneth F. Raffa & Monica G. Turner
Climate change is altering the frequency and severity of forest disturbances such as wildfires and bark beetle outbreaks, thereby increasing the potential for sequential disturbances to interact. Interactions can amplify or dampen disturbances, yet the direction and magnitude of future disturbance interactions are difficult to anticipate because underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We tested how variability in postfire forest development affects future susceptibility to bark beetle outbreaks, focusing on mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and...

Data from: Experimental evidence does not support the Habitat Amount Hypothesis

Nick M. Haddad, Andrew Gonzalez, Lars A. Brudvig, Melissa A. Burt, Douglas J. Levey & Ellen I. Damschen
For a half century, habitat configuration – the arrangement of habitat patches within a landscape – has been central to theories of landscape ecology, population dynamics, and community assembly, in addition to conservation strategies. A recent hypothesis advanced by Fahrig (2013) would, if supported, greatly diminish the relevance of habitat configuration as a predictor of diversity. The Habitat Amount Hypothesis posits that the sample area effect overrides patch size and patch isolation effects of habitat...

Data from: Beyond animals and plants: dynamic maternal effects in the fungus Neurospora crassa

Kolea C. K. Zimmerman, Daniel A. Levitis & Anne Pringle
Maternal effects are widely documented in animals and plants, but not in fungi or other eukaryotes. A principal cause of maternal effects is asymmetrical parental investment in a zygote, creating greater maternal versus paternal influence on offspring phenotypes. Asymmetrical investments are not limited to animals and plants, but are also prevalent in fungi and groups including apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, and red algae. Evidence suggesting maternal effects among fungi is sparse and anecdotal. In an experiment designed...

Data from: Linking genetic kinship and demographic analyses to characterize dispersal: methods and application to Blanding’s turtle

Brendan N. Reid, Richard P. Thiel, Per J. Palsbøll & Marcus Z. Peery
Characterizing how frequently, and at what life stages and spatial scales, dispersal occurs can be difficult, especially for species with cryptic juvenile periods and long reproductive life spans. Using a combination of mark–recapture information, microsatellite genetic data, and demographic simulations, we characterize natal and breeding dispersal patterns in the long-lived, slow-maturing, and endangered Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii), focusing on nesting females. We captured and genotyped 310 individual Blanding’s turtles (including 220 nesting females) in a...

Data from: Twenty-four years after the Yellowstone fires: are postfire lodgepole pine stands converging in structure and function?

Monica G. Turner, Timothy G. Whitby, Daniel B. Tinker & William H. Romme
Disturbance and succession have long been of interest in ecology, but how landscape patterns of ecosystem structure and function evolve following large disturbances is poorly understood. After nearly 25 years, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests that regenerated after the 1988 Yellowstone Fires (Wyoming, USA) offer a prime opportunity to track the fate of disturbance-created heterogeneity in stand structure and function in a wilderness setting. In 2012, we resampled 72 permanent plots to ask...

Data from: Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests

Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, T. Mitchell Aide, Angélica M. Almeyda Zambrano, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Vanessa Boukili, Pedro H. S. Brancalion, Eben N. Broadbent, Robin L. Chazdon, Dylan Craven, Jarcilene S. De Almeida-Cortez, George A. L. Cabral, Ben H. J. De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan M. Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mario M. Espírito-Santo, María C. Fandino, Ricardo G. César, Jefferson S. Hall, José Luis Hernandez-Stefanoni, Catarina C. Jakovac … & Danaë M. A. Rozendaal
Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle1. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use2, 3, 4. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major...

Data from: Using a full annual cycle model to evaluate long-term population viability of the conservation-reliant Kirtland’s warbler after successful recovery

Donald J. Brown, Christine A. Ribic, Deahn M. Donner, Mark D. Nelson, Carol I. Bocetti, Christie M. Deloria-Sheffeld & Christie M. Deloria-Sheffield
Long-term management planning for conservation-reliant migratory songbirds is particularly challenging because habitat quality in different stages and geographic locations of the annual cycle can have direct and carry-over effects that influence the population dynamics. The Neotropical migratory songbird Kirtland's warbler Setophaga kirtlandii (Baird 1852) is listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and Near Threatened under the IUCN Red List. This conservation-reliant species is being considered for U.S. federal delisting because the species...

Data from: Forest fragmentation alters winter microclimates and microrefugia in human-modified landscapes

Christopher E. Latimer & Benjamin Zuckerberg
With over half of earth’s terrestrial biota living beneath forest canopies, our ability to accurately capture organism-climate relationships in forested ecosystems is imperative for predicting species’ vulnerability to future climate change. Assessing the vulnerability of forest dependent species, however, hinges on quantifying microclimates that exist below the forest canopy and might be influenced by varying levels of disturbance in human-modified landscapes. The goal of our study was to examine the multi-scaled predictors of subcanopy microclimate...

Data from: Nitrogen fertilization effects on productivity and nitrogen loss in three grass-based perennial bioenergy cropping systems

Brianna Duran, David Duncan, Lawrence Oates, Christopher J. Kucharik, Randall D. Jackson, Brianna E. L. Duran, David S. Duncan & Lawrence G. Oates
Nitrogen (N) fertilization can greatly improve plant productivity but needs to be carefully managed to avoid harmful environmental impacts. Nutrient management guidelines aimed at reducing harmful forms of N loss such as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3-) leaching have been tailored for many cropping systems. The developing bioenergy industry is likely to make use of novel cropping systems, such as polycultures of perennial species, for which we have limited nutrient management experience. We...

Data from: Specificity in the symbiotic association between fungus-growing ants and protective Pseudonocardia bacteria

Matías J. Cafaro, Michael Poulsen, Ainslie E. F. Little, Shauna L. Price, Nicole M. Gerardo, Bess Wong, Alison E. Stuart, Bret Larget, Patrick Abbot & Cameron R. Currie
Fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini) engage in a mutualism with a fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source, but successful fungus cultivation is threatened by microfungal parasites (genus Escovopsis). Actinobacteria (genus Pseudonocardia) associate with most of the phylogenetic diversity of fungus-growing ants; are typically maintained on the cuticle of workers; and infection experiments, bioassay challenges and chemical analyses support a role of Pseudonocardia in defence against Escovopsis through antibiotic production. Here we generate a...

Data from: High specificity in circulating tumor cell identification is required for accurate evaluation of programmed death-ligand 1

Jennifer L. Schehr, Zachery D. Schultz, Jay W. Warrick, David J. Guckenberger, Hannah M. Pezzi, Jamie M. Sperger, Erika Heninger, Anwaar Saeed, Ticiana Leal, Kara Mattox, Anne M. Traynor, Toby C. Campbell, Scott M. Berry, David J. Beebe & Joshua M. Lang
Background: Expression of programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is typically evaluated through invasive biopsies; however, recent advances in the identification of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may be a less invasive method to assay tumor cells for these purposes. These liquid biopsies rely on accurate identification of CTCs from the diverse populations in the blood, where some tumor cells share characteristics with normal blood cells. While many blood cells can be...

Data from: Assessing faculty professional development in STEM higher education: sustainability of outcomes

Terry L. Derting, Heather A. Passmore, Timothy P. Henkel, Bryan Arnold, Jessica Middlemis Maher & Diane Ebert-May
We tested the effectiveness of Faculty Institutes for Reforming Science Teaching IV (FIRST), a professional development program for postdoctoral scholars, by conducting a study of program alumni. Faculty professional development programs are critical components of efforts to improve teaching and learning in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) disciplines, but reliable evidence of the sustained impacts of these programs is lacking. We used a paired design in which we matched a FIRST alumnus employed...

Data from: Climate change surpasses land use change in the contracting range boundary of a winter-adapted mammal

Sean M. Sultaire, Jonathan N. Pauli, Karl J. Martin, Michael W. Meyer, Michael Notaro & Benjamin Zuckerberg
The effects of climate change on biodiversity has emerged as a dominant theme in conservation biology, possibly eclipsing concern over habitat loss in recent years. The extent to which this shifting focus has tracked the most eminent threats to biodiversity is not well documented. We investigated the mechanisms driving shifts in the southern range boundary of a forest and snow cover specialist, the snowshoe hare, to explore how its range boundary has responded to shifting...

Data from: Akt-mTORC1 signaling regulates Acly to integrate metabolic input to control of macrophage activation

Anthony J. Covarrubias, Halil Ibrahim Aksoylar, Jiujiu Yu, Nathaniel W. Snyder, Andrew J. Worth, Shankar S. Iyer, Jiawei Wang, Issam Ben-Sahra, Vanessa Byles, Tiffany Polynne-Stapornkul, Erika C. Espinosa, Dudley Lamming, Brendan D. Manning, Yijing Zhang, Ian A. Blair & Tiffany Horng
Macrophage activation/polarization to distinct functional states is critically supported by metabolic shifts. How polarizing signals coordinate metabolic and functional reprogramming, and the potential implications for control of macrophage activation, remains poorly understood. Here we show that IL-4 signaling co-opts the Akt-mTORC1 pathway to regulate Acly, a key enzyme in Ac-CoA synthesis, leading to increased histone acetylation and M2 gene induction. Only a subset of M2 genes is controlled in this way, including those regulating cellular...

Data from: The pace of plant community change is accelerating in remnant prairies

Amy O. Alstad, Ellen I. Damschen, Thomas J. Givnish, John A. Harrington, Mark L. Leach, David A. Rogers & Donald M. Waller
Patterns of biodiversity are changing rapidly. “Legacy studies” use historical data to document changes between past and present communities, revealing long-term trends that can often be linked to particular drivers of ecological change. However, a single pair of historical samples cannot ascertain whether rates of change are consistent or whether the impact and identity of drivers have shifted. Using data from a second resurvey of 47 Wisconsin prairie remnants, we show that the pace of...

Data from: Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species

Anne M. Bronikowski, Marina Cords, Susan C. Alberts, Jeanne Altmann, Diane K. Brockman, Linda M. Fedigan, Anne Pusey, Tara Stoinski, Karen B. Strier & William F. Morris
We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    49

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    49

Affiliations

  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
    49
  • University of Wyoming
    3
  • University of California, Merced
    2
  • Columbia University
    2
  • Duke University
    2
  • University of Groningen
    2
  • University of North Carolina
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • McGill University
    2
  • Indiana University Bloomington
    2