41 Works

Data from: Evolutionary responses to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill by the copepod Eurytemora affinis

Carol Eunmi Lee, Jane Louise Remfert, Taylor Opgenorth, Kristin M. Lee, Elizabeth Stanford, Joseph William Connolly, Jinwoo Kim & Sarah Tomke
The BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Disaster was the most catastrophic offshore oil spill in U.S. history, yet we still have a poor understanding of how organisms could evolve in response to the toxic effects of crude oil. This study offers a rare analysis of how fitness-related traits could evolve rapidly in response to crude oil toxicity. We examined evolutionary responses of populations of the common copepod Eurytemora affinis residing in the Gulf of Mexico, by...

Data from: Altitudinal migration and the future of an iconic Hawaiian honeycreeper in response to climate change and management

Alban Guillaumet, Wendy A. Kuntz, Michael D. Samuel & Eben H. Paxton
Altitudinal movement by tropical birds to track seasonally variable resources can move them from protected areas to areas of increased vulnerability. In Hawaiʻi, historical reports suggest that many Hawaiian honeycreepers such as the ‘I'iwi (Drepanis coccinea) once undertook seasonal migrations, but the existence of such movements today is unclear. Because Hawaiian honeycreepers are highly susceptible to avian malaria, currently minimal in high-elevation forests, understanding the degree to which honeycreepers visit lower elevation forests may be...

Data from: Combined effects of night warming and light pollution on predator-prey interactions

Colleen R. Miller, Brandon T. Barton, Likai Zhu, Volker C. Radeloff, Kerry M. Oliver, Jason P. Harmon & Anthony R. Ives
Interactions between multiple anthropogenic environmental changes can drive non-additive effects in ecological systems, and the non-additive effects can in turn be amplified or dampened by spatial covariation among environmental changes. We investigated the combined effects of night-time warming and light pollution on pea aphids and two predatory ladybeetle species. As expected, neither night-time warming nor light pollution changed the suppression of aphids by the ladybeetle species that forages effectively in darkness. However, for the more-visual...

Data from: Using expert knowledge to incorporate uncertainty in cause-of-death assignments for modeling of cause-specific mortality

Daniel P. Walsh, Andrew S. Norton, Daniel J. Storm, Timothy R. Van Deelen & Dennis M. Heisey
Implicit and explicit use of expert knowledge to inform ecological analyses is becoming increasingly common because it often represents the sole source of information in many circumstances. Thus, there is a need to develop statistical methods that explicitly incorporate expert knowledge, and can successfully leverage this information while properly accounting for associated uncertainty during analysis. Studies of cause-specific mortality provide an example of implicit use of expert knowledge when causes-of-death are uncertain and assigned based...

Data from: Deer-mediated changes in environment compound the direct impacts of herbivory on understory plant communities

Autumn E. Sabo, Katie L. Frerker, Donald M. Waller & Eric L. Kruger
1. In forests of eastern North America, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can directly affect, via herbivory, the presence, abundance, and reproductive success of many plant species. In addition, deer indirectly influence understory communities by altering environmental conditions. 2. To examine how deer indirectly influence understory plants via environmental modification, we sampled vegetation and environmental variables in- and outside deer exclosures (10-20 years old) located in temperate forests in northern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of...

Data from: A continuous morphological approach to study the evolution of pollen in a phylogenetic context: an example with the order Myrtales

Ricardo Kriebel, Mohammad Khabbazian & Kenneth J. Sytsma
The study of pollen morphology has historically allowed evolutionary biologists to assess phylogenetic relationships among Angiosperms, as well as to better understand the fossil record. During this process, pollen has mainly been studied by discretizing some of its main characteristics such as size, shape, and exine ornamentation. One large plant clade in which pollen has been used this way for phylogenetic inference and character mapping is the order Myrtales, composed by the small families Alzateaceae,...

Evaluating the Impact of a Mandatory Pre-Abortion Ultrasound Viewing Law: A Mixed Methods Study

Ushma Upadhyay, Katrina Kimport, Elise Belusa, Nicole Johns, Douglas Laube & Sarah Roberts
BackgroundSince mid-2013, Wisconsin abortion providers have been legally required to display and describe pre-abortion ultrasound images. We aimed to understand the impact of this law.MethodsWe used a mixed-methods study design at an abortion facility in Wisconsin. We abstracted data from medical charts one year before the law to one year after and used multivariable models, mediation/moderation analysis, and interrupted time series to assess the impact of the law, viewing, and decision certainty on likelihood of...

Data from: Managing individual nests promotes population recovery of a top predator

Jennyffer Cruz, Steve K. Windels, Wayne E. Thogmartin, Shawn M. Crimmins, Leeland H. Grim & Benjamin Zuckerberg
Threatened species are managed using diverse conservation tactics implemented at multiple scales ranging from protecting individuals, to populations, to entire species. Individual protection strives to promote recovery at the population- or species-level, although this is seldom evaluated. After decades of widespread declines, bald eagles, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, are recovering throughout their range due to legal protection and pesticide bans. However, like other raptors, their recovery remains threatened by human activities. Bald eagle nests are commonly managed...

Data from: Unifying concepts of biological function from molecules to ecosystems

Keith D. Farnsworth, Larissa Albantakis & Tancredi Caruso
The concept of function arises at all levels of biological study and is often loosely and variously defined, especially within ecology. This has led to ambiguity, obscuring the common structure that unites levels of biological organisation, from mol- ecules to ecosystems. Here we build on already successful ideas from molecular biology and complexity theory to create a precise definition of biological function which spans levels of biological organisation and can be quantified in the unifying...

Data from: Investment in territorial defence relates to recent reproductive success in common loons Gavia immer

Jeremy A. Spool, Lauren V. Riters & Walter H. Piper
As the value of a limited resource such as a territory increases, animals should invest more in the defence of that resource. Because reproductive success often depends on the quality of a breeding territory, reproductive success or failure may alter the perceived value of territory and affect an animal's investment in territorial defence. We used common loons (Gavia immer) to test the hypothesis that animals with recent breeding success would show stronger territorial defence than...

Data from: Causes of ecological gradients in leaf margin entirety: Evaluating the roles of biomechanics, hydraulics, vein geometry, and bud packing

Thomas J. Givnish & Ricardo Kriebel
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: A recent commentary by Edwards et al. (Am. J. Bot. 103: 975–978) proposed that constraints imposed by the packing of young leaves in buds could explain the positive association between non-entire leaf margins and latitude but did not thoroughly consider alternative explanations. METHODS: We review the logic and evidence underlying six major hypotheses for the functional significance of marginal teeth, involving putative effects on (1) leaf cooling, (2) optimal support and...

Data from: Energy conserving thermoregulatory patterns and lower disease severity in a bat resistant to the impacts of white-nose syndrome

Marianne S. Moore, Kenneth A. Field, Melissa J. Behr, Gregory G. Turner, Morgan E. Furze, Daniel W. F. Stern, Paul R. Allegra, Sarah A. Bouboulis, Chelsey D. Musante, Megan E. Vodzak, Matthew E. Biron, Melissa B. Meierhofer, Winifred F. Frick, Jeffrey T. Foster, Daryl Howell, Joseph A. Kath, Allen Kurta, Gerda Nordquist, Joseph S. Johnson, Thomas M. Lilley, Benjamin W. Barrett & DeeAnn M. Reeder
The devastating bat fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), does not appear to affect all species equally. To experimentally determine susceptibility differences between species, we exposed hibernating naïve little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to the fungus that causes WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). After hibernating under identical conditions, Pd lesions were significantly more prevalent and more severe in little brown myotis. This species difference in pathology correlates with susceptibility to WNS...

Data from: Comparing herbaceous plant communities in active and passive riparian restoration

Elise S. Gornish, Michael S. Lennox, David Lewis, Kenneth W. Tate & Randall D. Jackson
Understanding the efficacy of passive (reduction or cessation of environmental stress) and active (typically involving planting or seeding) restoration strategies is important for the design of successful revegetation of degraded riparian habitat, but studies explicitly comparing restoration outcomes are uncommon. We sampled the understory herbaceous plant community of 103 riparian sites varying in age since restoration (0 to 39 years) and revegetation technique (active, passive, or none) to compare the utility of different approaches on...

Data from: Genome-wide association analysis in dogs implicates 99 loci as risk variants for anterior cruciate ligament rupture

Lauren A. Baker, Brian Kirkpatrick, Guilherme J.M. Rosa, Daniel Gianola, Bruno Valente, Julia P. Sumner, Wendy Baltzer, Zhengling Hao, Emily E. Binversie, Nicola Volstad, Alexander Piazza, Susannah J. Sample, Peter Muir & Guilherme J. M. Rosa
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is common condition that can be devastating and life changing, particularly in young adults. A non-contact mechanism is typical. Second ACL ruptures through rupture of the contralateral ACL or rupture of a graft repair is also common. Risk of rupture is increased in females. ACL rupture is also common in dogs. Disease prevalence exceeds 5% in several dog breeds, ~100 fold higher than human beings. We provide insight into the...

Data from: Vegetation cover in relation to socioeconomic factors in a tropical city assessed from sub-meter resolution imagery

Sebastián Martinuzzi, Olga M. Ramos-González, Tischa A. Muñoz-Erickson, Dexter H. Locke, Ariel E. Lugo & Volker C. Radeloff
Fine-scale information about urban vegetation and social-ecological relationships is crucial to inform both urban planning and ecological research, and high spatial resolution imagery is a valuable tool for assessing urban areas. However, urban ecology and remote sensing have largely focused on cities in temperate zones. Our goal was to characterize urban vegetation cover with sub-meter resolution aerial imagery, and identify social-ecological relationships of urban vegetation patterns in a tropical city, the San Juan Metropolitan Area,...

Data from: Increased duration of aquatic resource pulse alters community and ecosystem responses in a subarctic plant community

Claudio Gratton, David Hoekman, Jamin Dreyer & Randall D. Jackson
Allochthonous resource movement across ecosystem boundaries creates episodic linkages between ecosystems. The sensitivity of the community to external resources of varying duration can alter the baseline upon which future pulses of allochthony can act. We explored the terrestrial ecosystem response to pulsed inputs of lake-derived resources with a manipulative experiment in a subarctic heathland where we assessed plant community and nutrient availability responses to additions of midge carcasses (Diptera: Chironomidae). Insect carcasses were added as...

Data from: Biogeographical evidence for common vicariance and rare dispersal in a southern Appalachian harvestman (Sabaconidae, Sabacon cavicolens)

Marshal Hedin & Maureen McCormack
Aim: Species or higher taxa that are obviously dispersal-limited, but which occupy large geographical distributions, represent a biogeographical paradox. Dispersal must have happened, likely under special and infrequent environmental conditions, but details have been lost to history. The overarching goal of our research is to understand the details of a ‘common vicariance, rare dispersal’ biogeographical history in a widespread but habitat-specialized harvestman species (Sabacon cavicolens) with a southern Appalachian centre of distribution. Location: Eastern North...

Data from: Range expansion and increasing Borrelia burgdorferi infection of the tick Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Iowa, 1990-2013

Jonathan D. Oliver, Steve W. Bennett, Lorenza Beati & Lyric C. Bartholomay
A passive surveillance program monitored ticks submitted by the public in Iowa from 1990–2013. Submitted ticks were identified to species and life stage, and Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs and adults were tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi. An average of 2.6 of Iowa’s 99 counties submitted first reports of I. scapularis per year over the surveillance period, indicating expansion of this tick species across the state. The proportion of vector ticks infected by B....

Data from: Gut microbiota regulate motor deficits and neuroinflammation in a model of Parkinson’s disease

Timothy R. Sampson, Justine W. Debelius, Taren Thron, Stefan Janssen, Gauri G. Shastri, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Collin Challis, Catherine E. Schretter, Sandra Rocha, Viviana Gradinaru, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Ali Keshavarzian, Kathleen M. Shannon, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Rob Knight & Sarkis K. Mazmanian
The intestinal microbiota influence neurodevelopment, modulate behavior, and contribute to neurological disorders. However, a functional link between gut bacteria and neurodegenerative diseases remains unexplored. Synucleinopathies are characterized by aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (αSyn), often resulting in motor dysfunction as exemplified by Parkinson’s disease (PD). Using mice that overexpress αSyn, we report herein that gut microbiota are required for motor deficits, microglia activation, and αSyn pathology. Antibiotic treatment ameliorates, while microbial re-colonization promotes, pathophysiology in...

Data from: Spinosity, regeneration, and targeting among Paleozoic crinoids and their predators

Valerie J.P. Syverson, Carlton E. Brett, Forest J. Gahn & Tomasz K. Baumiller
Evolving interactions between predators and prey constitute one of the major adaptive influences on marine animals during the Paleozoic. Crinoids and fish constitute a predator-prey system that may date back to at least the Silurian, as suggested by patterns of crinoid regeneration and spinosity in concert with changes in the predatory fauna. Here we present data on the frequency of breakage and regeneration in the spines of the Middle Devonian camerate Gennaeocrinus and Late Paleozoic...

Data from: The influence of wind selectivity on migratory behavioral strategies

Jennifer D. McCabe, Brian J. Olsen, Bipush Osti & Peter O. Koons
Air and water currents affect the timing and energy expenditure of many migratory animals, and therefore selection of favorable currents is important for optimal migratory performance. However, waiting for favorable currents also incurs costs. Here we conduct an optimality analysis to determine how wind selectivity affects three migratory currencies: time, energy, and risk. To describe variation in these metrics under varying degrees of selectivity, we constructed an individual-based model to simulate fall migration of passerines...

Data from: Genetic drivers of pancreatic islet function

Mark P. Keller, Daniel M. Gatti, Kathryn L. Schueler, Mary E. Rabaglia, Donnie S. Stapleton, Peter Simecek, Matthew Vincent, Sadie Allen, Aimee Teo Broman, Rhonda Bacher, Christina Kendziorski, Karl W. Broman, Brian S. Yandell, Gary A. Churchill, Alan D. Attie & Petr Simecek
Nearly all gene loci that have been associated with type 2 diabetes play a role in pancreatic islet function. To evaluate the role of islet gene expression in the etiology of diabetes, we sensitized a genetically diverse mouse population with a Western diet and carried out genome-wide association mapping of diabetes-related phenotypes. We quantified mRNA abundance in the islets, and identified 18,775 expression quantitative trait loci. We applied mediation analysis to identify candidate causal driver...

Data from: Extensive genetic diversity is present within North American switchgrass germplasm

Joseph Evans, Millicent D. Sanciangco, Kin H. Lau, Emily Crisovan, Kerrie Barry, Chris Daum, Hope Hundley, Jerry Jenkins, Megan Kennedy, Govindarajan Kunde-Ramamoorthy, Brieanne Vaillancourt, Ananta Acharya, Jeremy Schmutz, Malay Saha, Shawn M. Kaeppler, E. Charles Brummer, Michael D. Casler & C. Robin Buell
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial native North American grass present in two ecotypes: upland, found primarily in the northern range of switchgrass habitats, and lowland, found largely in the southern reaches of switchgrass habitats. Previous studies focused on a diversity panel of primarily northern switchgrass, so to expand our knowledge of genetic diversity in a broader set of North American switchgrass, exome capture sequence data were generated for 632 additional, primarily lowland individuals....

Data from: Early- and late-flowering guilds respond differently to landscape spatial structure

Jesse E.D. Miller, Anthony R. Ives, Susan P. Harrison, Ellen I. Damschen & Jesse E. D. Miller
1. Species with unique phenologies have distinct trait syndromes and environmental affinities, yet there has been little exploration of whether community assembly processes differ for plants with different phenologies. In this study, we ask whether early- and late-blooming species differ in the ways that dispersal, persistence, and resource-acquisition traits shape plant occurrence patterns in patchy habitats. 2. We sampled plant communities in 51 Ozark dolomite glade grasslands, which range in size from <1 ha to...

Data from: Emergence of long-term balanced polymorphism under cyclic selection of spatially variable magnitude

Davorka Gulisija & Yuseob Kim
A fundamental question in evolutionary biology is what promotes genetic variation at non-neutral loci, a major precursor to adaptation in changing environments. In particular, balanced polymorphism under realistic evolutionary models of temporally varying environments in finite natural populations remains to be demonstrated. Here, we propose a novel mechanism of balancing selection under temporally varying fitnesses. Using forward-in-time computer simulations and mathematical analysis, we show that cyclic selection that spatially varies in magnitude, such as along...

Registration Year

  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • North Carolina State University
  • University of Georgia
  • University of California, Davis
  • Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • United States Geological Survey
  • Arizona State University
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • Bucknell University