55 Works

Data from: Current and historical land use influence soil-based ecosystem services in an urban landscape

Carly Ziter & Monica G. Turner
Urban landscapes are increasingly recognized as providing important ecosystem services (ES) to their occupants. Yet, urban ES assessments often ignore the complex spatial heterogeneity and land-use history of cities. Soil-based services may be particularly susceptible to land-use legacy effects. We studied indicators of three soil-based ES – carbon storage, water quality regulation, and runoff regulation – in a historically agricultural urban landscape and asked: (1) How do ES indicators vary with contemporary land cover and...

Data from: Congruence versus phylogenetic accuracy: revisiting the incongruence length difference test

Andrew L. Hipp, Jocelyn C. Hall & Kenneth J. Sytsma
Phylogenies inferred from independent data partitions usually differ from one another in topology despite the fact that they are drawn from the same set of organisms (Rodrigo et al., 1993). Some topological differences are due to sampling error or to the use of inappropriate phylogenetic models. These types of topological incongruence do not have their origin in genealogical discordance, i.e., differences between phylogenies underlying the respective data partitions (Baum et al., 1998). Incongruence that is...

Data from: Directional selection reduces developmental canalization against genetic and environmental perturbations in Drosophila wings

Benjamin R. Groth, Yuheng Huang, Matthew J. Monette & John E. Pool
Natural selection may enhance or weaken the robustness of phenotypes against genetic or environmental perturbations. However, important aspects of the relationship between adaptive evolution and canalization remain unclear. Recent work showed that the evolution of larger wing size in a high altitude natural population of Drosophila melanogaster was accompanied by decanalized wing development – specifically a loss of robustness to genetic perturbation. But this study did not address environmental robustness, and it compared populations that...

Data from: Delaying conservation actions matters for species vulnerable to climate change

Ilona Naujokaitis-Lewis, Lars Y. Pomara & Benjamin Zuckerberg
1. Most climate change adaptation efforts emphasize where to implement management actions, whereas timing remains largely overlooked. The rate of modern climate change introduces urgency in evaluating whether delaying conservation actions compromises their efficacy for reaching important conservation targets. 2. We evaluated the importance of multiple climate change adaptation strategies including timing of actions on preventing extinctions for a threatened climate-sensitive species, the Eastern Massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus). We parameterised a range-wide population viability analysis...

Data from: Non-invasive measurement of metabolic rates in wild, free-living birds using doubly labelled water

Amanda R. Bourne, Andrew E. McKechnie, Susan J. Cunningham, Amanda R. Ridley, Stephan M. Woodborne & William H. Karasov
1. Doubly labelled water (DLW) is routinely used to measure energy expenditure and water turnover in free-ranging animals. Standard methods involve capture, blood sampling for baseline measurement, injection with isotopic tracers, captivity for an equilibration period, post-dose blood sampling, release, and subsequent re-capture for final blood sampling. Single sampling methods that minimise disturbance by reducing capture and handling time have been developed and tested. Sampling faeces rather than blood could further reduce disturbance to study...

Data from: The spatial structure of phylogenetic and functional diversity in the United States and Canada: an example using the sedge family (Cyperaceae)

Daniel Spalink, Jocelyn Pender, Marcial Escudero, Andrew L. Hipp, Eric H. Roalson, Julian R. Starr, Marcia J. Waterway, Lynn Bohs & Kenneth J. Sytsma
Systematically quantifying diversity across landscapes is necessary to understand how clade history and ecological heterogeneity contribute to the origin, distribution, and maintenance of biodiversity. Here, we chart the spatial structure of diversity among all species in the sedge family (Cyperaceae) throughout the USA and Canada. We first identify areas of remarkable species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional trait diversity, and highlight regions of conservation priority. We then test predictions about the spatial structure of this...

Data from: Reconstructing phylogeny from reduced-representation genome sequencing data without assembly or alignment

Huan Fan, Anthony R. Ives & Yann Surget-Groba
Reduced-representation genome sequencing such as RADseq aids the analysis of genomes by reducing the quantity of data, thereby lowering both sequencing costs and computational burdens. RADseq was initially designed for studying genetic variation across genomes at the population level, but has also proved to be suitable for interspecific phylogeny reconstruction. RADseq data pose challenges for standard phylogenomic methods, however, due to incomplete coverage of the genome and large amounts of missing data. Alignment-free methods are...

Data from: Phylogenetic comparative methods on phylogenetic networks with reticulations

Paul Bastide, Claudia Solis-Lemus, Ricardo Kriebel, Kenneth William Sparks & Cécile Ané
The goal of Phylogenetic Comparative Methods (PCMs) is to study the distribution of quantitative traits among related species. The observed traits are often seen as the result of a Brownian Motion (BM) along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. Reticulation events such as hybridization, gene flow or horizontal gene transfer, can substantially affect a species' traits, but are not modeled by a tree. Phylogenetic networks have been designed to represent reticulate evolution. As they become...

Data from: Independent and interactive effects of plant genotype and environment on plant traits and insect herbivore performance: a meta-analysis with Salicaceae

Hilary L. Barker, Liza M. Holeski & Richard L. Lindroth
1. Ecological research has increasingly highlighted the importance of intraspecific variation in shaping the structure and function of communities and ecosystems. Indeed, the effects of intraspecific variation can match or exceed those of interspecific variation. Previous reviews of intraspecific variation in plant traits across heterogeneous environments have focused primarily on mean phenotypic effects. We propose that a richer and fuller understanding of the ecological causes and consequences of intraspecific variation would be provided by partitioning...

Data from: Functional traits and community composition: a comparison among community-weighted means, weighted correlations, and multilevel models

Jesse E.D. Miller, Ellen I. Damschen & Anthony R. Ives
1. Of the several approaches that are used to analyze functional trait-environment relationships, the most popular is community-weighted mean regressions (CWMr) in which species trait values are averaged at the site level and then regressed against environmental variables. Other approaches include model-based methods and weighted correlations of different metrics of trait-environment associations, the best known of which is the fourth-corner correlation method. 2. We investigated these three general statistical approaches for trait-environment associations: CWMr, five...

Data from: Leaf hydraulic parameters are more plastic in species that experience a wider range of leaf water potentials

Daniel M. Johnson, Z. Carter Berry, Kathyrn V. Baker, Duncan D. Smith, Katherine A. McCulloh, Jean-Christophe Domec & Kathryn V. Baker
1. Many plant species experience large differences in soil moisture availability within a season, potentially leading to a wide range of leaf water potentials (ΨLEAF). In order to decrease the risk of leaf dehydration, among species, there is a continuum ranging from strict control (isohydry) to little control (anisohydry) of minimum ΨLEAF. 2. In central Texas USA, species are exposed to a range of soil moisture from wet springs to hot, dry summers. There are...

Data from: Candidate variants for additive and interactive effects on bioenergy traits in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) identified by genome-wide association analyses

Guillaume P. Ramstein, Joseph Evans, Aruna Nandety, Malay C. Saha, E. Charles Brummer, Shawn M. Kaeppler, C. Robin Buell & Michael D. Casler
Switchgrass is a promising herbaceous energy crop, but further gains in biomass yield and quality must be achieved to enable a viable bioenergy industry. Developing DNA markers can contribute to such progress, but depiction of genetic bases should be reliable, involving not only simple additive marker effects but also interactions with genetic backgrounds, e.g., ecotypes, or synergies with other markers. We analyzed plant height, carbon content, nitrogen content, and mineral concentration in a diverse panel...

Data from: Ion microprobe measured stable isotope evidence for ammonite habitat and life mode during early ontogeny

Benjamin J. Linzmeier, Neil H. Landman, Shanan E. Peters, Reinhard Kozdon, Kouki Kitajima & John W. Valley
Ammonites have disparate adult morphologies indicative of diverse ecological niches, but ammonite hatchlings are small (~1 mm diameter), which raises questions about the similarity of egg incubation and hatchling life mode in ammonites. Modern Nautilus is sometimes used as a model organism for understanding ammonites, but despite their outward similarities, the groups are only distantly related. Trends in ammonite diversity and extinction vulnerability in the fossil record contrast starkly with those of nautilids, and embryonic...

Data from: The influence of topography and soil phosphorus on the vegetation of Korup Forest Reserve, Cameroun

Duncan W. Thomas, David M. Newbery, P. G. Waterman & J. S. Gartlan
All living trees (≥ 30 cm gbh) were enumerated in 135 80×80 m plots, each subdivided into four 40×40 m subplots, and arranged along four 5 km transect lines in the Korup Forest Reserve, Cameroun. For each plot altitude, slope and the extent of permanent and seasonal swamps were recorded. Four hundred and eleven taxa were recognized of which 66% were identified to species. Mean tree density was 471 ha−1, basal area 27.6 m2 ha−1...

Data from: Signatures of hybridization and speciation in genomic patterns of ancestry

John A. Hvala, Megan E. Frayer & Bret A. Payseur
Genomes sampled from hybrid zones between nascent species provide important clues into the speciation process. With advances in genome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, it is now feasible to measure variation in gene flow with high genomic resolution. This progress motivates the development of conceptual and analytical frameworks for hybrid zones that complement well-established cline approaches. We extend the perspective that genomic distributions of ancestry are sensitive indicators of hybridization history. We use...

Data from: Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in neotropical forests

Maga Gei, Danaë M. A. Rozendaal, Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, Janet I. Sprent, Mira D. Garner, T. Mitchell Aide, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Pedro H.S. Brancalion, George A. L. Cabral, Ricardo Gomes César, Robin L. Chazdon, Rebecca J. Cole, Gabriel Dalla Colletta, Ben De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan Manuel Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mário Marcos Do Espírito Santo, G. Wilson Fernandes, Yule Roberta Ferreira Nunes … & Jennifer S. Powers
The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen (N)-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest-inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area...

Data from: Associative nitrogen fixation (ANF) in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) across a nitrogen input gradient

Sarah S. Roley, David S. Duncan, Di Liang, Aaron Garoutte, Randall D. Jackson, James M. Tiedje & G. Philip Robertson
Associative N fixation (ANF), the process by which dinitrogen gas is converted to ammonia by bacteria in casual association with plants, has not been well-studied in temperate ecosystems. We examined the ANF potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a North American prairie grass whose productivity is often unresponsive to N fertilizer addition, via separate short-term 15N2 incubations of rhizosphere soils and excised roots four times during the growing season. Measurements occurred along N fertilization gradients...

Data from: The epidemiology of avian pox and interaction with avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds

Michael D. Samuel, Bethany L. Woodworth, Carter T. Atkinson, Patrick J. Hart & Dennis A. LaPointe
Despite the purported role of avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) in the decline of endemic Hawaiian birds, few studies have been conducted on the dynamics of this disease, its impact on free-living avian populations, or its interactions with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum). We conducted four longitudinal studies of 3-7 years in length and used generalized linear models to evaluate cross–sectional prevalence of active pox infection and individuals with healed deformities that had recovered from pox. Our...

Data from: The demography of a resource specialist in the tropics: Cecropia trees and the fitness of three-toed sloths

Mario F. Garces-Restrepo, M. Zachariah Peery & Jonathan N. Pauli
Resource specialists persist on a narrow range of resources. Consequently, the abundance of key resources should drive vital rates, individual fitness and population viability. While Neotropical forests feature both high levels of biodiversity and numbers of specialist species, no studies have directly evaluated how the variation of key resources affects the fitness of a tropical specialist. Here, we quantified the effect of key tree species density and forest cover on the fitness of three-toed sloths...

Data from: Patterns of genetic differentiation in Colorado potato beetle correlate with contemporary, not historic, potato land cover

Michael S. Crossley, Silvia I. Rondon & Sean D. Schoville
Changing landscape heterogeneity can influence connectivity and alter genetic variation in local populations, but there can be a lag between ecological change and evolutionary responses. Temporal lag effects might be acute in agroecosystems, where land cover has changed substantially in the last two centuries. Here, we evaluate how patterns of an insect pest's genetic differentiation are related to past and present agricultural land cover change over a 150-year period. We quantified change in the amount...

Data from: Risk factors for respiratory illness in a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

Melissa Emery Thompson, Zarin P. Machanda, Erik J. Scully, Drew K. Enigk, Emily Otali, Martin N. Muller, Tony L. Goldberg, Colin A. Chapman & Richard W. Wrangham
Respiratory disease has caused significant mortality in African great ape populations. While much effort has been given to identifying the responsible pathogens, little is known about the factors that influence disease transmission or individual susceptibility. In the Kanyawara community of wild chimpanzees, respiratory illness has been the leading cause of mortality over 30 years, contributing to 27% of deaths. Deaths were common in all age groups except juveniles. Over 22 years of health observations, respiratory...

Data from: Assessing impact of exogenous features on biotic phenomena in the presence of strong spatial dependence: a lake sturgeon case study in natural stream settings

Andrew O. Finley, Patrick S. Forsythe, James A. Crossman, Edward A. Baker & Kim T. Scribner
Modeling spatially explicit data provides a powerful approach to identify the effects of exogenous features associated with biological processes, including recruitment of stream fishes. However, the complex spatial and temporal dynamics of the stream and the species' reproductive and early life stage behaviors present challenges to drawing valid inference using traditional regression models. In these settings it is often difficult to ensure the spatial independence among model residuals---a key assumption that must be met to...

Data from: Spatial phylogenetics reveals evolutionary constraints on the assembly of a large regional flora

Daniel Spalink, Ricardo Kriebel, Pan Li, Matthew C. Pace, Bryan T. Drew, John G. Zaborsky, Jeffrey R. Rose, Chloe P. Drummond, Mary Ann Feist, William S. Alverson, Donald M. Waller, Kenneth M. Cameron, Thomas J. Givnish & Kenneth J. Sytsma
Premise of the study: We use spatial phylogenetics to analyze the assembly of the Wisconsin flora, linking processes of dispersal and niche evolution to spatial patterns in floristic and phylogenetic diversity, and testing whether phylogenetic niche conservatism can account for these patterns. Methods: We use digitized records and a new molecular phylogeny for all vascular plants in Wisconsin to estimate spatial variation in species richness and phylogenetic  and  diversity in a native flora...

Data from: Large effect quantitative trait loci for salicinoid phenolic glycosides in Populus: implications for gene discovery

Scott A. Woolbright, Brian J. Rehill, Richard L. Lindroth, Stephen P. DiFazio, Gregory D. Martinsen, Mathew S. Zinkgraf, Gerard J. Allan, Paul Keim, Thomas G. Whitham & Matthew S. Zinkgraf
Genomic studies have been used to identify genes underlying many important plant secondary metabolic pathways. However, genes for salicinoid phenolic glycosides (SPGs)—ecologically important compounds with significant commercial, cultural, and medicinal applications—remain largely undescribed. We used a linkage map derived from a full‐sib population of hybrid cottonwoods (Populus spp.) to search for quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the SPGs salicortin and HCH‐salicortin. SSR markers and primer sequences were used to anchor the map to the V3.0...

Data from: Crop rotational diversity enhances belowground communities and functions in an agroecosystem

L. K. Tiemann, A. S. Grandy, E. E. Atkinson, E. Marin-Spiotta & M. D. McDaniel
Biodiversity loss, an important consequence of agricultural intensification, can lead to reductions in agroecosystem functions and services. Increasing crop diversity through rotation may alleviate these negative consequences by restoring positive aboveground–belowground interactions. Positive impacts of aboveground biodiversity on belowground communities and processes have primarily been observed in natural systems. Here, we test for the effects of increased diversity in an agroecosystem, where plant diversity is increased over time through crop rotation. As crop diversity increased...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    55

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    55

Affiliations

  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
    55
  • Michigan State University
    10
  • Northern Arizona University
    3
  • Iowa State University
    3
  • Columbia University
    2
  • Duke University
    2
  • University of Georgia
    2
  • University of Alberta
    2
  • Texas A&M University
    2
  • McGill University
    2