70 Works

Data from: Trait plasticity and tradeoffs shape intraspecific variation in competitive response in a foundation tree species

Olivia Cope, Richard Lindroth, Andrew Helm, Ken Keefover-Ring & Eric Kruger
The ability to tolerate neighboring plants (i.e., degree of competitive response) is a key determinant of plant success in high-competition environments. Plant genotypes adjust their functional trait expression under high levels of competition, which may help explain intraspecific variation in competitive response. However, the relationships between traits and competitive response are not well understood, especially in trees. In this study, we investigated among-genotype associations between tree trait plasticity and competitive response. We manipulated competition intensity...

Characterization of Salix nigra floral insect community and activity of three native Andrena bees

Stephen DiFazio, Sandra Simon, Ken Keefover-Ring, Yong-Lak Park, Gina Wimp & Julianne Grady
Salix nigra (black willow) is a widespread tree that hosts many species of polylectic hymenopterans and oligolectic bees of the genus Andrena. The early flowering of S. nigra makes it an important nutritive resource for insects emerging from hibernation. However, since S. nigra is dioecious, not all insect visits will lead to successful pollination. Using both visual observation and pan-trapping we characterized the community of insects that visited S. nigra flowers and assessed differences among...

Assessing the effectiveness of a forest Habitat Conservation Plan for a threatened seabird, the marbled murrelet

Kristin Brunk, Sal Chinnici, Anna Pidgeon & M. Zachariah Peery
Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs) commonly facilitate habitat conservation on private land in the United States, yet the effectiveness of individual HCPs is rarely evaluated. Here, we assess the effectiveness of a high-profile HCP created by a lumber company to protect old-growth forest used for breeding by Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) on private land. We used 17 years of HCP-monitoring data to compare trends in murrelet occupancy and inland counts between private HCP areas and public...

Data from: Infection prevalence and density of a pathogenic trematode parasite decrease with stream order along a river continuum

Landon Falke & Daniel Preston
In lotic ecosystems, the River Continuum Concept (RCC) provides a framework for understanding changes in environmental factors and free-living communities, yet how parasite populations shift along river continua remains less clear. We quantified infections by a pathogenic trematode parasite (Nanophyetus salmincola) in >14,000 host snails across 130 stream reaches spanning 165 km in the Willamette River Basin in western Oregon, USA. Environmental factors – including flow volume, temperature, benthic algae, canopy cover, woody debris, and...

Performance and refinement of nitrogen fertilization tools

Curtis Ransom, Jason Clark, Gregory Bean, Christopher Bandura, Matthew Shafer, Newell Kitchen, James Camberato, Paul Carter, Richard Ferguson, Fabián Fernández, David Franzen, Carrie Laboski, David Myers, Emerson Nafziger & John Sawyer
Improving corn (Zea mays L.) N management is pertinent to economic and environmental objectives. However, there are limited comprehensive data sources to develop and test N fertilizer decision aid tools across a wide geographic range of soil and weather scenarios. Therefore, a public-industry partnership was formed to conduct standardized corn N rate response field studies throughout the U.S. Midwest. This research was conducted using a standardized protocol at 49 site-years across eight states over the...

Evidence for ecological processes driving speciation among endemic lizards of Madagascar

Laura A. Nunes, Christopher J. Raxworthy & Richard G. Pearson
Although genetic patterns produced by population isolation during speciation are well documented, the biogeographic and ecological processes that trigger speciation remain poorly understood. Alternative hypotheses for the biogeography and ecology of speciation include geographic isolation combined with niche conservation (soft allopatry), or parapatric distribution on an environmental gradient with niche divergence (ecological speciation). Here we utilize species’ distributions, environmental data and two null models (Random Translation and Rotation, RTR, and the Background Similarity Test, BST)...

Subsampling and DNA pooling can increase gains through genomic selection in switchgrass

Neal Wepking Tilhou & Michael D. Casler
Genomic selection (GS) can accelerate breeding cycles in perennial crops such as the bioenergy grass switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). The sequencing costs of GS can be reduced by pooling DNA samples in the training population (TP), only sequencing TP phenotypic outliers, or pooling candidate population (CP) samples. These strategies were simulated for two traits (spring vigor and anthesis date) in three breeding populations. Sequencing only the outlier 50% of the TP phenotype distribution resulted in...

Recovery of a cultivation grazer: A mechanism for compensatory growth of Thalassia testudinum in a Caribbean seagrass meadow grazed by green turtles

Alexandra Gulick, Robert Johnson, Clayton Pollock, Zandy Hillis-Starr, Alan Bolten & Karen Bjorndal
Recovery of green turtles (Chelonia mydas), mega-herbivores that consume seagrasses, is resulting in dramatic ecosystem-wide changes as meadows are returned to a natural grazed state. The green turtle grazing strategy, with long-term cultivation of meadows and high foraging site fidelity, is distinct from other terrestrial and aquatic mega-herbivores and may affect seagrass compensatory growth responses. Identifying mechanisms of compensatory growth responses to grazing is essential to understanding the functioning of plant systems under natural grazing...

Stresses affect inbreeding depression in complex ways: Disentangling stress-specific genetic effects from effects of initial size in plants

Tobias M. Sandner, Diethart Matthies & Donald M. Waller
The magnitude of inbreeding depression (ID) varies unpredictably among environments. ID often increases in stressful environments suggesting that these expose more deleterious alleles to selection or increase their effects. More simply, ID could increase under conditions that amplify phenotypic variation (CV²), e.g. by accentuating size hierarchies among plants. These mechanisms are difficult to distinguish when stress increases both ID and phenotypic variation. We grew in- and outbred progeny of Mimulus guttatus under six abiotic stress...

Data from: Early origin of sweet perception in the songbird radiation

Yasuka Toda, Meng-Ching Ko, Qiaoyi Liang, Eliot Miller, Alejandro Rico-Guevara, Tomoya Nakagita, Ayano Sakakibara, Kana Uemura, Timothy Sackton, Takashi Hayakawa, Simon Yung Wa Sin, Yoshiro Ishimaru, Takumi Misaka, Pablo Oteiza, James Crall, Scott Edwards, Shuichi Matsumura & Maude Baldwin
Early events in the evolutionary history of a clade can shape the sensory systems of descendant lineages. Although the avian ancestor may not have had a sweet receptor, the widespread incidence of nectar-feeding birds suggests multiple acquisitions of sugar detection. In this study, we identify a single early sensory shift of the umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) that conferred sweet-sensing abilities in songbirds, a large radiation containing nearly half of all living birds. We demonstrate...

The genome of a daddy-long-legs (Opiliones) illuminates the evolution of arachnid appendages

Guilherme Gainett, Vanessa L. González, Jesús Ballesteros, Emily V. W. Setton, Caitlin M. Baker, Leonardo Barolo Gargiulo, Carlos E. Santibáñez-López, Jonathan A. Coddington & Prashant P. Sharma
Chelicerate arthropods exhibit dynamic genome evolution, with ancient whole genome duplication (WGD) events affecting several orders. Yet, genomes remain unavailable for a number of poorly studied orders, such as Opiliones (daddy-long-legs), which has hindered comparative study. We assembled the first opilionid draft genome for the species Phalangium opilio, which bears elongate, prehensile appendages, made possible by numerous distal articles called tarsomeres. Here, we show that the genome of P. opilio exhibits a single Hox cluster...

Comparison of serological and molecular assays for Bartonella species in dogs with hemangiosarcoma

Erin Lashnits
Currently, a gold standard diagnostic test for Bartonella infection in dogs is lacking. This represents a critical limitation for the development and evaluation of new diagnostic tests, as well as for the diagnosis of, and research on, bartonellosis in dogs. This retrospective observational study aims to compare the results of commonly performed and newly-reported Bartonella spp. diagnostic tests in banked clinical specimens from 90 dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA) using composite reference standard (CRS) and random...

The effects of ENSO and the North American monsoon on mast seeding in two Rocky Mountain conifer species

Andreas Wion, Ian Pearse, Kyle Rodman, Thomas Veblen & Miranda Redmond
We aimed to disentangle the patterns of synchronous and variable cone production (i.e., masting) and its relationship to climate in two conifer species native to dry forests of western North America. We used cone abscission scars to reconstruct ca. 15 years of recent cone production in Pinus edulis and Pinus ponderosa, and used redundancy analysis to relate time series of annual cone production to climate indices describing the North American monsoon and the El Niño...

Data for: Carnivore niche partitioning in a human landscape

Mauriel Rodriguez Curras, Emiliano Donadío, Arthur Middleton & Jonathan Pauli
To minimize competitive overlap, carnivores modify one of their critical niche axes: space, time, or resources. However, we currently lack rules for how carnivore communities operate in human-dominated landscapes. We simultaneously quantified overlap in the critical niche axes of a simple carnivore community – an apex carnivore (Puma concolor), a dominant meso-carnivore (Lycalopex culpaeus), and a subordinate meso-carnivore (L. griseus) – in a human-landscape featuring pastoralists and semi-domestic carnivores (i.e., dogs Canis familiaris). We found...

Terrestrial lichen data for Saskatchewan, Canada

Jill Johnstone, Ruth Greuel, Sarah Hart, Alexandre Truchon-Savard & Philip McLoughlin
Increased fire activity due to climate change may impact the successional dynamics of boreal forests, with important consequences for caribou habitat. Early successional forests have been shown to support lower quantities of caribou forage lichens, but geographic variation in, and controls on, the rates of lichen recovery have been largely unexplored. In this study, we sampled across a broad region in northwestern Canada to compare lichen biomass accumulation in ecoprovinces, including the Saskatchewan Boreal Shield,...

Disease or drought: Environmental fluctuations release zebra from a potential pathogen-triggered ecological trap

Yen-Hua Huang, Hendrina Joel, Martina Küsters, Zoe Barandongo, Claudine Cloete, Axel Hartmann, Pauline Kamath, Werner Kilian, John Mfune, Gabriel Shatumbu, Royi Zidon, Wayne Getz & Wendy Turner
When a transmission hotspot for an environmentally persistent pathogen establishes in otherwise high-quality habitat, the disease may exert a strong impact on a host population. However, fluctuating environmental conditions lead to heterogeneity in habitat quality and animal habitat preference, which may interrupt the overlap between selected and risky habitats. We evaluated spatiotemporal patterns in anthrax mortalities in a plains zebra (Equus quagga) population in Etosha National Park, Namibia, incorporating remote-sensing and host telemetry data. A...

Code for: A metapopulation model of social group dynamics and disease applied to Yellowstone wolves

Ellen E. Brandell
Abstract The population structure of social species has important consequences for both their demography and transmission of their pathogens. We develop a new form of metapopulation model that tracks two key components of a species’ social system: average group size and number of groups within a population. While the model is general, we parameterize it to mimic the dynamics of the Yellowstone wolf population and two associated pathogens: sarcoptic mange and canine distemper. In the...

Serological dataset and R code for: Patterns and processes of pathogen exposure in gray wolves across North America

Ellen E Brandell
The presence of many pathogens varies in a predictable manner with latitude, with infections decreasing from the equator towards the poles. We investigated the geographic trends of pathogens infecting a widely distributed carnivore: the gray wolf (Canis lupus). We compiled a large serological dataset of nearly 2000 wolves from 17 study areas, spanning 80º longitude and 50º latitude. Generalized linear mixed models were constructed to predict the probability of seropositivity of four important viruses: canine...

Taxonomic sampling and rare genomic changes overcome long-branch attraction in the phylogenetic placement of pseudoscorpions

Andrew Ontano, Guilherme Gainett, Shlomi Aharon, Jesús Balesteros, Ligia Benavides, Kevin Corbett, Efrat Gavish-Regev, Mark Harvey, Scott Monsma, Carlos Santibáñez-López, Emily Setton, Jakob Zehms, Jeanne Zeh, David Zeh & Prashant Sharma
Long-branch attraction is a systematic artifact that results in erroneous groupings of fast-evolving taxa. The combination of short, deep internodes in tandem with LBA artifacts has produced empirically intractable parts of the Tree of Life. One such group is the arthropod subphylum Chelicerata, whose backbone phylogeny has remained unstable despite improvements in phylogenetic methods and genome-scale datasets. Pseudoscorpion placement is particularly variable across datasets and analytical frameworks, with this group either clustering with other long-branch...

MicroRNA quantitative RT-PCR analysis of CMT1A Plasma

John Svaren, Hongge Wang, Matthew Davison & Michael Shy
Objective: To determine if microRNA’s (miR) are elevated in the plasma of individuals affected by the inherited peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, type 1A (CMT1A), miR profiling was employed to compare control and CMT1A plasma. Methods: We undertook a screen of CMT1A and control plasma samples to identify miRs that are elevated in CMT1A using a pilot screen of plasma miR by next generation sequencing, followed by validation of selected miRs by quantitative PCR, and correlation...

High rates of anticoagulant rodenticide exposure in California Barred Owls

Daniel Hofstadter
Pesticide use is pervasive and the exposure of non-target wildlife has been well documented over the past half century. Among pesticides, anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) have emerged as a particularly important threat in forests of the western United States, with exposure and mortality reported for several species of conservation concern. To further quantify this threat, we collected specimens of Barred Owls (Strix varia) and Barred Owl x Spotted Owl hybrids from the Klamath and Cascade Mountains...

Arresting the spread of invasive species in continental systems

Daniel Hofstadter, Nicholas Kryshak, Connor Wood, Brian Dotters, Kevin Roberts, Kevin Kelly, John Keane, Sarah Sawyer, Paula Shaklee, Anu Kramer, Rocky Gutiérrez & Zach Peery
Invasive species are a primary threat to biodiversity and are challenging to manage once populations become established. But removing them is further complicated when invasions occur in continental, mixed-ownership systems. We demonstrate a rare conservation success: the regional-scale removal of an invasive predator – the barred owl (Strix varia) – to benefit the spotted owl (S. occidentalis) in California, USA. Barred owl site occupancy declined six-fold from 0.19 to 0.03 following one year of removals,...

Biometric conversion factors as a unifying platform for comparative assessment of invasive freshwater bivalves

Neil Coughlan, Eoghan Cunningham, Ross Cuthbert, Patrick Joyce, Pedro Anastacio, Filipe Banha, Nicolás Bonel, Stephanie Bradbeer, Elizabeta Briski, Vincent Butitta, Zuzana Čadková, Jaimie Dick, Karel Douda, Lawrence Eagling, Noé Ferreira-Rodríguez, Leandro Hünicken, Mattias Johansson, Louise Kregting, Anna Labecka, Deliang Li, Florencia Liquin, Jonathan Marescaux, Todd Morris, Patrycja Nowakowska, Małgorzata Ożgo … & Francisco Sylvester
1. Invasive bivalves continue to spread and negatively impact freshwater ecosystems worldwide. As different metrics for body size and biomass are frequently used within the literature to standardise bivalve related ecological impacts (e.g. respiration and filtration rates), the lack of broadly applicable conversion equations currently hinders reliable comparison across bivalve populations. To facilitate improved comparative assessment amongst studies originating from disparate geographic locations, we report body size and biomass conversion equations for six invasive freshwater...

Mesophyll photosynthetic sensitivity to leaf water potential in Eucalyptus: A new dimension of plant adaptation to native moisture supply

Amanda Salvi, Duncan Smith, Mark Adams, Katherine McCulloh & Thomas J. Givnish
Photosynthetic sensitivity to drought is a fundamental constraint on land-plant evolution and ecosystem function. However, little is known about how the sensitivity of photosynthesis to non-stomatal limitations varies among species in the context of phylogenetic relationships. Using saplings of 10 Eucalyptus species, we measured maximum CO2-saturated photosynthesis using A-ci curves at several different leaf water potentials (PSIleaf) to quantify mesophyll photosynthetic sensitivity to PSIleaf (MPS), a measure of how rapidly non-stomatal limitations to carbon uptake...

Positive associations of soil organic matter and crop yields across a regional network of working farms

Emily Oldfield, Mark Bradford, Abigail Augarten, Eric Cooley, Amber Radatz, Timothy Radatz & Matthew Ruark
The amount of soil organic matter (SOM) is considered a key indicator of soil properties associated with higher fertility. Despite the ubiquity of assumptions surrounding SOM’s contributions to soil functioning, we lack quantitative relationships between SOM and yield outcomes on working farms. We quantified the relationship between SOM and yields of corn (Zea mays L.) and silage for a dataset of 170 fields arrayed across 49 farms in a network of growers based in Wisconsin...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    70

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    70

Affiliations

  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
    58
  • University of Wisconsin–Madison
    21
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • University of California, Berkeley
    3
  • California Academy of Sciences
    3
  • University of Florida
    3
  • United States Geological Survey
    3
  • University of Washington
    2
  • West Virginia University
    2
  • University of North Carolina
    2