74 Works

The genome of a daddy-long-legs (Opiliones) illuminates the evolution of arachnid appendages

Guilherme Gainett, Vanessa L. González, Jesús Ballesteros, Emily V. W. Setton, Caitlin M. Baker, Leonardo Barolo Gargiulo, Carlos E. Santibáñez-López, Jonathan A. Coddington & Prashant P. Sharma
Chelicerate arthropods exhibit dynamic genome evolution, with ancient whole genome duplication (WGD) events affecting several orders. Yet, genomes remain unavailable for a number of poorly studied orders, such as Opiliones (daddy-long-legs), which has hindered comparative study. We assembled the first opilionid draft genome for the species Phalangium opilio, which bears elongate, prehensile appendages, made possible by numerous distal articles called tarsomeres. Here, we show that the genome of P. opilio exhibits a single Hox cluster...

Comparison of serological and molecular assays for Bartonella species in dogs with hemangiosarcoma

Erin Lashnits
Currently, a gold standard diagnostic test for Bartonella infection in dogs is lacking. This represents a critical limitation for the development and evaluation of new diagnostic tests, as well as for the diagnosis of, and research on, bartonellosis in dogs. This retrospective observational study aims to compare the results of commonly performed and newly-reported Bartonella spp. diagnostic tests in banked clinical specimens from 90 dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA) using composite reference standard (CRS) and random...

The effects of ENSO and the North American monsoon on mast seeding in two Rocky Mountain conifer species

Andreas Wion, Ian Pearse, Kyle Rodman, Thomas Veblen & Miranda Redmond
We aimed to disentangle the patterns of synchronous and variable cone production (i.e., masting) and its relationship to climate in two conifer species native to dry forests of western North America. We used cone abscission scars to reconstruct ca. 15 years of recent cone production in Pinus edulis and Pinus ponderosa, and used redundancy analysis to relate time series of annual cone production to climate indices describing the North American monsoon and the El Niño...

Data for: Carnivore niche partitioning in a human landscape

Mauriel Rodriguez Curras, Emiliano Donadío, Arthur Middleton & Jonathan Pauli
To minimize competitive overlap, carnivores modify one of their critical niche axes: space, time, or resources. However, we currently lack rules for how carnivore communities operate in human-dominated landscapes. We simultaneously quantified overlap in the critical niche axes of a simple carnivore community – an apex carnivore (Puma concolor), a dominant meso-carnivore (Lycalopex culpaeus), and a subordinate meso-carnivore (L. griseus) – in a human-landscape featuring pastoralists and semi-domestic carnivores (i.e., dogs Canis familiaris). We found...

A standardized post-cesarean analgesia regimen reduces postpartum opioid use

Melissa F. Meyer, Aimee T. Broman, Sarah E. Gnadt, Shefaali Sharma & Kathleen M. Antony
Optimal post-cesarean pain control is important. With the rising opioid epidemic it is imperative to maximize non-opioid based primary approaches to post-cesarean pain control. In 2018, we implemented a standardized post-cesarean analgesia regimen. To determine if implementation of a standardized postoperative analgesic regimen decreases opioid use following cesarean birth. A standardized postoperative analgesia protocol was implemented in June 2018, which included scheduled oral acetaminophen (975 mg every 6 h) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (ketorolac...

A standardized post-cesarean analgesia regimen reduces postpartum opioid use

Melissa F. Meyer, Aimee T. Broman, Sarah E. Gnadt, Shefaali Sharma & Kathleen M. Antony
Optimal post-cesarean pain control is important. With the rising opioid epidemic it is imperative to maximize non-opioid based primary approaches to post-cesarean pain control. In 2018, we implemented a standardized post-cesarean analgesia regimen. To determine if implementation of a standardized postoperative analgesic regimen decreases opioid use following cesarean birth. A standardized postoperative analgesia protocol was implemented in June 2018, which included scheduled oral acetaminophen (975 mg every 6 h) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (ketorolac...

Terrestrial lichen data for Saskatchewan, Canada

Jill Johnstone, Ruth Greuel, Sarah Hart, Alexandre Truchon-Savard & Philip McLoughlin
Increased fire activity due to climate change may impact the successional dynamics of boreal forests, with important consequences for caribou habitat. Early successional forests have been shown to support lower quantities of caribou forage lichens, but geographic variation in, and controls on, the rates of lichen recovery have been largely unexplored. In this study, we sampled across a broad region in northwestern Canada to compare lichen biomass accumulation in ecoprovinces, including the Saskatchewan Boreal Shield,...

Disease or drought: Environmental fluctuations release zebra from a potential pathogen-triggered ecological trap

Yen-Hua Huang, Hendrina Joel, Martina Küsters, Zoe Barandongo, Claudine Cloete, Axel Hartmann, Pauline Kamath, Werner Kilian, John Mfune, Gabriel Shatumbu, Royi Zidon, Wayne Getz & Wendy Turner
When a transmission hotspot for an environmentally persistent pathogen establishes in otherwise high-quality habitat, the disease may exert a strong impact on a host population. However, fluctuating environmental conditions lead to heterogeneity in habitat quality and animal habitat preference, which may interrupt the overlap between selected and risky habitats. We evaluated spatiotemporal patterns in anthrax mortalities in a plains zebra (Equus quagga) population in Etosha National Park, Namibia, incorporating remote-sensing and host telemetry data. A...

Code for: A metapopulation model of social group dynamics and disease applied to Yellowstone wolves

Ellen E. Brandell
Abstract The population structure of social species has important consequences for both their demography and transmission of their pathogens. We develop a new form of metapopulation model that tracks two key components of a species’ social system: average group size and number of groups within a population. While the model is general, we parameterize it to mimic the dynamics of the Yellowstone wolf population and two associated pathogens: sarcoptic mange and canine distemper. In the...

Serological dataset and R code for: Patterns and processes of pathogen exposure in gray wolves across North America

Ellen E Brandell
The presence of many pathogens varies in a predictable manner with latitude, with infections decreasing from the equator towards the poles. We investigated the geographic trends of pathogens infecting a widely distributed carnivore: the gray wolf (Canis lupus). We compiled a large serological dataset of nearly 2000 wolves from 17 study areas, spanning 80º longitude and 50º latitude. Generalized linear mixed models were constructed to predict the probability of seropositivity of four important viruses: canine...

Taxonomic sampling and rare genomic changes overcome long-branch attraction in the phylogenetic placement of pseudoscorpions

Andrew Ontano, Guilherme Gainett, Shlomi Aharon, Jesús Balesteros, Ligia Benavides, Kevin Corbett, Efrat Gavish-Regev, Mark Harvey, Scott Monsma, Carlos Santibáñez-López, Emily Setton, Jakob Zehms, Jeanne Zeh, David Zeh & Prashant Sharma
Long-branch attraction is a systematic artifact that results in erroneous groupings of fast-evolving taxa. The combination of short, deep internodes in tandem with LBA artifacts has produced empirically intractable parts of the Tree of Life. One such group is the arthropod subphylum Chelicerata, whose backbone phylogeny has remained unstable despite improvements in phylogenetic methods and genome-scale datasets. Pseudoscorpion placement is particularly variable across datasets and analytical frameworks, with this group either clustering with other long-branch...

MicroRNA quantitative RT-PCR analysis of CMT1A Plasma

John Svaren, Hongge Wang, Matthew Davison & Michael Shy
Objective: To determine if microRNA’s (miR) are elevated in the plasma of individuals affected by the inherited peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, type 1A (CMT1A), miR profiling was employed to compare control and CMT1A plasma. Methods: We undertook a screen of CMT1A and control plasma samples to identify miRs that are elevated in CMT1A using a pilot screen of plasma miR by next generation sequencing, followed by validation of selected miRs by quantitative PCR, and correlation...

High rates of anticoagulant rodenticide exposure in California Barred Owls

Daniel Hofstadter
Pesticide use is pervasive and the exposure of non-target wildlife has been well documented over the past half century. Among pesticides, anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) have emerged as a particularly important threat in forests of the western United States, with exposure and mortality reported for several species of conservation concern. To further quantify this threat, we collected specimens of Barred Owls (Strix varia) and Barred Owl x Spotted Owl hybrids from the Klamath and Cascade Mountains...

Arresting the spread of invasive species in continental systems

Daniel Hofstadter, Nicholas Kryshak, Connor Wood, Brian Dotters, Kevin Roberts, Kevin Kelly, John Keane, Sarah Sawyer, Paula Shaklee, Anu Kramer, Rocky Gutiérrez & Zach Peery
Invasive species are a primary threat to biodiversity and are challenging to manage once populations become established. But removing them is further complicated when invasions occur in continental, mixed-ownership systems. We demonstrate a rare conservation success: the regional-scale removal of an invasive predator – the barred owl (Strix varia) – to benefit the spotted owl (S. occidentalis) in California, USA. Barred owl site occupancy declined six-fold from 0.19 to 0.03 following one year of removals,...

Biometric conversion factors as a unifying platform for comparative assessment of invasive freshwater bivalves

Neil Coughlan, Eoghan Cunningham, Ross Cuthbert, Patrick Joyce, Pedro Anastacio, Filipe Banha, Nicolás Bonel, Stephanie Bradbeer, Elizabeta Briski, Vincent Butitta, Zuzana Čadková, Jaimie Dick, Karel Douda, Lawrence Eagling, Noé Ferreira-Rodríguez, Leandro Hünicken, Mattias Johansson, Louise Kregting, Anna Labecka, Deliang Li, Florencia Liquin, Jonathan Marescaux, Todd Morris, Patrycja Nowakowska, Małgorzata Ożgo … & Francisco Sylvester
1. Invasive bivalves continue to spread and negatively impact freshwater ecosystems worldwide. As different metrics for body size and biomass are frequently used within the literature to standardise bivalve related ecological impacts (e.g. respiration and filtration rates), the lack of broadly applicable conversion equations currently hinders reliable comparison across bivalve populations. To facilitate improved comparative assessment amongst studies originating from disparate geographic locations, we report body size and biomass conversion equations for six invasive freshwater...

Mesophyll photosynthetic sensitivity to leaf water potential in Eucalyptus: A new dimension of plant adaptation to native moisture supply

Amanda Salvi, Duncan Smith, Mark Adams, Katherine McCulloh & Thomas J. Givnish
Photosynthetic sensitivity to drought is a fundamental constraint on land-plant evolution and ecosystem function. However, little is known about how the sensitivity of photosynthesis to non-stomatal limitations varies among species in the context of phylogenetic relationships. Using saplings of 10 Eucalyptus species, we measured maximum CO2-saturated photosynthesis using A-ci curves at several different leaf water potentials (PSIleaf) to quantify mesophyll photosynthetic sensitivity to PSIleaf (MPS), a measure of how rapidly non-stomatal limitations to carbon uptake...

Positive associations of soil organic matter and crop yields across a regional network of working farms

Emily Oldfield, Mark Bradford, Abigail Augarten, Eric Cooley, Amber Radatz, Timothy Radatz & Matthew Ruark
The amount of soil organic matter (SOM) is considered a key indicator of soil properties associated with higher fertility. Despite the ubiquity of assumptions surrounding SOM’s contributions to soil functioning, we lack quantitative relationships between SOM and yield outcomes on working farms. We quantified the relationship between SOM and yields of corn (Zea mays L.) and silage for a dataset of 170 fields arrayed across 49 farms in a network of growers based in Wisconsin...

Hierarchical genetic structure and implications for conservation of the world’s largest salmonid, Hucho taimen

Lanie M. Galland, James B. Simmons, Joshua P. Jahner, Agusto R. Luzuriaga-Neira, Matthew R. Sloat, Sudeep Chandra, Zeb Hogan, Olaf P. Jensen & Thomas L. Parchman
Population genetic analyses can evaluate how evolutionary processes shape diversity and inform conservation and management of imperiled species. Taimen (Hucho taimen), the world’s largest freshwater salmonid, is threatened, endangered, or extirpated across much of its range due to anthropogenic activity including overfishing and habitat degradation. We generated genetic data using high throughput sequencing of reduced representation libraries for taimen from multiple drainages in Mongolia and Russia. Nucleotide diversity estimates were within the range documented in...

Selection on convergent functional traits drives compositional divergence in a tallgrass prairie restoration experiment

Nisa Karimi & Andrew Hipp
1. Plant biodiversity is often partitioned into taxonomic diversity (species composition and abundance), phylogenetic diversity (breadth of evolutionary lineages) and functional diversity (resource‐use strategies or physical traits). Evaluating the effects and interplay of these dimensions can provide insights into how assembly processes drive compositional changes in plant communities. However, teasing apart the effects of different biodiversity dimensions is challenging in observational studies or retrospective analyses. 2. To evaluate how plant phylogenetic and trait history shape...

Maternal and neonatal outcomes of repeated antepartum bleeding in 493 placenta previa cases: a retrospective study

Shiyun Huang, Qing Zuo, Tianjun Wang, Xiaotong Tang, Zhiping Ge, Hongmei Lu, Xin Zhou & Ziyan Jiang
To explore the effect of antepartum bleeding caused by PP on pregnancy outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed 493 pregnant women complicated with PP. Patients were divided into antepartum repeated bleeding and non-bleeding groups. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were compared. The risk of antepartum hemorrhage was 2.038 times higher when gravidity was 5 (95% CI 1.104–3.760, p = .023). Pregnant women with a history of more than three intrauterine procedures had a 1.968 times higher risk...

A meta-analysis of tropical land-use change effects on the soil microbiome: emerging patterns and knowledge gaps

Emily J. Diaz-Vallejo
Modifications to vegetation and soil due to changes in land use have the potential to alter the soil microbiome, with consequences for carbon and nutrient cycling. Despite the important function of soil microorganisms, little is known about their response to land-use change, especially in tropical regions where current rates of land conversion are greatest. The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine how land-use change influences soil microbial properties in tropical ecosystems and to identify...

Elevated rates of positive selection drive the evolution of pestiferousness in the Colorado potato beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Say)

Zachary Cohen, Kristian Brevik, Yolanda H. Chen, David J. Hawthorne, Benjamin D. Weibel & Sean D. Schoville
In order to understand the evolution of pestiferousness, which we define as the accumulation of traits that contribute to an insect population’s success in an agroecosystem, we tested the importance of known genomic properties associated with rapid adaptation. Within the leaf beetle genus Leptinotarsa, only the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, and a few populations therein, has risen to pest status on cultivated nightshades, Solanum. Using whole genomes from ten closely related Leptinotarsa...

Data for: Wolves make roadways safer, generating large economic returns to predator conservation

Jennifer Raynor, Corbett Grainger & Dominic Parker
This dataset includes information on deer-vehicle collisions, vehicle miles traveled, weather, and deer, wolf, and human populations, for counties in Wisconsin from 1981-2016.

Plastic responses to hot temperatures homogenize riparian leaf litter, speed decomposition, and reduce detritivores

Joann Jeplawy, Hillary Cooper, Jane Marks, Richard Lindroth, Morgan Andrews, Zacchaeus Compson, Catherine Gehring, Kevin Hultine, Kevin Grady, Thomas Whitham, Gerard Allan & Rebecca Best
Efforts to maintain the function of critical ecosystems under climate change often begin with foundation species. In the southwestern US, cottonwood trees support diverse communities in riparian ecosystems that are threatened by rising temperatures. Genetic variation within cottonwoods shapes communities and ecosystems, but these effects may be modified by phenotypic plasticity, where genotype traits change in response to environmental conditions. Here, we investigated plasticity in Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) leaf litter traits as well as...

Data from: Broad geographic sampling reveals predictable, pervasive, and strong seasonal adaptation in Drosophila

Heather E. Machado, Alan O. Bergland, Ryan Taylor, Susanne Tilk, Emily Behrman, Kelly Dyer, Daniel K. Fabian, Thomas Flatt, Josefa González, Talia L. Karasov, Iryna Kozeretska, Brian P. Lazzaro, Thomas JS Merritt, John E. Pool, Katherine O’Brien, Subhash Rajpurohit, Paula R. Roy, Stephen W. Schaeffer, Svitlana Serga, Paul Schmidt, Dmitri Petrov & Bernard Kim
To advance our understanding of adaptation to temporally varying selection pressures, we identified signatures of seasonal adaptation occurring in parallel among Drosophila melanogaster populations. Specifically, we estimated allele frequencies genome-wide from flies sampled early and late in the growing season from 20 widely dispersed populations. We identified parallel seasonal allele frequency shifts across North America and Europe, demonstrating that seasonal adaptation is a general phenomenon of temperate fly populations. Seasonally fluctuating polymorphisms are enriched at...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    74

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    74

Affiliations

  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
    58
  • University of Wisconsin–Madison
    25
  • University of Minnesota
    3
  • University of California, Berkeley
    3
  • California Academy of Sciences
    3
  • University of Florida
    3
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
    3
  • United States Geological Survey
    3
  • Sun Yat-sen University
    2
  • University of Washington
    2