291 Works

Data from: Contemporary evolution of plant growth rate following experimental removal of herbivores

Nash E. Turley, Walter C. Odell, Hanno Schaefer, Georg Everwand, Michael J. Crawley & Marc T. J. Johnson
Herbivores are credited with driving the evolutionary diversification of plant defensive strategies over macroevolutionary time. For this to be true, herbivores must also cause short-term evolution within plant populations, but few studies have experimentally tested this prediction. We addressed this gap using a long-term manipulative field experiment where exclosures protected 22 plant populations from natural rabbit herbivory for <1 to 26 years. We collected seeds of Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae) from our plots and grew...

Data from: Biogeographic, climatic and spatial drivers differentially affect α-, β- and γ-diversities on oceanic archipelagos

Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Patrick Weigelt, Walter Daniel Kissling & Holger Kreft
Island biogeographic studies traditionally treat single islands as units of analysis. This ignores the fact that most islands are spatially nested within archipelagos. Here, we took a fundamentally different approach and focused on entire archipelagos using species richness of vascular plants on 23 archipelagos worldwide and their 174 constituent islands. We assessed differential effects of biogeographic factors (area, isolation, age, elevation), current and past climate (temperature, precipitation, seasonality, climate change velocity) and intra-archipelagic spatial structure...

Data from: Experimental evidence that even minor livestock trampling has severe effects on land snail communities in forest remnants

Lisa H. Denmead, Gary M. Barker, Rachel J. Standish & Raphael K. Didham
1. Land-use intensification is increasing dramatically in production systems world-wide. Livestock production is an important component of production land use, and increases in livestock densities have had a wide range of negative consequences. The off-site effects of livestock grazing and trampling on native vegetation adjacent to pastoral land have received less attention than on-farm effects. Moreover, where significant ecological effects of livestock spillover have been identified, the mechanistic determinants of these effects have not typically...

Data from: Configurational landscape heterogeneity shapes functional community composition of grassland butterflies

David Perović, Sagrario Gámez-Virués, Carmen Börschig, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Jochen Krauss, Juliane Steckel, Christoph Rothenwöhrer, Stefan Erasmi, Teja Tscharntke & Catrin Westphal
1. Landscape heterogeneity represents two aspects of landscape simplification: (i) compositional heterogeneity (diversity of habitat types) and (ii) configurational heterogeneity (number, size and arrangement of habitat patches); both with different ecological implications for community composition. 2. We examined how independent gradients of compositional and configurational landscape heterogeneity, at eight spatial scales, shape taxonomic and functional composition of butterfly communities in 91 managed grasslands across Germany. We used landscape metrics that were calculated from functional maps...

Data from: The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic lignin decomposition reconstructed from 31 fungal genomes

Dimitrios Floudas, Manfred Binder, Robert Riley, Kerrie Barry, Robert A. Blanchette, Bernard Henrissat, Angel T. Martínez, Robert Ortillar, Joseph W. Spatafora, Jagjit S. Yadav, Andrea Aerts, Isabelle Benoit, Alex Boyd, Alexis Carlson, Alex Copeland, Pedro M. Coutinho, Ronald P. De Vries, Patricia Ferreira, Keisha Findley, Brian Foster, Jill Gaskell, Dylan Glotzer, Paweł Górecki, Joseph Heitman, Cedar Hesse … & David S. Hibbett
Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non–lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study) suggest that lignin-degrading peroxidases expanded in the lineage leading to the ancestor of the Agaricomycetes, which is reconstructed as...

Data from: Predator-prey interactions between shell-boring beetle larvae and rock-dwelling land snails

Els Baalbergen, Renate Helwerda, Rense Schelfhorst, Ruth F. Castillo Cajas, Coline H. M. Van Moorsel, Robin Kundrata, Francisco W. Welter-Schultes, Sinos Giokas & Menno Schilthuizen
Drilus beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are specialized predators of land snails. Here, we describe various aspects of the predator-prey interactions between multiple Drilus species attacking multiple Albinaria (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae) species in Greece. We observe that Drilus species may be facultative or obligate Albinaria-specialists. We map geographically varying predation rates in Crete, where on average 24% of empty shells carry fatal Drilus bore holes. We also provide first-hand observations and video-footage of prey entry and exit...

Data from: The Shortlist Method for fast computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and finding optimal solutions to transportation problems

Carsten Gottschlich & Dominic Schuhmacher
Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to...

Data from: Evolution in situ: hybrid origin and establishment of willows (Salix L.) on alpine glacier forefields

Susanne Gramlich, Patrick Sagmeister, Stefan Dullinger, Franz Hadacek & Elvira Hörandl
Little attention has been paid to the evolutionary consequences of the colonizing dynamics and succession processes following glacier retreat. Here we studied hybrid populations that have recently formed and established on glacier forefields of the European Alps owing to secondary contact of a lowland colonizer with a subalpine species. We analyzed the composition of two hybrid populations between Salix purpurea and Salix helvetica with nine microsatellite markers by using Bayesian methods (structure and NewHybrids), and...

Data from: Population genetic structure and reproductive strategy of the introduced grass Centotheca lappacea in tropical land-use systems in Sumatra

Ladislav Hodač, Fuad Bahrul Ulum, Nicole Opfermann, Natalie Breidenbach, Diego Hojsgaard, Sri Sudarmiyati Tjitrosoedirdjo, Barbara Vornam, Reiner Finkeldey & Elvira Hörandl
Intensive transformation of lowland rainforest into oil palm and rubber monocultures is the most common land-use practice in Sumatra (Indonesia), accompanied by invasion of weeds. In the Jambi province, Centotheca lappacea is one of the most abundant alien grass species in plantations and in jungle rubber (an extensively used agroforest), but largely missing in natural rainforests. Here, we investigated putative genetic differentiation and signatures for adaptation in the introduced area. We studied reproductive mode and...

Data from: Corridors restore animal-mediated pollination in fragmented tropical forest landscapes

Urs Kormann, Christoph Scherber, Teja Tscharntke, Nadja Klein, Manuel Larbig, Jonahon Valente, Adam Hadley, Matthew Betts, Matthew G. Betts, Adam S. Hadley & Jonathon J. Valente
Tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions have become heavily eroded through habitat loss. Animal-mediated pollination is required in >94% of higher tropical plant species and 75% of the world´s leading food crops, but it remains unclear if corridors avert deforestation-driven pollination breakdown in fragmented tropical landscapes. Here, we used manipulative resource experiments and field observations to show that corridors functionally connect neotropical forest fragments for forest-associated hummingbirds and increase pollen transfer. Further, corridors boosted forest-associated...

Data from: Biodiversity conservation in agriculture requires a multi-scale approach

David J. Gonthier, Katherine K. Ennis, Serge Farinas, Hsun-Yi Hsieh, Aaron L. Iverson, Péter Batáry, Jörgen Rudolphi, Teja Tscharntke, Bradley J. Cardinale, Ivette Perfecto, H.-Y. Hsieh & P. Batary
Biodiversity loss—one of the most prominent forms of modern environmental change—has been heavily driven by terrestrial habitat loss and, in particular, the spread and intensification of agriculture. Expanding agricultural land-use has led to the search for strong conservation strategies, with some suggesting that biodiversity conservation in agriculture is best maximized by reducing local management intensity, such as fertilizer and pesticide application. Others highlight the importance of landscape-level approaches that incorporate natural or semi-natural areas in...

Data from: Lower body symmetry and running performance in elite Jamaican track and field athletes

Robert Trivers, Bernhard Fink, Mark Russell, Kristofor McCarty, Bruce James & Brian G. Palestis
In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet) are – on average – significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m...

Data from: Root biomass and exudates link plant diversity with soil bacterial and fungal biomass

Nico Eisenhauer, Arnaud Lanoue, Tanja Strecker, Stefan Scheu, Katja Steinauer, Madhav P. Thakur & Liesje Mommer
Plant diversity has been shown to determine the composition and functioning of soil biota. Although root-derived organic inputs are discussed as the main drivers of soil communities, experimental evidence is scarce. While there is some evidence that higher root biomass at high plant diversity increases substrate availability for soil biota, several studies have speculated that the quantity and diversity of root inputs into the soil, i.e. though root exudates, drive plant diversity effects on soil...

Data from: Trophic level, successional age and trait matching determine specialization of deadwood-based interaction networks of saproxylic beetles

Beate Wende, Martin M. Gossner, Ingo Grass, Tobias Arnstadt, Martin Hofrichter, Andreas Floren, Karl Eduard Linsenmair, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
The specialization of ecological networks provides important insights into possible consequences of biodiversity loss for ecosystem functioning. However, mostly mutualistic and antagonistic interactions of living organisms have been studied, whereas detritivore networks and their successional changes are largely unexplored. We studied the interactions of saproxylic (deadwood-dependent) beetles with their dead host trees. In a large-scale experiment, 764 logs of 13 tree species were exposed to analyse network structure of three trophic groups of saproxylic beetles...

Data from: Landscape-scale interactions of spatial and temporal cropland heterogeneity drive biological control of cereal aphids

Aliette Bosem Baillod, Teja Tscharntke, Yann Clough & Péter Batáry
1. Agricultural landscapes are characterised by dynamic crop mosaics changing in composition and configuration over space and time. While semi-natural habitat has been often shown to contribute to pest biological control, the effects of increasing landscape heterogeneity with cropland has been disregarded. Here, we examine how cereal aphids, their enemies and biological control are affected by the composition and configuration of the crop mosaic and its inter-annual change due to crop rotation. 2. We studied...

Data from: Spatial variability in soil organic carbon in a tropical montane landscape: associations between soil organic carbon and land use, soil properties, vegetation, and topography vary across plot to landscape scales

Marleen De Blécourt, Marife D. Corre, Ekananda Paudel, Rhett D. Harrison, Rainer Brumme & Edzo Veldkamp
Presently, the lack of data on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in relation to land-use types and biophysical characteristics prevents reliable estimates of ecosystem carbon stocks in montane landscapes of mainland SE Asia. Our study, conducted in a 10 000 ha landscape in Xishuangbanna, SW China, aimed at assessing the spatial variability in SOC concentrations and stocks, as well as the relationships of SOC with land-use types, soil properties, vegetation characteristics and topographical attributes at...

Data from: Experimental duration and predator satiation levels systematically affect functional response parameters

Yuanheng Li, Björn C. Rall & Gregor Kalinkat
Empirical feeding studies where density-dependent consumption rates are fitted to functional response models are often used to parameterize the interaction strengths in models of population or food-web dynamics. However, the relationship between functional response parameter estimates from short-term feeding studies and real-world, long-term, trophic interaction strengths remains largely unexamined. In a critical first step to address this void, we tested for systematic effects of experimental duration and predator satiation on the estimate of functional response...

Data from: Trap nests for bees and wasps to analyse trophic interactions in changing environments - a systematic overview and user guide

Michael Staab, Gesine Pufal, Teja Tscharntke & Alexandra-Maria Klein
1. Trap nests are artificially made nesting resources for solitary cavity-nesting bees and wasps and allow easy quantification of multiple trophic interactions between bees, wasps, their food objects and natural enemies. 2. We synthesized all trap nest studies available in the ISI Web of Science™ to provide a comprehensive overview of trap nest research and identify common practical challenges and promising future research directions. 3. Trap nests have been used on all continents and across...

Data from: X-ray computed tomography and its potential in ecological research: a review of studies and optimization of specimen preparation

Yeisson Gutiérrez, David Ott, Mareike Töpperwien, Tim Salditt & Christoph Scherber
Imaging techniques are a cornerstone of contemporary biology. Over the last decades, advances in micro-scale imaging techniques have allowed fascinating new insights into cell and tissue morphology and internal anatomy of organisms across kingdoms. However, most studies so far provided snapshots of given reference taxa, describing organs and tissues under “idealized” conditions. Surprisingly, there is an almost complete lack of studies investigating how an organism´s internal morphology changes in response to environmental drivers. Consequently, ecology...

Data from: Development and validation of a score to detect paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after stroke

Timo Uphaus, Mark Weber-Krüger, Martin Grond, Gerrit Toenges, Anke Jahn-Eimermacher, Marek Jauss, Paulus Kirchhof, Rolf Wachter & Klaus Gröschel
Objective: Prolonged monitoring times (72h) are recommended to detect paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pAF) after ischemic stroke, but not yet clinical practice; therefore, an individual patient selection for prolonged ECG monitoring might increase the diagnostic yield of pAF in a resource-saving manner. Methods: We used individual patient data from three prospective studies (ntotal=1556) performing prolonged Holter ECG monitoring (at least 72h) and centralized data evaluation after TIA or stroke in patients with sinus rhythm. Based on...

Data from: Physiological and social consequences of gastrointestinal nematode infection in a nonhuman primate

Nadine Müller-Klein, Michael Heistermann, Christina Strube, Zina M. Morbach, Navina Lilie, Mathias Franz, Oliver Schülke & Julia Ostner
Gastrointestinal nematodes are intensely studied models for host-pathogen interactions in wildlife, yet consequences of infections are not fully understood. Among the potential costs of nematode infection are physiological changes caused by immune system activation, reduction or reallocation of available energy, as well as potential social consequences in terms of decreased social activity or avoidance of infected individuals. We used experimental anthelmintic treatment to investigate effects of strongyle nematode infection in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus), comparing...

Data from: The effect of drought and season on root life span in temperate arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal tree species

Rebecca Liese, Christoph Leuschner & Ina Christin Meier
1. Fine roots play a key role in carbon (C) and nutrient cycling, since fine root lifespan drives soil organic C input and, thus, N availability. The two principal fungal symbioses found in temperate forest trees, ectomycorrhizae (ECM) and arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), induce different root morphological changes upon infection, but the consequences for root lifespan are not clear. 2. We explored differences in fine root lifespan between four AM and four ECM tree species using...

Source pools and disharmony of the world’s island floras

Christian König, Patrick Weigelt, Amanda Taylor, Anke Stein, Wayne Dawson, Franz Essl, Jan Pergl, Petr Pysek, Mark Van Kleunen, Marten Winter, Cyrille Chatelain, Jan Wieringa, Pavel Krestov & Holger Kreft
Island disharmony refers to the biased representation of higher taxa on islands compared to their mainland source regions and represents a central concept in island biology. Here, we develop a generalizable framework for approximating these source regions and conduct the first global assessment of island disharmony and its underlying drivers. We compiled vascular plant species lists for 178 oceanic islands and 735 mainland regions. Using mainland data only, we modelled species turnover as a function...

Challenging the concept that eumelanin is the polymorphic brown banded pigment in Cepaea nemoralis

Daniel Jackson, Susanne Affenzeller, Klaus Wolkenstein & Holm Frauendorf
The common grove snail Cepaea nemoralis displays a stable pigmentation polymorphism in its shell that has held the attention of scientists for decades. While the details of the molecular mechanisms that generate and maintain this diversity remain elusive, it has long been employed as a model system to address questions related to ecology, population genetics and evolution. In order to contribute to the ongoing efforts to identify the genes that generate this polymorphism we have...

Data from: Decreasing predation rates and shifting predator compositions along a land-use gradient in Madagascar’s vanilla landscapes

Dominik Schwab, Annemarie Wurz, Ingo Grass, Anjaharnony A.N.A. Rakotomalala, Kristina Osen, Marie Rolande Soazafy, Dominic A. Martin & Teja Tscharntke
1. Land-use change is the main driver of deforestation and land degradation resulting in the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in north-eastern Madagascar. Vanilla, the region’s main cash crop, is grown in agroforestry systems and may provide an opportunity for the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. 2. We used dummy caterpillars to assess predation rates and predator communities along a land-use gradient including unburned old-growth and forest fragments, herbaceous and woody fallows after...

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