20 Works

Data from: Experimental evidence that even minor livestock trampling has severe effects on land snail communities in forest remnants

Lisa H. Denmead, Gary M. Barker, Rachel J. Standish & Raphael K. Didham
1. Land-use intensification is increasing dramatically in production systems world-wide. Livestock production is an important component of production land use, and increases in livestock densities have had a wide range of negative consequences. The off-site effects of livestock grazing and trampling on native vegetation adjacent to pastoral land have received less attention than on-farm effects. Moreover, where significant ecological effects of livestock spillover have been identified, the mechanistic determinants of these effects have not typically...

Data from: Biogeographic, climatic and spatial drivers differentially affect α-, β- and γ-diversities on oceanic archipelagos

Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Patrick Weigelt, Walter Daniel Kissling & Holger Kreft
Island biogeographic studies traditionally treat single islands as units of analysis. This ignores the fact that most islands are spatially nested within archipelagos. Here, we took a fundamentally different approach and focused on entire archipelagos using species richness of vascular plants on 23 archipelagos worldwide and their 174 constituent islands. We assessed differential effects of biogeographic factors (area, isolation, age, elevation), current and past climate (temperature, precipitation, seasonality, climate change velocity) and intra-archipelagic spatial structure...

Data from: Biodiversity conservation in agriculture requires a multi-scale approach

David J. Gonthier, Katherine K. Ennis, Serge Farinas, Hsun-Yi Hsieh, Aaron L. Iverson, Péter Batáry, Jörgen Rudolphi, Teja Tscharntke, Bradley J. Cardinale, Ivette Perfecto, H.-Y. Hsieh & P. Batary
Biodiversity loss—one of the most prominent forms of modern environmental change—has been heavily driven by terrestrial habitat loss and, in particular, the spread and intensification of agriculture. Expanding agricultural land-use has led to the search for strong conservation strategies, with some suggesting that biodiversity conservation in agriculture is best maximized by reducing local management intensity, such as fertilizer and pesticide application. Others highlight the importance of landscape-level approaches that incorporate natural or semi-natural areas in...

Data from: Predator-prey interactions between shell-boring beetle larvae and rock-dwelling land snails

Els Baalbergen, Renate Helwerda, Rense Schelfhorst, Ruth F. Castillo Cajas, Coline H. M. Van Moorsel, Robin Kundrata, Francisco W. Welter-Schultes, Sinos Giokas & Menno Schilthuizen
Drilus beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are specialized predators of land snails. Here, we describe various aspects of the predator-prey interactions between multiple Drilus species attacking multiple Albinaria (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae) species in Greece. We observe that Drilus species may be facultative or obligate Albinaria-specialists. We map geographically varying predation rates in Crete, where on average 24% of empty shells carry fatal Drilus bore holes. We also provide first-hand observations and video-footage of prey entry and exit...

Data from: The Shortlist Method for fast computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and finding optimal solutions to transportation problems

Carsten Gottschlich & Dominic Schuhmacher
Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to...

Data from: Lower body symmetry and running performance in elite Jamaican track and field athletes

Robert Trivers, Bernhard Fink, Mark Russell, Kristofor McCarty, Bruce James & Brian G. Palestis
In a study of degree of lower body symmetry in 73 elite Jamaican track and field athletes we show that both their knees and ankles (but not their feet) are – on average – significantly more symmetrical than those of 116 similarly aged controls from the rural Jamaican countryside. Within the elite athletes, events ranged from the 100 to the 800 m, and knee and ankle asymmetry was lower for those running the 100 m...

Data from: The global distribution of diet breadth in insect herbivores

Matthew L. Forister, Vojtech Novotny, Anna K. Panorska, Leontine Baje, Yves Basset, Philip T. Butterill, Lukas Cizek, Phyllis D. Coley, Francesca Dem, Ivone R. Diniz, Pavel Drozd, Mark Fox, Andrea E. Glassmire, Rebecca Hazen, Jan Hrcek, Joshua P. Jahner, Ondrej Kaman, Tomasz J. Kozubowski, Thomas Kursar, Owen T. Lewis, John Lill, Robert J. Marquis, Scott E. Miller, Helena C. Morais, Masashi Murakami … & Lee A. Dyer
Understanding variation in resource specialization is important for progress on issues that include coevolution, community assembly, ecosystem processes, and the latitudinal gradient of species richness. Herbivorous insects are useful models for studying resource specialization, and the interaction between plants and herbivorous insects is one of the most common and consequential ecological associations on the planet. However, uncertainty persists regarding fundamental features of herbivore diet breadth, including its relationship to latitude and plant species richness. Here...

Data from: Effects of prey quality and predator body size on prey DNA detection success in a centipede predator

Bernhard Eitzinger, Einar Michael Unger, Michael Traugott & Stefan Scheu
Predator body size and prey quality are important factors driving prey choice and consumption rates. Both factors might affect prey detection success in PCR-based gut content analysis, potentially resulting in over- or underestimation of feeding rates. Experimental evidence, however, is scarce. We examined how body size and prey quality affect prey DNA detection success in centipede predators. Due to metabolic rates increasing with body size, we hypothesized that prey DNA detection intervals will be significantly...

Data from: Functional identity and diversity of animals predict ecosystem functioning better than species-based indices

Vesna Gagic, Ignasi Bartomeus, Astrid Taylor, Camilla Winqvist, Christina Fischer, Eleanor M. Slade, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Mark Emmerson, Simon G. Potts, Teja Tscharntke, Wolfgang Weisser, Riccardo Bommarco & T. Jonsson
Drastic biodiversity declines have raised concerns about the deterioration of ecosystem functions and have motivated much recent research on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. A functional trait framework has been proposed to improve the mechanistic understanding of this relationship, but this has rarely been tested for organisms other than plants. We analysed eight datasets, including five animal groups, to examine how well a trait-based approach, compared with a more traditional taxonomic approach,...

Data from: Experimental test of plant defense evolution in four species using long-term rabbit exclosures

Teresa J. Didiano, Nash E. Turley, Georg Everwand, Hanno Schaefer, Michael J. Crawley & Marc T. J. Johnson
Plant defense traits have evolved over macro- and microevolutionary timescales in response to herbivores. Although a number of studies have investigated the evolutionary impacts of herbivores over short timescales, few studies have experimentally examined what defense traits most commonly evolve and whether multiple coexisting species exhibit similar evolutionary responses to herbivores. We addressed these questions using a long-term experiment at Silwood Park, England, United Kingdom, where we excluded rabbits from 38 grassland plots for <1...

Data from: Senescence or selective disappearance? Age trajectories of body mass in wild and captive populations of a small-bodied primate

Anni Hämäläinen, Melanie Dammhahn, Fabienne Aujard, Manfred Eberle, Isabelle Hardy, Peter M. Kappeler, Martine Perret, Susanne Schliehe-Diecks, Cornelia Kraus & A. Hamalainen
Classic theories of ageing consider extrinsic mortality (EM) a major factor in shaping longevity and ageing, yet most studies of functional ageing focus on species with low EM. This bias may cause overestimation of the influence of senescent declines in performance over condition-dependent mortality on demographic processes across taxa. To simultaneously investigate the roles of functional senescence (FS) and intrinsic, extrinsic and condition-dependent mortality in a species with a high predation risk in nature, we...

Data from: Standardizing the protocol for hemispherical photographs: accuracy assessment of binarization algorithms

Jonas Glatthorn & Philip Beckschäfer
Hemispherical photography is a well-established method to optically assess ecological parameters related to plant canopies; e.g. information about ground-level light regimes and the distribution of foliage within the crown space. Interpreting hemispherical photographs involves classifying pixels as either sky or vegetation. A wide range of automatic thresholding or binarization algorithms exists to classify these photographs. The variety in methodology hampers ability to compare results across studies. To identify an optimal threshold selection method, this study...

Data from: Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) – strong genetic structure among natural populations

Ole K. Hansen, Suchitra Changtragoon, Bundit Ponoy, Erik D. Kjær, Yazar Minn, Reiner Finkeldey, Knud B. Nielsen & Lars Graudal
Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India had the highest genetic diversity while provenances from Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in genetic diversity...

Data from: Grazing intensity affects insect diversity via sward structure and heterogeneity in a long-term experiment

Jana Sabrina Jerrentrup, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, Klaus-Ulrich Röver & Johannes Isselstein
In the past, insect diversity in grasslands showed a severe decline due to management intensification or abandonment. In this study, we investigate the long-term influence of grazing and the potential for spatial patterns created by different grazing intensities to enhance insect diversity. In a long-term experiment (2002–2011), three grazing intensities were applied to 1-ha paddocks in a triplicate block design: moderate grazing (MC), lenient grazing (LC) and very lenient grazing (VLC, since 2005). The experiment...

Data from: Stick insect genomes reveal natural selection's role in parallel speciation

Victor Soria-Carrasco, Zachariah Gompert, Aaron A. Comeault, Timothy E. Farkas, Thomas L. Parchman, J. Spencer Johnston, C. Alex Buerkle, Jeffrey L. Feder, Jens Bast, Tanja Schwander, Scott P. Egan, Bernard J. Crespi & Patrik Nosil
Natural selection can drive the repeated evolution of reproductive isolation, but the genomic basis of parallel speciation remains poorly understood. We analyzed whole-genome divergence between replicate pairs of stick insect populations that are adapted to different host plants and undergoing parallel speciation. We found thousands of modest-sized genomic regions of accentuated divergence between populations, most of which are unique to individual population pairs. We also detected parallel genomic divergence across population pairs involving an excess...

Data from: Peroxisomal lactate dehydrogenase is generated by basal translational readthrough in mammals

Fabian Schueren, Thomas Lingner, Rosemol George, Julia Hofhuis, Corinna Dickel, Jutta Gärtner & Sven Thoms
Translational readthrough gives rise to low abundance proteins with C-terminal extensions beyond the stop codon. To identify functional translational readthrough, we estimated the readthrough propensity (RTP) of all stop codon contexts of the human genome by a new regression model in silico, identified a nucleotide consensus motif for high RTP by using this model, and analyzed all readthrough extensions in silico with a new predictor for peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1). Lactate dehydrogenase B...

Data from: Species richness-productivity relationships of tropical terrestrial ferns at regional and local scales

Michael Kessler, Laura Salazar, Jürgen Homeier & Jürgen Kluge
1. The species richness-productivity relationship (SRPR), by which the species richness of habitats or ecosystems is related to the productivity of the ecosystem or the taxon, has been documented both on regional and local scales, but its generality, biological meaning, and underlying mechanisms remain debated. 2. We evaluated the SRPR and 3 mechanistic hypotheses using terrestrial ferns in 18 study plots along an elevational gradient (500-4000 m) in Ecuador. We measured annual increases in above-ground...

Data from: Pollination mitigates cucumber yield gaps more than pesticide and fertilizer use in tropical smallholder gardens

Iris Motzke, Teja Tscharntke, Thomas C. Wanger & Alexandra-Maria Klein
1. Pollination can be an essential but often neglected ecosystem service to mitigate crop yield gaps. Pollination services are usually studied in isolation and their relative role and possible interactions with other factors, such as major management practices, is little understood. 2. We tested how pollination (insect versus wind- and self-pollination) interacts with weed control, fertilization, and insect herbivore control and how these factors as well as flower-visiting bees influence fruit set and yield of...

Data from: The role of species traits in mediating functional recovery during matrix restoration

Andrew D. Barnes, Rowan M. Emberson, Frank-Thorsten Krell & Raphael K. Didham
Reversing anthropogenic impacts on habitat structure is frequently successful through restoration, but the mechanisms linking habitat change, community reassembly and recovery of ecosystem functioning remain unknown. We test for the influence of edge effects and matrix habitat restoration on the reassembly of dung beetle communities and consequent recovery of dung removal rates across tropical forest edges. Using path modelling, we disentangle the relative importance of community-weighted trait means and functional trait dispersion from total biomass...

Data from: Is tropical montane forest heterogeneity promoted by a resource-driven feedback cycle? Evidence from nutrient relations, herbivory and litter decomposition along a topographical gradient

Florian A. Werner & Jürgen Homeier
1. Ridges of tropical mountains often differ strikingly from neighbouring ravines in terms of forest structure, productivity, and species composition. This heterogeneity is poorly understood despite its critical role in biodiversity maintenance, carbon and nutrient budgets. 2. We examined measures of tree biomass and productivity, foliage and litter quality (nutrient concentrations, specific leaf mass, phenolics), herbivory and leaf litter decomposition in each six plots laid out in upper and lower slope position in a tropical...

Registration Year

  • 2014
    20

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    20

Affiliations

  • University of Göttingen
    20
  • University of Würzburg
    2
  • University of Nevada Reno
    2
  • Technical University Munich
    2
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    2
  • University of Western Australia
    2
  • University of Oxford
    2
  • Denver Museum of Nature and Science
    1
  • Rice University
    1
  • Lincoln University
    1