158 Works

Data from: Genetic restoration in the eastern collared lizard under prescribed woodland burning

Jennifer L. Neuwald & Alan R. Templeton
Eastern collared lizards of the Ozarks live in glades—open, rocky habitats embedded in a woodland matrix. Past fire suppression had made the woodlands a barrier to dispersal, leading to habitat destruction, fragmentation and local extinction. Reintroduced populations of lizards were subjected to 10 years of habitat fragmentation under continued fire suppression followed by twelve years of landscape restoration with prescribed burns. Prior to prescribed burning, genetic diversity decreased within glades and differentiation increased among glades....

Data from: Population genetics and origin of the native North American agricultural weed waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus)

Katherine E. Waselkov & Kenneth M. Olsen
Premise of the study: The evolution of invasiveness has been extensively studied in natural ecosystems; however, far less is known about the evolution of agricultural invasiveness, despite the major economic impact of weeds on crop productivity. Examining the population structure of recently arisen weeds can provide insights into evolutionary avenues to invasion of agroecosystems. Weeds that originate from wild plants are the most common yet least frequently studied type of agricultural invasive. Here we address...

Data from: Visual ecology of true lemurs suggests a cathemeral origin for the primate cone opsin polymorphism

Kim Valenta, Melissa Edwards, Radoniaina R. Rafaliarison, Steig E. Johnson, Sheila M. Holmes, Kevin A. Brown, Nathaniel J. Dominy, Shawn M. Lehman, Esteban J. Parra & Amanda D. Melin
In contrast to the majority of primates, which exhibit dedicated diurnality or nocturnality, all species of Eulemur are cathemeral. Color vision, in particular, is strongly affected by the spectral composition and intensity of ambient light, and the impact of activity period on the evolution of primate color vision is actively debated. We studied three groups of wild brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus) in Ankarafantsika National Park, Madagascar over a one-year span. We also used non-invasive fecal...

Data from: Human-aided and natural dispersal drive gene flow across the range of an invasive mosquito

Kim A. Medley, David G. Jenkins & Eric A. Hoffman
Human-aided transport is responsible for many contemporary species introductions, yet the contribution of human-aided transport to dispersal within non-native regions is less clear. Understanding dispersal dynamics for invasive species can streamline mitigation efforts by targeting routes that contribute disproportionally to spread. Because of its limited natural dispersal ability, rapid spread of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) has been attributed to human-aided transport, but until now the relative roles of human-aided and natural movement have...

Data from: Recurrent gene deletions and the evolution of adaptive cyanogenesis polymorphisms in white clover (Trifolium repens L.)

Kenneth M. Olsen, Nicholas J. Kooyers & Linda L. Small
Understanding the molecular evolution of genes that underlie intraspecific polymorphisms can provide insights into the process of adaptive evolution. For adaptive polymorphisms characterized by gene presence/absence (P/A) variation, underlying loci commonly show signatures of long-term balancing selection, with gene-presence and gene-absence alleles maintained as two divergent lineages. We examined the molecular evolution of two unlinked P/A polymorphisms that underlie a well-documented adaptive polymorphism for cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide release with tissue damage) in white clover. Both...

Data from: Post‐independence mortality of juveniles is driven by anthropogenic hazards for two passerines in an urban landscape

Solny A. Adalsteinsson, Jeffrey J. Buler, Jacob L. Bowman, Vincent D'Amico, Zachary S. Ladin & W. Gregory Shriver
Urban environments impose novel selection pressures with varying impacts across species and life history stages. The post‐fledging stage for migratory passerines, defined as the period of time from when hatch‐year birds fledge until their first migration, is a poorly understood component of annual productivity that potentially limits population growth. We studied two migratory passerines with positive and negative population responses to urbanization, respectively: Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis) and Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). Our goals were...

Data from: Sex ratio and gamete size across eastern North America in Dictyostelium discoideum, a social amoeba with three sexes

Tracy E. Douglas, Joan E. Strassmann & David C. Queller
Theory indicates that numbers of mating types should tend towards infinity or remain at two. The social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, however, has three mating types. It is therefore a mystery how this species has broken the threshold of two mating types, but has not increased towards a much higher number. Frequency dependent selection on rare types in combination with isogamy, a form of reproduction involving gametes similar in size, could explain the evolution of multiple...

Data from: Evidence that metallic proxies are unsuitable for assessing the mechanics of microwear formation and a new theory of the meaning of microwear

Adam Van Casteren, Peter W. Lucas, David S. Strait, Shaji Michael, Nick Bierwisch, Norbert Schwarzer, Khaled Al-Fadhalah, Abdulwahab Almusallam, Lidia Arockia Thai, Sreeja Saji, Ali Shekeban, Michael V. Swain, Khaled J. Al-Fadhalah & Abdulwahab S. Almusallam
Mammalian tooth wear research reveals contrasting patterns seemingly linked to diet: irregularly-pitted enamel surfaces, possibly from consuming hard seeds, vs. roughly-aligned linearly-grooved surfaces, associated with eating tough leaves. These patterns are important for assigning diet to fossils, including hominins. However, experiments establishing conditions necessary for such damage challenge this paradigm. Lucas et al. (2013) slid natural objects against enamel, concluding anything less hard than enamel would rub, not abrade, its surface (producing no immediate wear)....

Data from: Adaptive radiation along a deeply conserved genetic line of least resistance in Anolis lizards

Joel W. McGlothlin, Megan E. Kobiela, Helen V. Wright, D. Luke Mahler, Jason J. Kolbe, Jonathan B. Losos, & Edmund D. Brodie
On microevolutionary timescales, adaptive evolution depends upon both natural selection and the underlying genetic architecture of traits under selection, which may constrain evolutionary outcomes. Whether such genetic constraints shape phenotypic diversity over macroevolutionary timescales is more controversial, however. One key prediction is that genetic constraints should bias the early stages of species divergence along “genetic lines of least resistance” defined by the genetic (co)variance matrix, G. This bias is expected to erode over time as...

Data from: Mapping movement, mood, motivation, and mentation in the subthalamic nucleus

Amritha Gourisankar, Sarah A. Eisenstein, Nicholas T. Trapp, Jonathan M. Koller, Meghan C. Campbell, Mwiza Ushe, Joel S. Perlmutter, Tamara Hershey & Kevin J. Black
The anatomical connections of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) have driven hypotheses about its functional anatomy, including the hypothesis that the precise anatomical location of STN deep brain stimulation (DBS) contributes to the variability of motor and non-motor responses across Parkinson disease (PD) patients. We previously tested that hypothesis using a three-dimensional (3D) statistical method to interpret the acute effects of unilateral DBS at each patient’s clinically optimized DBS settings and active contact. Here we report...

Data from: Fruiting bodies of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum increase spore transport by Drosophila

Jeff Smith, David C. Queller & Joan E. Strassmann
Background: Many microbial phenotypes are the product of cooperative interactions among cells, but their putative fitness benefits are often not well understood. In the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, unicellular amoebae aggregate when starved and form multicellular fruiting bodies in which stress-resistant spores are held aloft by dead stalk cells. Fruiting bodies are thought to be adaptations for dispersing spores to new feeding sites, but this has not been directly tested. Here we experimentally test...

Data from: Invasive species reduces parasite prevalence and neutralizes negative environmental effects on parasitism in a native mosquito

Katie M. Westby, Brenden M. Sweetman, Thomas R. Van Horn, Elizabeth G. Biro & Kim A. Medley
1.Invasive species research often focuses on direct effects of invasion on native ecosystems and less so on complex effects such as those influencing host‐parasite interactions. However, invaders could have important effects on native host‐parasite dynamics. Where infectious stages are ubiquitous and native host‐pathogen specificity is strong, invasive less‐competent hosts may reduce the pool of infectious stages, effectively reducing native host‐parasite encounter rate. Alternatively, invasive species could alter transmission via changes in native species abundance. 2.Biotic...

Data and scripts from: Phylogenomic analysis points to a South American origin of Manihot and illuminates the primary gene pool of cassava

Marcelo F. Simon, J. Moises Mendoza F., Márcio Lacerda Lopes Martins, Sergei V. Drovetski, Natalia A. S. Przelomska, Hope Loiselle, Taciana B. Cavalcanti, Peter W. Inglis, Natalie G. Mueller, Robin G. Allaby, Fábio De Oliveira Freitas & Logan Kistler
The genus Manihot, with around 120 known species, is native to a wide range of habitats and regions in the tropical and subtropical Americas. Its high species richness and recent diversification only ~6Mya have significantly complicated previous phylogenetic analyses. Several basic elements of Manihot evolutionary history therefore remain unresolved. Here, we conduct a comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of Manihot, focusing on exhaustive sampling of South American taxa. We find that two recently described species from northeast...

Atlas of impact-induced, in vivo human brain kinematics

Arnold Gomez, Philip Bayly, John Butman, Dzung Pham, Jerry Prince & Andrew Knutsen
Accelerations cause brain tissue to move, and this data summarizes MRI-based observations of 3D brain movement during an in vivo impact (brain-skull displacement and brain tissue deformation). The data is a group average, or atlas, of indivudial data from two groups of study participants: neck extension (n=10) and neck rotation (n=9).

Changes in human health parameters associated with an immersive exhibit experience at a zoological institution

Audrey Coolman, Amy Niedbalski, David Powell, Corinne Kozlowski, Ashley Franklin & Sharon Deem
Zoological institutions often use immersive, naturalistic exhibits to create an inclusive atmosphere that is inviting for visitors while providing for the welfare of animals in their collections. In this study, we investigated physiological changes in salivary cortisol and blood pressure, as well as psychological changes among visitors before and after a walk through the River’s Edge, an immersive, naturalistic exhibit at the Saint Louis Zoo. Study participants had a significant reduction in salivary cortisol and...

Data from: Experimental study of species invasion – early population dynamics and role of disturbance in invasion success

David Reznick, Sebastiano De Bona, Andres Lopez-Sepulcre, Mauricio Torres, Ronald Bassar, Paul Bentzen & Joseph Travis
Much of our understanding of natural invasions is retrospective, based on data acquired after invaders become established. As a consequence, we know little about the characteristics of the early population growth and habitat use of the invaders during establishment. Here we report on experimental introductions of guppies into natural streams in which we conducted monthly censuses of each population. Two of the four introductions were in streams with thinned canopies, which mimics a common form...

Mutation of CFAP57, a protein required for the asymmetric targeting of a subset of inner dynein arms in Chlamydomonas, causes primary ciliary dyskinesia

Susan Dutcher, Ximena Bustamante-Marin, Amjad Horani, Mihaela Stoyanova, Wu-Lin Charng, Mathieu Bottier, Patrick Sears, Wei-Ning Yin, Leigh Anne Daniels, Hailey Bowen, Donald Conrad, Michael Knowles, Lawrence Ostrowski & Maimoona Zariwala
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is characterized by chronic airway disease, reduced fertility, and randomization of the left/right body axis. It is caused by defects of motile cilia and sperm flagella. We screened a cohort of affected individuals that lack an obvious axonemal defect for pathogenic variants using whole exome capture, next generation sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis assuming an autosomal recessive trait. We identified one subject with an apparently homozygous nonsense variant [(c.1762C>T), p.(Arg588*)] in the...

Data on assessing the effects of genetic divergence and morphology on Anolis lizard mating

Emmanuel D'Agostino, Colin Donihue, Jonathan Losos & Anthony Geneva
The brown anole (Anolis sagrei) is a widespread neotropical lizard found on many islands in the West Indies as well as the coast of Central America. Across their range, brown anole populations show extensive ecomorphological trait variation and substantial genetic divergence. It is unclear, however, whether this genetic and morphological divergence results in reproductive isolation between populations. We investigated variation in mating behavior across populations by analyzing four hours of video of each of 234...

Tree functional traits as predictors of microburst-associated treefalls in tropical wet forests

Alana Rader, Amy Cotrell, Anna Kudla, Tiffany Lum, David Henderson & Harshad Karandikar
On 19 May 2018 a microburst caused 600 isolated forest gaps in a Costa Rican tropical forest. We surveyed fallen and standing trees within gaps to determine if certain variables are associated with treefalls. Our results highlight considerations for future research to understand the impacts of microbursts in tropical forests. Our results show that at the scale and locality of our study, treefall vulnerability to microbursts and characteristics of fall events are independent of the...

How does viscosity contrast influence phase mixing and strain localization?

Andrew Cross, Philip Skemer, Hélène Couvy & Elizabeth Olree
Ultramylonites with well-mixed mineral phases are thought to be an essential feature of Earth-like plate tectonics, because coupled phase mixing and grain boundary pinning enable rocks to deform by grain-size-sensitive, self-softening creep mechanisms over long geologic timescales. In isoviscous two-phase composites (and in the absence of chemical exchange or reaction), bulk “geometric” phase mixing occurs via the sequential formation and disaggregation of compositional layering. However, the effects of viscosity contrast on the mechanism(s) and timescale(s)...

Data set from Argentinian plots from: 'Untangling the importance of niche breadth and niche position as drivers of tree species abundance and occupancy across biogeographic regions '. Global Ecology and Biogeography 2020. https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13139

Dilys M Vela Diaz, Cecilia Blundo, Leslie Cayola, Alfredo F. Fuentes, Lucio R Malizia & Jonathan Myers
Data package for 'Untangling the importance of niche breadth and niche position as drivers of tree species abundance and occupancy across biogeographic regions '. Global Ecology and Biogeography 2020. ABSTRACT Despite decades of interest in how ecological niches shape species commonness and rarity at local and regional scales, the relative importance of different niche mechanisms within and across ecosystems remains unresolved. We tested the relative importance of niche breadth (range of environmental conditions where species...

Gamma-CaSO4 with Abnormally High Stability from Hyperarid Region on Earth and from Mars

Erbin Shi, Alian Wang, Huafang Li, Zongcheng Ling & Ryan Ogliore

Data from: Simplified models of the symmetric single-pass parallel-plate counterflow heat exchanger: a tutorial

William Pickard, Barbara Abraham-Shrauner & William F. Pickard
The heat exchanger is important in practical thermal processes, especially those of (i) the molten-salt storage schemes, (ii) compressed air energy storage schemes, and (iii) other load-shifting thermal storage presumed to undergird a Smart Grid. Such devices, although central to the utilization of energy from sustainable (but intermittent) renewable sources, will be unfamiliar to many scientists, who nevertheless need a working knowledge of them. This tutorial paper provides a largely self-contained conceptual introduction for such...

Data from: Disturbance alters beta-diversity but not the relative importance of community assembly mechanisms

Jonathan A. Myers, Jonathan M. Chase, Raelene M. Crandall & Iván Jiménez
1.Ecological disturbances are often hypothesized to alter community assembly processes that influence variation in community composition (β-diversity). Disturbance can cause convergence in community composition (low β-diversity) by increasing niche selection of disturbance-tolerant species. Alternatively, disturbance can cause divergence in community composition (high β-diversity) by increasing habitat filtering across environmental gradients. However, because disturbance may also influence β-diversity through random sampling effects owing to changes in the number of individuals in local communities (community size) or...

Data from: Mixing of vineyard and oak-tree ecotypes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in North American vineyards

Katie E. Hyma & Justin C. Fay
Humans have had a significant impact on the distribution and abundance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through its widespread use in beer, bread and wine production. Yet, similar to other Saccharomyces species, S. cerevisiae has also been isolated from habitats unrelated to fermentations. Strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes, wine must and vineyards worldwide are genetically differentiated from strains isolated from oak-tree bark, exudate and associated soil in North America. However, the causes and consequences of...

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