24 Works

Effect of Environmental Weathering on Biodegradation of Biodegradable Plastic Mulch Films under Ambient Soil and Composting Conditions

Marife B. Anunciado, Douglas G. Hayes, Anton F. Astner, Larry C. Wadsworth, Christina Danielle Cowan-Banker, Jose E. Liquet Y Gonzalez & Jennifer M. DeBruyn
Plastic mulch films contribute to better crop production. Concerns for lack of sustainable disposal methods for conventional polyethylene (PE) mulch led to development of biodegradable plastic mulches (BDMs) that can be soil-incorporated or composted after use. Environmental weathering of BDMs during crop growth reduces their mechanical strength and alters the molecular structure of their polymeric components. However, the impact of weathering on BDMs’ biodegradability is not fully understood. The biodegradability of agriculturally weathered and unweathered...

Circular dichroism spectroscopic and small-angle neutron scattering analysis of alpha-synuclein and bacteriorhodopsin in bicontinuous microemulsions

Douglas Hayes, Divina Anunciado, Ran Ye, Rachel Williams, Hugh O'Neill, Sai Venkatesh Pingali & Volker Urban
The membrane proteins (MPs) alpha-synuclein (ASYN) and bacteriorhodopsin (BR) were readily incorporated into bicontinuous microemulsions (BMEs) formed by two microemulsion systems: water/heptane/Aerosol-OT (AOT)/CK-2,13 and water/dodecane/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/1-pentanol. (CK-2,13 is an alkyl ethoxylate possessing two alkyl tail groups of carbon chain length 2 and 13 and an average degree of ethoxylation of 5.6.) MPs were encapsulated in BMEs through preparation of Winsor-III systems at optimal salinity, with the anionic surfactants AOT and SDS providing the...

A sit-and-wait predator, but not an active-pursuit predator, alters pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits

Amanda Benoit & Christina Caruso
Indirect species interactions are ubiquitous in nature, often outnumbering direct species interactions. Yet despite evidence that indirect interactions have strong ecological effects, relatively little is known about whether they can shape adaptive evolution by altering the strength and/or direction of natural selection. We tested whether indirect interactions affect the strength and direction of pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits of the bumble-bee pollinated wildflower Lobelia siphilitica. We estimated the indirect effects of two pollinator predators with...

Oxylobus (Asteraceae) analysis DNA sequence data

Edward Schilling
A molecular phylogenetic investigation was carried out to clarify aspects of the systematics of Oxylobus, a primarily Mexican alpine genus of Eupatorieae. Analysis of sequence data from two nuclear (nrDNA ITS, ETS) and three plastid markers (rbcL, ndhF, matK) confirmed the monophyly of Oxylobus and placed species of Ageratina as its sister group. A survey of 56 samples of Oxylobus using nrDNA ITS and ETS provided support for the currently accepted species, and showed the...

Three periods of gold mineralization in the Liaodong Peninsula, North China Craton

Peng Zhang, Linlin Kou & Yang Zhao
The Liaodong gold province includes voluminous gold deposits, which occur in an Archean gneiss complex, Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks, and Mesozoic granite. However, the ore-forming age, the genesis, and the geodynamic setting of the gold deposits are not well constrained. In this study, we have summarized previous geochronology data, H-O-S-Pb isotopes, and He-Ar isotopic compositions of the gold deposits. Based on geochronology data, the gold mineralization was divided into Late Triassic, Early Jurassic, and Early Cretaceous....

Data for: Phylogenomic analyses reveal non-monophyly of the antbird genera Herpsilochmus and Sakesphorus (Thamnophilidae), with description of a new genus for Herpsilochmus sellowi

Gustavo Bravo, Bret Whitney, Ricardo Belmonte-Lopes, Marcos Bornschein, Natalia Aristizabal, Renata Beco, Jaqueline Battilana, Luciano Naka, Alexandre Aleixo, Marcio Pie, Luis Silveira, Elizabeth Derryberry & Robb Brumfield
The family Thamnophilidae is a species-rich Neotropical radiation of passerine birds. Current classification of its 235 species is mostly based on morphological similarities, but recent studies integrating comprehensive phenotypic and phylogenetic data have redefined taxonomic limits of several taxa. Here, we assess generic relationships of Herpsilochmus, Sakesphorus, Thamnophilus, Biatas, and Dysithamnus using DNA sequences from the mitochondrion, nuclear exons, and ultraconserved elements (UCEs), with further attention to interspecific relationships within Herpsilochmus. We show that Herpsilochmus...

Valenzuela phylogenomic dataset from: Illumina whole genome sequencing indicates ploidy level differences within the Valenzuela flavidus (Psocodea: Psocomorpha: Caeciliusidae) species complex

Robert De Moya
This contains data for the manuscript: "Illumina Whole Genome Sequencing indicates Ploidy Level Differences within the Valenzuela flavidus (Psocodea: Psocomorpha: Caeciliusidae) Species Complex". Valenzuela flavidus is a species of bark louse which is known to have asexual parthenogenetic populations in Europe but is believed to have sexual and asexual populations in North America as well. Historically, Valenzuela aurantiacus was the species epithet recognized for North American members until reports of asexual reproduction surfaced in certain...

Methodological advances for hypothesis‐driven ethnobiology

Orou G. Gaoue, Jacob Moutouama, Michael Coe, Matthew Bond, Elizabeth Green, Nadejda Sero, Bezeng Simmy & Kowiyou Yessoufou
Ethnobiology as a discipline has evolved recently to increasingly embrace theory-inspired and hypothesis driven approaches to study why and how local people choose plants and animals they interact with and use for their livelihood. However, testing complex hypotheses or a network of ethnobiological hypotheses is challenging, particularly for datasets with non-independent observations due to species phylogenetic relatedness or socio-relational links between participants. Further, to fully account for the dynamics of local ecological knowledge, it is...

Market forces determine the distribution of a leaky function in a simple microbial community

Jeffrey Morris, Sarah Adkins-Jablonsky, Colleen Clark, Matthew Kuhl & Spiridon Papoulis
Many biological functions are leaky, and organisms that perform them contribute some of their products to a community "marketplace" where non-performing individuals may compete for them. Leaky functions are partitioned unequally in microbial communities, and the evolutionary forces determining which species perform them and which become beneficiaries are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the market principle of comparative advantage determines the distribution of a leaky antibiotic resistance gene in an environment occupied by two...

Geographic patterns of genomic variation in the threatened Salado salamander, Eurycea chisholmensis

Chris Nice, James Fordyce, V. Alex Sotola, Justin Crow & Peter Diaz
Aquatic, karst and spring endemic organisms have become a focus of conservation efforts as human population densities and demand for groundwater increase. This is especially true of Texas salamanders in the genus Eurycea that have been the subject of investigations of patterns of genetic differentiation in order to understand their systematics and to inform conservation planning. Here we quantify patterns of population differentiation in the northern most species, Eurycea chisholmensis, the Salado salamander, which is...

Putative resistance and tolerance mechanisms have little impact on disease progression for an emerging salamander pathogen

Mark Wilber, Edward Carter, Matthew Gray & Cheryl Briggs
1. Resistance and tolerance are unique host defense strategies that can limit the impacts of a pathogen on a host. However, for most wildlife-pathogen systems there are still fundamental uncertainties regarding 1) how changes in resistance and tolerance can affect disease outcomes and 2) the mechanisms underlying resistance and tolerance in host populations. 2. Here, we first compared observed patterns of resistance and tolerance and their effects on disease outcomes among salamander species that are...

Intraspecific variation in symbiont density in an insect-microbe symbiosis

Benjamin Parker, Jan Hrcek, Ailsa McLean, Charles Godfray & Jennifer Brisson
Many insects host vertically-transmitted microbes, which can confer benefits to their hosts but are costly to maintain and regulate. A key feature of these symbioses is variation: for example, symbiont density can vary among host and symbiont genotypes. However, the evolutionary forces maintaining this variation remain unclear. We studied variation in symbiont density using the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and the bacterium Regiella insecticola, a symbiont that can protect its host against fungal pathogens. We...

Supplement to: Global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke care and intravenous thrombolysis

Raul Nogueira, Muhammed Qureshi, Mohamad Abdalkader, Sheila Martins, Hiroshi Yamagami, Zhongming Qiu, Ossama Mansour, Anvitha Sathya, Anna Czlonkowska, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Diana Aguiar De Sousa, Jelle Demeestere, Robert Mikulik, Peter Vanacker, James Siegler, Janika Korv, Jose Biller, Conrad Liang, Navdeep Sangha, Alicia Zha, Alexandra Czap, Christine Holmstedt, Tanya Turan, George Ntaios, Konark Malhotra … & Thanh Nguyen
Objective: The objectives of this study were to measure the global impact of the pandemic on the volumes for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with two control 4-month periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in...

Data from: Invasion-induced root-fungal disruptions alter plant water and nitrogen economies

Lalasia Bialic-Murphy, Nick Smith, Priya Voothuluru, Robert McElderry, Morgan Roche, Steven Cassidy, Stephanie Kivlin & Susan Kaliz
Despite widespread evidence that biological invasion influences both the biotic and abiotic soil environments, the extent to which these two pathways underpin the effects of invasion on plant traits and performance is unknown. Leveraging a long-term (14-yr) field experiment, we show that an allelochemical-producing invader affects plants through biotic mechanisms, altering the soil fungal community composition, with no apparent shifts in soil nutrient availability. Changes in belowground fungal communities resulted in high costs of nutrient...

Schoenoplectus salinity tolerance and regional environmental records

Michael Blum
Evidence is mounting that climate-driven shifts in environmental conditions can elicit organismal evolution, yet there are sparingly few long-term records that document the tempo and progression of responses, particularly for plants capable of transforming ecosystems. In this study, we ‘resurrected’ cohorts of a foundational coastal marsh sedge (Schoenoplectus americanus) from a time-stratified seed bank to reconstruct a century-long record of heritable variation in response to salinity exposure. Common-garden experiments revealed that S. americanus exhibits heritable...

Data from: Predicting southern zigzag salamander (Plethodon ventralis) occupancy in a fragmented landscape

Todd Pierson, Bryce Wade & Benjamin Fitzpatrick
We used repeated sampling of random quadrats and occupancy models to evaluate how the local distribution of the Southern Zigzag Salamander (Plethodon ventralis) in an urban and suburban landscape is influenced by: 1) forest patch size; 2) dominant lithology; and 3) invasive groundcover.

Data from: Pervasive cropland in protected areas highlight trade-offs between conservation and food security

Varsha Vijay & Paul Armsworth
Global cropland expansion over the last century caused widespread habitat loss and degradation. Establishment of protected areas aims to counteract the loss of habitats and to slow species extinctions. However, many protected areas also include high levels of habitat disturbance and conversion for uses such as cropland. Understanding where and why this occurs may realign conservation priorities and inform protected area policy in light of competing priorities such as food security. Here we use a...

Data from: Genetic data reveal fine-scale ecological segregation between larval plethodontid salamanders in replicate contact zones

Todd Pierson, Carlos Camp & Benjamin Fitzpatrick
Contact zones present unique opportunities to investigate ecological divergence, reproductive barriers, and gene flow between species. The two-lined salamander (Eurycea bislineata) species complex is a group of semiaquatic plethodontid salamanders with a reticulate evolutionary history that reflects the reorganization of river drainage basins. Although evidence for widespread, ancient introgression suggests an absence of reproductive isolating mechanisms in the early evolutionary history of the group, modern contact zones reveal a broader diversity of outcomes—with some putative...

Wing plasticity and associated gene expression varies across the pea aphid biotype complex

Benjamin J. Parker, Rose M. H. Driscoll, Mary E. Grantham, Jan Hrcek & Jennifer A. Brisson
Developmental phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon that allows organisms to produce different adult phenotypes in response to different environments. Investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying plasticity has the potential to reveal the precise changes that lead to the evolution of plasticity as a phenotype. Here, we study wing plasticity in multiple host-plant adapted populations of pea aphids as a model for understanding adaptation to different environments within a single species. We describe the wing plasticity...

Data for: Ecology and behavior predict an evolutionary trade-off between song complexity and elaborate plumages in antwrens (Aves, Thamnophilidae)

Renata Beco, Luís Fábio Silveira, Elizabeth Derryberry & Gustavo Bravo
The environment can impose constraints on signal transmission properties such that signals should evolve in predictable directions (Sensory Drive Hypothesis). However, behavioral and ecological factors can limit investment in more than one sensory modality leading to a trade-off in use of different signals (Transfer Hypothesis). In birds, there is mixed evidence for both sensory drive and transfer hypothesis. Few studies have tested sensory drive while also evaluating the transfer hypothesis, limiting understanding of the relative...

Data from: Volatile fatty acid concentration, soil pH and soil texture during anaerobic soil conditions affect germination of Athelia (Sclerotium) rolfsii sclerotia

Keagan Swilling, Utsala Shrestha, Bonnie Ownley, Kimberly Gwinn & David Butler
Anaerobic growth chamber trials were conducted to evaluate effects of VFA and VFA concentration, and interactions with soil pH and soil texture, on A. rolfsii sclerotia germination. In the first objective, sclerotia were exposed to 4, 8, or 16 mmol/kg soil of acetic or n-butyric acids in sandy soil; soil pH was buffered to 5, 6, or 7. In the second objective, sclerotia in sandy or sandy loam soil were exposed to 4 or 16...

Limited ant co-occurrence and defensive mutualism in Acacia plants in a West African savanna

Orou G. Gaoue, Anyse Djogbenou, Akomian Azihou, Anicet Dassou, Achille Assogbadjo & Bathelemy Kassa
Our understanding of the role of fire and effect of ant species composition, beyond their diversity and abundance, on the effectiveness of mutualism defense is limited. Most of our knowledge of ant-plant defense in tropical Africa is biased toward East African savannas which have richer soil, higher primary productivity and a more diverse arthropods and mammal community than West African savannas. We assessed the diversity of ant species associated with Acacia species in the Pendjari...

Phylogeny reveals non-random medicinal plant organs selection by local people in Benin

Orou G. Gaoue, Kowiyou Yessoufou, Ledile Mangka & Fifanou Vodouhe
1. Ethnobotany, the science of human-plant interactions, has for long focused on documenting the traditional knowledge that humans have developed and accumulated over centuries towards plant uses. However, how such knowledge is constructed remains poorly understood and some of the methodological approaches developed for this purpose have been criticized. 2. Here, we combine negative binomial models and phylogenetic comparative methods to test whether selection of medicinal plant species and organs by local people are non-random...

Three periods of gold mineralization in the Liaodong Peninsula, North China Craton

Peng Zhang, Linlin Kou & Yang Zhao
The Liaodong gold province includes voluminous gold deposits, which occur in an Archean gneiss complex, Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks, and Mesozoic granite. However, the ore-forming age, the genesis, and the geodynamic setting of the gold deposits are not well constrained. In this study, we have summarized previous geochronology data, H-O-S-Pb isotopes, and He-Ar isotopic compositions of the gold deposits. Based on geochronology data, the gold mineralization was divided into Late Triassic, Early Jurassic, and Early Cretaceous....

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Tennessee at Knoxville
  • Harvard University
  • China Astronaut Research and Training Center
  • Sun Yat-sen University
  • Stanford University
  • Binzhou Medical College Hospital
  • Kennesaw State University
  • Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center
  • Huazhong University of Science and Technology
  • University of Tennessee System