140 Works

Data from: Drivers of spatio-temporal patterns of salinity in Spanish rivers: a nationwide assessment

Edurne Estévez, Tamara Rodríguez-Castillo, Alexia M Aria González-Ferreras, Miguel Cañedo-Argüelles & José Barquín
The salinization of freshwaters is a global water quality problem that leads to the biological degradation of aquatic ecosystems. However, little is known about the spatial extent of freshwater salinization and the relative contribution of each human activity (e.g. agriculture, urbanization, mining or shale-gas extraction). Here, we investigated environmental factors that explain spatio-temporal patterns of water salinity and examined the causes, the extent and the degree of salinization of Spanish rivers. Results showed a strong...

Data from: Re-visiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations

Alain C. Frantz, Allan D. McDevitt, Lisa C. Pope, Joanna Kochan, John Davison, Chris F. Clements, Morten Elmeros, Guillem Molina-Vacas, Aritz Ruiz-Gonzalez, Alessandro Balestrieri, Koen Van Den Berge, Peter Breyne, Emmanuel Do Linh San, Erik O. Ågren, Franz Suchentrunk, Laurent Schley, Rafał Kowalczyk, Berit I. Kostka, Dusko Ćirović, Nikica Šprem, Marc Colyn, Marco Ghirardi, Venislava Racheva, Christophe Braun, Rita Oliveira … & Terry Burke
Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples...

Data from: Of niche differentiation, dispersal ability and historical legacies: what drives woody community assembly in recent Mediterranean forests?

Corina Basnou, Paloma Vicente, Josep Maria Espelta & Joan Pino
Community assembly rules have been extensively studied, but its association with regional environmental variation and land use history remains largely unexplored. Land use history might be especially important in Mediterranean forests, considering their historical deforestation and recent afforestation. Using forest inventories and historical (1956) and recent (2000) land cover maps, we explored the following hypotheses: 1) woody species assembly is driven by environmental factors, but also by historical landscape attributes; 2) recent forests exhibit lower...

Data from: Effects of the selective stretch-activated channel blocker GsMtx4 on stretch-induced changes in refractoriness in isolated rat hearts and on ventricular premature beats and arrhythmias after coronary occlusion in swine

José A. Barrabés, Javier Inserte, Luis Agulló, Antonio Rodríguez-Sinovas, Juan J. Alburquerque-Béjar & David Garcia-Dorado
Mechanical factors may contribute to ischemic ventricular arrhythmias. GsMtx4 peptide, a selective stretch-activated channel blocker, inhibits stretch-induced atrial arrhythmias. We aimed to assess whether GsMtx4 protects against ventricular ectopy and arrhythmias following coronary occlusion in swine. First, the effects of 170-nM GsMtx4 on the changes in the effective refractory period (ERP) induced by left ventricular (LV) dilatation were assessed in 8 isolated rat hearts. Then, 44 anesthetized, open-chest pigs subjected to 50-min left anterior descending...

Data from: Individual inversions or their combinations: which is the main selective target in a natural population of Drosophila subobscura?

Goran Zivanovic, Concepció Arenas & Francesc Mestres
It is generally accepted that chromosomal inversions have been key elements in adaptation and speciation processes. In this context, D. subobscura has been, and still is, an excellent model species due to its rich chromosomal polymorphism. In this species, many analyses from natural populations have demonstrated the adaptive potential of individual inversions (and their overlapped combinations, the so called arrangements). However, little information is available on the evolutionary role of combinations generated by inversions located...

Data from: The origin of modern frogs (Neobatrachia) was accompanied by acceleration in mitochondrial and nuclear substitution rates

Iker Irisarri, Diego San Mauro, Federico Abascal, Annemarie Ohler, Miguel Vences & Rafael Zardoya
BACKGROUND: Understanding the causes underlying heterogeneity of molecular evolutionary rates among lineages is a long-standing and central question in evolutionary biology. Although several earlier studies showed that modern frogs (Neobatrachia) experienced an acceleration of mitochondrial gene substitution rates compared to non-neobatrachian relatives, no further characterization of this phenomenon was attempted. To gain new insights on this topic, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes and nine nuclear loci of one pelobatoid (Pelodytes punctatus) and five neobatrachians,...

Data from: How do baleen whales stow their filter? A comparative biomechanical analysis of baleen bending

Alexander J. Werth, Diego Rita, Michael V. Rosario, Michael J. Moore & Todd L. Sformo
Bowhead and right whale (balaenid) baleen filtering plates, longer in vertical dimension (3-4+ m) than the closed mouth, presumably bend during gape closure. This has not been observed in live whales, even with scrutiny of videorecorded feeding sequences. To determine what happens to baleen as gape closes, we conducted an integrative, multifactorial study including materials testing, functional (flow tank and kinematic) testing, and histological examination. We measured baleen bending properties along the dorsoventral length of...

Data from: Phylogeography of western Mediterranean Cymbalaria (Plantaginaceae) reveals two independent long-distance dispersals and entails new taxonomic circumscriptions

Pau Carnicero, Peter Schönswetter, Pere Fraga Arguimbau, Núria Garcia-Jacas, Llorenç Sáez & Mercè Galbany-Casals
The Balearic Islands, Corsica and Sardinia (BCS) constitute biodiversity hotspots in the western Mediterranean Basin. Oligocene connections and long distance dispersal events have been suggested to cause presence of BCS shared endemic species. One of them is Cymbalaria aequitriloba, which, together with three additional species, constitute a polyploid clade endemic to BCS. Combining amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, plastid DNA sequences and morphometrics, we inferred the phylogeography of the group and evaluated the species’...

Data from: The interplay among acorn abundance and rodent behavior drives the spatial pattern of seedling recruitment in mature Mediterranean oak forests

Pau Sunyer, Ester Boixadera, Alberto Muñoz, Raúl Bonal & Josep Maria Espelta
The patterns of seedling recruitment in animal-dispersed plants result from the interactions among environmental and behavioral variables. However, we know little on the contribution and combined effect of both kinds of variables. We designed a field study to assess the interplay between environment (vegetation structure, seed abundance, rodent abundance) and behavior (seed dispersal and predation by rodents, and rooting by wild boars), and their contribution to the spatial patterns of seedling recruitment in a Mediterranean...

Data from: Herbivore control in connected seascapes: habitat determines when population regulation occurs in the life history of a key herbivore

Jordi Boada, Simone Farina, Rohan Arthur, Javier Romero, Patricia Prado & Teresa Alcoverro
Herbivore outbreaks often trigger catastrophic overgrazing events in marine macrophyte ecosystems. The sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, the dominant herbivore of shallow Mediterranean seascapes, is capable of precipitating shifts to barrens when its populations explode. P. lividus is found ubiquitously in rocky macroalgal communities and in sandy seagrass meadows of Posidonia oceanica, two of the most important subtidal habitats in the Mediterranean. We explored if habitat-specific regulation across the principal stages of the urchin life cycle...

Data from: How much would it cost to monitor farmland biodiversity in Europe?

Ilse R. Geijzendorffer, Stefano Targetti, Manuel K. Schneider, Dick J. Brus, Philippe Jeanneret, Robert H. G. Jongman, Martin Knotters, Davide Viaggi, Siyka Angelova, Michaela Arndorfer, Debra Bailey, Katalin Balzacs, András Báldim, Marion M. B. Bogers, Robert G.H. Bunce, Jean-Philippe Choisis, Peter Dennis, Sebastian Eiter, Wendy Fjellstad, Jürgen F. Friedel, Tiziano Gomiero, Arjan Griffioen, Max Kainz, Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Gisela Lüscher … & András Báldi
To evaluate progress on political biodiversity objectives, biodiversity monitoring provides information on whether intended results are being achieved. Despite scientific proof that monitoring and evaluation increase the (cost) efficiency of policy measures, cost estimates for monitoring schemes are seldom available, hampering their inclusion in policy programme budgets. Empirical data collected from 12 case studies across Europe were used in a power analysis to estimate the number of farms that would need to be sampled per...

Data from: Intrinsically regulated learning is modulated by synaptic dopamine signaling

Pablo Ripollés, Laura Ferreri, Ernest Mas-Herrero, Helena Alicart, Alba Gómez-Andrés, Josep Marco-Pallares, Rosa Maria Antonijoan, Toemme Noesselt, Marta Valle, Jordi Riba & Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells
We recently provided evidence that an intrinsic reward-related signal-triggered by successful learning in absence of any external feedback-modulated the entrance of new information into long-term memory via the activation of the dopaminergic midbrain, hippocampus, and ventral striatum (the SN/VTA-Hippocampal loop; Ripollés et al., 2016). Here, we used a double-blind, within-subject randomized pharmacological intervention to test whether this learning process is indeed dopamine-dependent. A group of healthy individuals completed three behavioral sessions of a language-learning task...

Data from: Convergence of gut microbiotas in the adaptive radiations of African cichlid fishes

Laura Baldo, Joan Lluís Pretus, Joan Lluís Riera, Zuzana Musilova, Arnold Roger Bitja Nyom & Walter Salzburger
Ecoevolutionary dynamics of the gut microbiota at the macroscale level, that is, in across-species comparisons, are largely driven by ecological variables and host genotype. The repeated explosive radiations of African cichlid fishes in distinct lakes, following a dietary diversification in a context of reduced genetic diversity, provide a natural setup to explore convergence, divergence and repeatability in patterns of microbiota dynamics as a function of the host diet, phylogeny and environment. Here we characterized by...

A novel mitochondrial Kv1.3-caveolin axis controls cell survival and apoptosis

Antonio Felipe, Jesusa Capera, Mireia Pérez-Verdaguer, Roberta Peruzzo, María Navarro-Pérez, Juan Martínez-Pinna, Armando Alberola-Die, Andrés Morales, Luigi Leanza & Ildiko Szabo
The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 plays an apparent dual physiological role by participating in activation and proliferation of leukocytes as well as promoting apoptosis in several types of tumor cells. Therefore, Kv1.3 is considered a potential pharmacological target for immunodeficiency and cancer. Different cellular locations of Kv1.3, at the plasma membrane or the mitochondria, could be responsible for such duality. While plasma membrane Kv1.3 facilitates proliferation, the mitochondrial channel modulates apoptotic signaling. Several molecular determinants...

Data from: Natural disturbances can produce misleading bioassessment results: identifying metrics to detect anthropogenic impacts in intermittent rivers

Maria Soria, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Núria Bonada, Raúl Acosta, Pablo Rodríguez-Lozano, Pau Frotuño, Gemma Burgazzi, Dolors Vinyoles, Francesc Gallart, Jérôme Latron, Pilar Llorens, Narcís Prat & Núria Cid
Ecosystems experience natural disturbances and anthropogenic impacts that affect biological communities and ecological processes. When natural disturbance modifies anthropogenic impacts, current widely used bioassessment metrics can prevent accurate assessment of biological quality. Our aim was to assess the ability of biomonitoring metrics to detect anthropogenic impacts at both perennial and intermittent sites, and in the latter including both flowing and disconnected pool aquatic phases. Specifically, aquatic macroinvertebrates from 20 rivers were sampled along gradients of...

Influence of the Attachment of a Gold(I) Phosphine Moiety at the Upper Rim of a Calix[4]pyrrole on the Binding of Tetraalkylammonium Chloride Salts

Qingqing Sun, Gemma Aragay, Andrea Pinto, Elisabet Aguiló, Laura Rodriguez & Pablo Ballester
Abstract We report the synthesis of an unprecedented mono-gold(I) phosphine complex based on a “two-wall” aryl-ethynyl extended calix[4]pyrrole. We describe and compare the binding properties of th...

Supplementary information for Paleoceanographic changes in the late Pliocene promoted rapid diversification in pelagic seabirds

Joan Ferrer Obiol, Helen F. James, R. Terry Chesser, Vincent Bretagnolle, Jacob González-Solís, Julio Rozas, Andreanna J. Welch & Marta Riutort
Aim: Paleoceanographic changes can act as drivers of diversification and speciation, even in highly mobile marine organisms. Shearwaters are a group of globally distributed and highly mobile pelagic seabirds. Despite a recent well resolved phylogeny, shearwaters have controversial species limits, and show periods of both slow and rapid diversification. Here, we explore the role of paleoceanographic changes on the diversification and speciation in these highly mobile pelagic seabirds. We investigate shearwater biogeography and the evolution...

Data from: Laboratory selection quickly erases historical differentiation

Inês Fragata, Pedro Simões, Miguel Lopes-Cunha, Margarida Lima, Bárbara Kellen, Margarida Bárbaro, Josiane Santos, Michael R. Rose, Mauro Santos & Margarida Matos
The roles of history, chance and selection have long been debated in evolutionary biology. Though uniform selection is expected to lead to convergent evolution between populations, contrasting histories and chance events might prevent them from attaining the same adaptive state, rendering evolution somewhat unpredictable. The predictability of evolution has been supported by several studies documenting repeatable adaptive radiations and convergence in both nature and laboratory. However, other studies suggest divergence among populations adapting to the...

Data from: Microelastic mapping of the rat dentate gyrus

Tomas Luque, Michael S. Kang, David V. Schaffer & Sanjay Kumar
The lineage commitment of many cultured stem cells, including adult neural stem cells (NSCs), is strongly sensitive to the stiffness of the underlying extracellular matrix. However, it remains unclear how well the stiffness ranges explored in culture align with the microscale stiffness values stem cells actually encounter within their endogenous tissue niches. To address this question in the context of hippocampal NSCs, we used atomic force microscopy to spatially map the microscale elastic modulus (E)...

Data from: Intraspecific genetic structure, divergence and high rates of clonality in an amphi-Atlantic starfish

Alex Garcia-Cisneros, Crue Palacín, Carlos Renato R. Ventura, Barbara Feital, Paulo C. Paiva & Rocio Perez Portela
Intraspecific genetic diversity and divergence have a large influence on the adaption and evolutionary potential of species. The widely distributed starfish, Coscinasterias tenuispina, combines sexual reproduction with asexual reproduction via fission. Here we analyse the phylogeography of this starfish to reveal historical and contemporary processes driving its intraspecific genetic divergence. We further consider whether asexual reproduction is the most important method of propagation throughout the distribution range of this species. Our study included 326 individuals...

Data from: Biodiversity in perennial and intermittent rivers: a meta-analysis

Maria Soria, Catherine Leigh, Thibault Datry, Luis Mauricio Bini & Nuria Bonada
Comprehensive knowledge of the effects of disturbances on biodiversity is crucial for conservation and management, not least because ecosystems with low biodiversity may be the most vulnerable. In rivers, the role of disturbance in shaping aquatic biodiversity has mainly focused on floods. Perennial rivers (PRs) often flood, whereas intermittent rivers (IRs) flood, stop flowing and dry. Despite the recent and significant increase in research on IRs, controversy remains about whether they are more or less...

Data from: Warming impacts on early life stages increase the vulnerability and delay the population recovery of a long-lived habitat-forming macroalga

Pol Capdevila, Bernat Hereu, Roberto Salguero-Gómez, Graciel·La Rovira, Alba Medrano, Emma Cebrian, Joaquim Garrabou, Diego K. Kersting & Cristina Linares
1. Understanding the combined effects of global and local stressors is crucial for conservation and management, yet challenging due to the different scales at which these stressors operate. Here we examine the effects of one of the most pervasive threats to marine biodiversity, ocean warming, on the early life stages of the habitat-forming macroalga Cystoseira zosteroides, its long-term consequences for population resilience and its combined effect with physical stressors. 2. First, we performed a controlled...

Data from: Persistent natural acidification drives major distribution shifts in marine benthic ecosystems

Cristina Linares, Montserrat Vidal, Miquel Canals, Diego Kersting, David Amblas, Eneko Aspillaga, Emma Cebrian, Antonio Delgado-Huertas, David Diaz, Joaquim Garrabou, Bernat Hereu, Laura Navarro, Nuria Teixido & Enric Ballesteros
Ocean acidification is one of the main stressors affecting marine ecosystems. Rare CO2 vents offer a unique opportunity to investigate the response of benthic ecosystems to acidification. However, the benthic habitats that have been investigated so far are mainly very shallow water (≤5 m depth) and, therefore, to habitats that are poorly representative of the broad range of habitats that occur on the continental shelf. Here, we show that a decrease from pH 8.1 to...

Data from: Local pain dynamics during constant exhaustive exercise

Agnė Slapšinskaitė, Selen Razon, Natàlia Balagué, Robert Hristovski, Gershon Tenenbaum & Natàlia Balagué Serre
The purpose of this study was to delineate the topological dynamics of pain and discomfort during constant exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Eleven physical education students were tested while cycling and running at a “hard” intensity level (e.g., corresponding to Borg’s RPE (6–20) = 15). During the tests, participants reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15s. “Time on task” for each participant was divided into five equal non-overlapping temporal windows within...

Rethinking megafauna

Marcos Moleón, José Sánchez-Zapata, José Donázar, Eloy Revilla, Berta Martín-López, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Wayne Getz, Zebensui Morales-Reyes, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, Larry Crowder, Mauro Galetti, Manuela González-Suárez, Fengzhi He, Pedro Jordano, Rebecca Lewison, Robin Naidoo, Norman Owen-Smith, Nuria Selva, Jens-Christian Svenning, José Tella, Christiane Zarfl, Sonja Jähnig, Matt Hayward, Søren Faurby, Nuria García … & Klement Tochner
Concern for megafauna is increasing among scientists and non-scientists. Many studies have emphasized that megafauna play prominent ecological roles and provide important ecosystem services to humanity. But, what precisely are “megafauna”? Here we critically assess the concept of megafauna and propose a goal-oriented framework for megafaunal research. First, we review definitions of megafauna and analyze associated terminology in the scientific literature. Second, we conduct a survey among ecologists and paleontologists to assess the species traits...

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  • University of Barcelona
  • Spanish National Research Council
  • Centre for Research on Ecology and Forestry Applications
  • Estación Biológica de Doñana
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
  • Institut de Ciències del Mar
  • University of the Basque Country
  • Centre d'Etudes Biologiques de Chizé
  • Aarhus University
  • National Scientific and Technical Research Council