140 Works

The non-dereliction in evolution: Trophic specialisation drives convergence in the radiation of red devil spiders (Araneae: Dysderidae) in the Canary Islands

Adrià Bellvert, Silvia Adrián-Serrano, Nuria Macías-Hernández, Søren Toft, Antigoni Kaliontzopoulou & Miquel A. Arnedo
Natural selection plays a key role in deterministic evolution, as clearly illustrated by adaptive radiations. Unlike most spiders, Dysdera species display a high variability of cheliceral morphologies, which has been suggested to reflect different levels of specialisation to feed on isopods. In this study, we integrate geometric morphometrics and experimental trials with a fully resolved phylogeny of the highly diverse endemic species from the Canary Islands to (1) characterize cheliceral morphologies, (2) unravel their dietary...

β-cell-specific deletion of Zfp148 improves nutrient-stimulated β-cell Ca2+ responses

Christopher Emfinger, Alan Attie, Matthew Merrins, Eleonora De Klerk, Matthias Hebrok, Richard Kibbey, Rebecca Cardone, Kathryn Schueler, Mary Rabaglia, Shane Simonett, Donnie Stapleton, Kelly Mitok, Sophie Lewandowski, Ziyue Wang, Christina Kendziorski, Mark Keller, Hannah Foster, Stephen Gygi, Xinyue Liu, Joao Paulo, Qinq Yu & José Perales
Insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells is essential for glucose homeostasis. An insufficient response to the demand for insulin results in diabetes. We previously showed that β-cell-specific deletion of Zfp148 (β-Zfp148KO) improves glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in mice. Here, we performed Ca2+ imaging of islets from β‑Zfp148KO and control mice on both a chow and a Western-style diet. β-Zfp148KO islets demonstrate improved sensitivity and sustained Ca2+ oscillations in response to elevated glucose. β-Zfp148KO islets also...

Dataset: A global synthesis of human impacts on the multifunctionality of streams and rivers

Mario Brauns, Daniel C. Allen, Iola G. Boëchat, Wyatt F. Cross, Verónica Ferreira, Daniel Graeber, Christopher J. Patrick, Marc Peipoch, Daniel Von Schiller & Björn Gücker
Human impacts, particularly nutrient pollution and land-use change, have caused significant declines in the quality and quantity of freshwater resources. Most global assessments have concentrated on species diversity and composition, but effects on the multifunctionality of streams and rivers remain unclear. Here, we analyse the most comprehensive compilation of stream ecosystem functions to date to provide an overview of the responses of nutrient uptake, leaf litter decomposition, ecosystem productivity, and food web complexity to six...

Dugesia (Tricladida, Platyhelminthes) Cox1, 18S, 28S, ITS-1, DUNUC3, DUNUC5 datasets for worldwide biogeographic study

Marta Riutort & Eduard Solà
Aim: Freshwater planarians may have a wide geographic range despite their assumed low vagility. Found across four continents, Dugesia may have either an ancient origin on a large paleo landmass, followed by colonisation in different regions before continental fragmentation, or a more recent origin and subsequent transoceanic dispersal. We seek to resolve between these two hypotheses. Location: Africa, Eurasia, and Australasia Taxon: Genus Dugesia (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Dugesiidae) Methods: We used data from the sequencing of...

Data from: Introduced Drosophila subobscura populations perform better than native populations during an oviposition choice task due to increased fecundity but similar learning ability

Julien Foucaud, Céline Moreno, Marta Pascual, Enrico L. Rezende, Luis E. Castañeda, Patricia Gibert & Frederic Mery
The success of invasive species is tightly linked to their fitness in a putatively novel environment. While quantitative components of fitness have been studied extensively in the context of invasive species, fewer studies have looked at qualitative components of fitness, such as behavioral plasticity, and their interaction with quantitative components, despite intuitive benefits over the course of an invasion. In particular, learning is a form of behavioral plasticity that makes it possible to finely tune...

Data from: Isotopic niche partitioning between two apex predators over time

Massimiliano Drago, Luis Cardona, Valentina Franco-Trecu, Enrique A. Crespo, Damian Vales, Florencia Borrella, Lisette Zenteno, & Pablo Inchausti
1. Stable isotope analyses have become an important tool in reconstructing diets, analyzing resource use patterns, elucidating trophic relations among predators and understanding the structure of food webs. 2. Here, we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in bone collagen to reconstruct and compare the isotopic niches of adult South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis); n = 86) and sea lions (Otaria flavescens); n = 49) –two otariid species with marked morphological differences– in...

Data from: Relationships among taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic ant diversity across the biogeographic regions of Europe

Xavier Arnan, Xim Cerdá & Javier Retana
Understanding how different biodiversity components are related across different environmental conditions is a major goal in macroecology and conservation biogeography. We investigated correlations among alpha and beta taxonomic (TD), phylogenetic (PD), and functional diversity (FD) in ant communities in the five biogeographic regions most representative of western Europe; we also examined the degree of niche conservatism. We combined data from 349 ant communities composed of 154 total species, which were characterized by 10 functional traits...

Data from: Locomotor mode and the evolution of the hindlimb in Western Mediterranean Anurans

Urtzi Enriquez-Urzelai, Albert Montori, Gustavo A. Llorente & Antigoni Kaliontzopoulou
The evolutionary association between morphology, locomotor performance and habitat use is a central element of the ecomorphological paradigm, and it is known to underlie the evolution of phenotypic diversity in numerous animal taxa. In anuran amphibians the hindlimb acts as the propulsive agent, and as such, it is directly associated with jumping performance. In this study we combine individual- and species-level analyses to examine the effects of locomotor mode on body size and hindlimb morphology...

Data from: Defining conservation units with enhanced molecular tools to reveal fine scale structuring among Mediterranean green turtle rookeries

Phil J. Bradshaw, Annette C. Broderick, Carlos Carreras, Wayne Fuller, Robin T.E. Snape, Lucy I. Wright, Brendan J. Godley, A.C. Broderick, R.T.E. Snape, B.J. Godley, P.J. Bradshaw & L.I. Wright
Understanding the connectivity among populations is a key research priority for species of conservation concern. Genetic tools are widely used for this purpose, but the results can be limited by the resolution of the genetic markers in relation to the species and geographic scale. Here, we investigate natal philopatry in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from four rookeries within close geographic proximity (~ 200km) on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus. We genotyped hypervariable mtSTRs, a mtDNA...

Data from: From groups to communities in western lowland gorillas

Giovanni Forcina, Dominique Vallet, Pascaline J. Le Gouar, Rubén Bernardo-Madrid, Germán Illera, Guillem Molina-Vacas, Stéphane Dréano, Eloy Revilla, José Domingo Rodríguez-Tejeiro, Nelly Ménard, Magdalena Bermejo, Carles Vilà & José Domingo Rodríguez-Teijeiro
Social networks are the result of interactions between individuals at different temporal scales. Thus, sporadic intergroup encounters and individual forays play a central role in defining the dynamics of populations in social species. We assessed the rate of intergroup encounters for three western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) groups with daily observations over five years, and noninvasively genotyped a larger population over four months. Both approaches revealed a social system much more dynamic than anticipated,...

Data from: Vascular disease in COPD: systemic and pulmonary expression of PARC (Pulmonary and Activation-Regulated Chemokine)

Mariana Muñoz-Esquerre, Elisabeth Aliagas, Marta López-Sánchez, Ignacio Escobar, Daniel Huertas, Rosa Penín, Jordi Dorca, Salud Santos & Elisabet Aliagas
Introduction. The role of Pulmonary and Activation-Regulated Chemokine (PARC) in the physiopathology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is not fully understood. The aim of the present study is to analyze the expression of PARC in lung tissue and its relationship with the vascular remodeling of the systemic and pulmonary arteries of COPD subjects. Methods. To achieve this objective, protein and gene expression experiments, together with ELISA assays, were performed on the lung tissue, intercostal...

Data from: Immanent conditions determine imminent collapses: nutrient regimes define the resilience of macroalgal communities

Jordi Boada, Rohan Arthur, David Alonso, Jordi F. Pagès, Albert Pessarrodona, Silvia Oliva, Giulia Ceccherelli, Luigi Piazzi, Javier Romero & Teresa Alcoverro
Predicting where state-changing thresholds lie can be inherently complex in ecosystems characterized by nonlinear dynamics. Unpacking the mechanisms underlying these transitions can help considerably reduce this unpredictability. We used empirical observations, field and laboratory experiments, and mathematical models to examine how differences in nutrient regimes mediate the capacity of macrophyte communities to sustain sea urchin grazing. In relatively nutrient-rich conditions, macrophyte systems were more resilient to grazing, shifting to barrens beyond 1 800 g m−2...

Data from: Matrix composition and patch edges influence plant-herbivore interactions in marine landscapes

Jordi F. Pagès, Alessandro Gera, Javier Romero & Teresa Alcoverro
The functioning of ecosystems can be strongly driven by landscape attributes. Despite its importance, however, our understanding of how landscape influences ecosystem function derives mostly from species richness and abundance patterns, with few studies assessing how these relate to actual functional rates. We examined the influence of landscape attributes on the rates of herbivory in seagrass meadows, where herbivory has been identified as a key process structuring these relatively simple systems. The study was conducted...

Data from: Detecting slow introgression of invasive alleles in an extensively restocked game bird

Ines Sanchez-Donoso, Jisca Huisman, Jorge Echegaray, Manel Puigcerver, José Domingo Rodríguez-Teijeiro, Frank Hailer & Carles Vilà
Interbreeding of two species in the wild implies introgression of alleles from one species into the other only when admixed individuals survive and successfully backcross with the parental species. Consequently, estimating the proportion of first generation hybrids in a population may not inform about the evolutionary impact of hybridization. Samples obtained over a long time span may offer a more accurate view of the spreading of introgressed alleles in a species’ gene pool. Common quail...

Data from: Morphometric variation of extant platyrrhine molars: taxonomic implications for fossil platyrrhines

Mónica Nova Delgado, Jordi Galbany & Alejandro Pérez-Pérez
The phylogenetic position of many fossil platyrrhines with respect to extant ones is not yet clear. Two main hypotheses have been proposed: the layered or successive radiations hypothesis suggests that Patagonian fossils are Middle Miocene stem platyrrhines lacking modern descendants, whereas the long lineage hypothesis argues for an evolutionary continuity of all fossil platyrrhines with the extant ones. Our geometric morphometric analysis of a 15 landmark-based configuration of platyrrhines’ first and second lower molars suggest...

Data from: Fine-grained adaptive divergence in an amphibian: genetic basis of phenotypic divergence and the role of non-random gene flow in restricting effective migration among wetlands

Alex Richter-Boix, María Quintela, Marcin Kierczak, Marc Franch & Anssi Laurila
Adaptive ecological differentiation among sympatric populations is promoted by environmental heterogeneity, strong local selection and restricted gene flow. High gene flow, on the other hand, is expected to homogenize genetic variation among populations and therefore prevent local adaptation. Understanding how local adaptation can persist at the spatial scale at which gene flow occurs has remained an elusive goal, especially for wild vertebrate populations. Here, we explore the roles of natural selection and nonrandom gene flow...

Data from: Aerobic power and flight capacity in birds: a phylogenetic test of the heart-size hypothesis

Roberto F. Nespolo, Cesar González-Lagos, Jaiber J. Solano-Iguaran, Magnus Elfwing, Alvaro Garitano-Zavala, Santiago Mañosa, Juan Carlos Alonso & Jordi Altamiras
Flight capacity is one of the most important innovations in animal evolution; it only evolved in insects, birds, mammals and the extinct pterodactyls. Given that powered flight represents a demanding aerobic activity, an efficient cardiovascular system is essential for the continuous delivery of oxygen to the pectoral muscles during flight. It is well known that the limiting step in the circulation is stroke volume (the volume of blood pumped from the ventricle to the body...

Data from: A global perspective on the trophic geography of sharks

Christopher Stephen Bird, Ana Veríssimo, Sarah Magozzi, Kátya G. Abrantes, Alex Aguilar, Hassan Al-Reasi, Adam Barnett, Dana M. Bethea, Gérard Biais, Asuncion Borrell, Marc Bouchoucha, Mariah Boyle, Edward J. Brooks, Juerg Brunnschweiler, Paco Bustamante, Aaron Carlisle, Diana Catarino, Stéphane Caut, Yves Cherel, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Diana Churchill, Javier Ciancio, Julien Claes, Ana Colaço, Dean L. Courtney … & Clive N. Trueman
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits...

Data from: Pervasive genetic integration directs the evolution of human skull shape

Neus Martínez-Abadías, Mireia Esparza, Torstein Sjøvold, Rolando González-José, Mauro Santos, Miquel Hernández & Christian Peter Klingenberg
It has long been unclear whether the different derived cranial traits of modern humans evolved independently in response to separate selection pressures or whether they resulted from the inherent morphological integration throughout the skull. In a novel approach to this issue, we combine evolutionary quantitative genetics and geometric morphometrics to analyze genetic and phenotypic integration in human skull shape. We measured human skulls in the ossuary of Hallstatt (Austria), which offer a unique opportunity because...

Data from: Imprints of multiple glacial refugia in the Pyrenees revealed by phylogeography and palaeodistribution modelling of an endemic spider

Leticia Bidegaray-Batista, Alejandro Sánchez-Garcia, Giulia Santulli, Luigi Maiorano, Antoine Guisan, Alfried Vogler & Miquel Arnedo
Mediterranean mountain ranges harbour highly endemic biota in islandlike habitats. Their topographic diversity offered the opportunity for mountain species to persist in refugial areas during episodes of major climatic change. We investigate the role of Quaternary climatic oscillations in shaping the demographic history and distribution ranges in the spider Harpactocrates ravastellus, endemic to the Pyrenees. Gene trees and multispecies coalescent analyses on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences unveiled two distinct lineages with a hybrid zone...

Data from: Can long-range PCR be used to amplify genetically divergent mitochondrial genomes for comparative phylogenetics? A case study within spiders (Arthropoda: Araneae).

Andrew G. Briscoe, Sarah Goodacre, Susan E. Masta, Martin I. Taylor, Miquel A. Arnedo, David Penney, John Kenny, Simon Creer & Sara Goodacre
The development of second generation sequencing technology has resulted in the rapid production of large volumes of sequence data for relatively little cost, thereby substantially increasing the quantity of data available for phylogenetic studies. Despite these technological advances, assembling longer sequences, such as that of entire mitochondrial genomes, has not been straightforward. Existing studies have been limited to using only incomplete or nominally intra-specific datasets resulting in a bottleneck between mitogenome amplification and downstream high-throughput...

Data from: Characterization of the transcriptome and gene expression of four different tissues in the ecologically relevant sea urchin Arbacia lixula using RNA-seq

R. Perez-Portela, X. Turon & A. Riesgo
The sea urchin Arbacia lixula is a keystone species in Mediterranean ecosystems that drive landscape changes in littoral communities. However, genomic information available for the whole order Arbacioida is very limited. Using RNA-seq techniques, we have characterized the transcriptome of four different tissue types in A. lixula: the ‘somatic’ tissues (coelomocytes and digestive tissue) and the ‘reproductive’ tissues (ovary and testis), from two replicated cDNA libraries for each sample. Additionally, we performed a de novo...

Data from: Extant primitively segmented spiders have recently diversified from an ancient lineage

Xin Xu, Fengxiang Liu, Ren-Chung Cheng, Jian Chen, Xiang Xu, Zhisheng Zhang, Hirotsugu Ono, Dinh Sac Pham, Y. Norma-Rashid, Miquel A. Arnedo, Matjaž Kuntner, Daiqin Li & R.-C. Cheng
Living fossils are lineages that have retained plesiomorphic traits through long time periods. It is expected that such lineages have both originated and diversified long ago. Such expectations have recently been challenged in some textbook examples of living fossils, notably in extant cycads and coelacanths. Using a phylogenetic approach, we tested the patterns of the origin and diversification of liphistiid spiders, a clade of spiders considered to be living fossils due to their retention of...

Data from: Biogeographical scenarios modulate seagrass resistance to small-scale perturbations

Fernando Tuya, Yolanda Fernández‐Torquemada, Jesús Zarcero, Yoana Del Pilar-Ruso, Ina Csenteri, Fernando Espino, Pablo Manent, Leticia Curbelo, Adriá Antich, José A. De La Ossa, Laura Royo, Inés Castejon-Silvo, Gabriele Procaccini, Jorge Terrados & Fiona Tomas
1. Seagrasses constitute a key coastal habitat worldwide, but are are exposed to multiple perturbations. Understanding elements affecting seagrass resistance to disturbances is critical for conservation. Distinct biogeographical scenarios are intrinsically linked with varying ecological and evolution backgrounds shaped across millennia. 2. We addressed whether the resistance (change in shoot abundances) and performance (change in leaf morphology and growth) of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa to a local stressor, light reduction, varied across three regions (Southeast...

Data from: Deciphering the adjustment between environment and life history in annuals: lessons from a geographically-explicit approach in Arabidopsis thaliana

Esperanza Manzano-Piedras, Arnald Marcer, Carlos Alonso-Blanco & F. Xavier Picó
The role that different life-history traits may have in the process of adaptation caused by divergent selection can be assessed by using extensive collections of geographically-explicit populations. This is because adaptive phenotypic variation shifts gradually across space as a result of the geographic patterns of variation in environmental selective pressures. Hence, large-scale experiments are needed to identify relevant adaptive life-history traits as well as their relationships with putative selective agents. We conducted a field experiment...

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