142 Works

Examining the diversity, stability, and functioning of marine fish communities across a latitudinal gradient

Helen Yan, Jordan Casey, Nancy Knowlton, J. Emmett Duffy & Simon Brandl
Aim: As anthropogenic stressors on the biosphere intensify, understanding how communities respond to disturbances is critical. Biodiversity is often thought to promote the stability of communities over time and enhance ecosystem functioning. However, results have been inconsistent, and the multifaceted linkages among diversity, stability, and functioning under acute disturbances remain poorly understood. We experimentally tested the responses of marine fish communities to disturbance (i.e., acute habitat loss) across a diversity gradient spanning 35º degrees of...

Data from: Neutral and selection-driven decay of sexual traits in asexual stick insects

Tanja Schwander, Bernard J. Crespi, Regine Gries & Gerhard Gries
Environmental shifts and lifestyle changes may result in formerly adaptive traits becoming non-functional or maladaptive. The subsequent decay of such traits highlights the importance of natural selection for adaptations, yet its causes have rarely been investigated. To study the fate of formerly adaptive traits after lifestyle changes, we evaluated sexual traits in five independently derived asexual lineages, including traits that are specific to males and therefore not exposed to selection. At least four of the...

Data from: Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

Brian M. Wiegmann, Michelle D. Trautwein, Isaac S. Winkler, Norman B. Barr, Jung-Wook Kim, Christine Lambkin, Matthew A. Bertone, Brian K. Cassel, Keith M. Bayless, Alysha M. Heimberg, Benjamin M. Wheeler, Kevin J. Peterson, Thomas Pape, Bradley J. Sinclair, Jeffrey H. Skevington, Vladimir Blagoderov, Jason Caravas, Sujatha Narayanan Kutty, Urs Schmidt-Ott, Gail E. Kampmeier, F. Christian Thompson, David A. Grimaldi, Andrew T. Beckenbach, Gregory W. Courtney, Markus Friedrich … & J.-W. Kim
Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila melanogaster). A resolved phylogeny for flies provides a framework for genomic, developmental, and evolutionary studies by facilitating comparisons across model organisms,...

Data from: Ocean circulation model predicts high genetic structure in a long-lived pelagic developer

Jennifer M. Sunday, Iva Popovic, Wendy J. Palen, Michael G. G. Foreman & Michael W. Hart
Understanding the movement of genes and individuals across marine seascapes is a long-standing challenge in marine ecology, and can inform our understanding of local adaptation, the persistence and movement of populations, and the spatial scale of effective management. Patterns of gene flow in the ocean are often inferred based on population genetic analyses coupled with knowledge of species’ dispersive life histories. However, genetic structure is the result of time-integrated processes, and may not capture present-day...

Data from: Candidate adaptive genes associated with lineage divergence: identifying SNPs via next-generation targeted resequencing in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus)

John H. Powell, Stephen J. Amish, Gwilym D. Haynes, Gordon Luikart & Emily K. Latch
Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) are an excellent nonmodel species for empirically testing hypotheses in landscape and population genomics due to their large population sizes (low genetic drift), relatively continuous distribution, diversity of occupied habitats and phenotypic variation. Because few genomic resources are currently available for this species, we used exon data from a cattle (Bos taurus) reference genome to direct targeted resequencing of 5935 genes in mule deer. We sequenced approximately 3.75 Mbp at minimum...

Data from: The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: an assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods

Mana Dembo, Davorka Radovčić, Heather M. Garvin, Myra F. Laird, Lauren Schroeder, Jill E. Scott, Juliet Brophy, Rebecca R. Ackermann, Charles M. Musiba, Darryl J. De Ruiter, Arne Ø. Mooers, Mark Collard & Chares M. Musiba
Homo naledi is a recently discovered species of fossil hominin from South Africa. A considerable amount is already known about H. naledi but some important questions remain unanswered. Here we report a study that addressed two of them: “Where does H. naledi fit in the hominin evolutionary tree?” and “How old is it?” We used a large supermatrix of craniodental characters for both early and late hominin species and Bayesian phylogenetic techniques to carry out...

Data from: A molecular genetic time scale demonstrates Cretaceous origins and multiple diversification rate shifts within the order Galliformes (Aves)

R. Will Stein, Joseph W. Brown & Arne Ø. Mooers
The phylogeny of Galliformes (landfowl) has been studied extensively; however, the associated chronologies have been criticized recently due to misplaced or misidentified fossil calibrations. As a consequence, it is unclear whether any crown-group lineages arose in the Cretaceous and survived the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg; 65.5 Ma) mass extinction. Using Bayesian phylogenetic inference on an alignment spanning 14,539 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, four fossil calibrations, and a combination of uncorrelated lognormally distributed relaxed-clock...

Data from: Limited influence of local and landscape factors on finescale gene flow in two pond-breeding amphibians

Stephanie S. Coster, Kimberly J. Babbitt, Andrew Cooper & Adrienne I. Kovach
Dispersal and gene flow within animal populations are influenced by the composition and configuration of the landscape. In this study, we evaluated hypotheses about the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on genetic differentiation in two amphibian species, the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) in a commercial forest in central Maine. We conducted this analysis at two scales: a local level, focused on factors measured at each breeding pond and...

Zostera marina microsatellite and environmental data

Erin Foster, Jane Watson, Matthew Lemay, Tim Tinker, James Estes, Rebecca Piercey, Lauren Henson, Carol Ritland, Allyson Miscampbell, Linda Nichol, Margot Hessing-Lewis, Anne Salomon & Chris Darimont
Microsatellite data for Zostera marina, sea otter occupancy information, and environmental data from the west coast of British Columbia, Canada.

Vascular plant community surveys across different reindeer grazing regimes in the Fennoscandian tundra

Kate Gibson, Johan Oloffson, Arne Mooers & Melanie Monroe
This dataset contains data from the experiment described in "Gibson K., Olofsson, J. Mooers, A. Ø., & Monroe, M. J. (2021) Pulse grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) can increase the phylogenetic diversity of vascular plant communities in the Fennoscandian tundra. Ecology and Evolution. In press." The data is from a multi-year (2004-2007) quasi-experimental study in Northern Fennoscandia, which was designed to analyze the effect of reindeer grazing on vascular plant community diversity. Our study design...

Data from: The ontogeny of fairness in seven societies

Peter R. Blake, Katherine McAuliffe, John Corbit, Tara C. Callaghan, Oumar Barry, Aleah Bowie, Lauren Kleutsch, Karen L. Kramer, Elizabeth Ross, Hurnan Vongsachang, Richard Wrangham & Felix Warneken
A sense of fairness plays a critical role in supporting human cooperation. Adult norms of fair resource sharing vary widely across societies, suggesting that culture shapes the acquisition of fairness behaviour during childhood. Here we examine how fairness behaviour develops in children from seven diverse societies, testing children from 4 to 15 years of age (n = 866 pairs) in a standardized resource decision task. We measured two key aspects of fairness decisions: disadvantageous inequity...

Data from: Classifying three imaginary states of the same upper extremity using time-domain features

Mojgan Tavakolan, Zack Frehlick, Xinyi Yong & Carlo Menon
Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows collaboration between humans and machines. It translates the electrical activity of the brain to understandable commands to operate a machine or a device. In this study, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of a 3-class BCI using electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This BCI discriminates rest against imaginary grasps and elbow movements of the same limb. This classification task is challenging because imaginary movements within the same limb have close spatial...

Data from: Assessing the ecosystem-level consequences of a small-scale artisanal kelp fishery within the context of climate-change

Kira A. Krumhansl, Jordanna N. Bergman & Anne K. Salomon
Coastal communities worldwide rely on small-scale artisanal fisheries as a means of increasing food security and alleviating poverty. Even small-scale fishing activities, however, are prone to resource depletion and environmental degradation, which can erode livelihoods in the long run. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify viable and resilient artisanal fisheries, and generate knowledge to support management within the context of a rapidly changing climate. We examined the ecosystem-level consequences of an artisanal kelp...

Data from: Species-area curve and distance-decay relationship indicate habitat thresholds of ectomycorrhizal fungi in an old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii landscape

J.M. Kranabetter, S.M. Berch, J.A. MacKinnon, O. Ceska, D.E. Dunn, P.K. Ott, D. E. Dunn, J. A. MacKinnon, J. M. Kranabetter & P. K. Ott
Aim: Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are a diverse and essential biota of forests that are vulnerable to species loss through reductions in late-seral habitat. We examined how the spatial ecology of this biota, particularly distance-decay and species-area relationships, could better inform habitat thresholds for EMF conservation planning. Location: Southeast Vancouver Island near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Methods: Using a stratified sampling design, 11 plots (0.15 ha in size) were established at 0.05 to 17.5 km apart...

Data from: Are there synergistic or antagonistic effects of multiple maternally-derived egg components (antibodies and testosterone) on offspring phenotype?

Roxana Torres, Eunice Chin, Rowan Rampton & Tony D. Williams
Eggs are multivariate in that they contain multiple maternally-derived egg components (e.g. hormones, antibodies, mRNA, antioxidants) which are thought to influence offspring phenotype. However, most studies have focused on single egg components and on short-term effects. Here, we simultaneously manipulated two egg components, maternally-derived antibodies (MAb) and yolk testosterone (T) to assess potential synergistic or antagonistic effects on offspring phenotype from hatching to sexual maturity. We found no evidence for short-or long-term effects of either...

Data from: Riparian habitat restoration increases the availability and occupancy of Yellow-breasted Chat territories but brood parasitism is the primary influence on reproductive performance

Timothy Robert Forrester, David J. Green, René McKibbin, A. Michael Bezener & Christine A. Bishop
Implementation and evaluation of conservation efforts requires an understanding of the habitat selection and reproductive success of endangered populations. As populations recover, established territory holders may force new arrivals into lower-quality habitat, which can reduce reproductive success, especially in disturbed landscapes where suitable habitat is scarce. The endangered Western Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens auricollis) population in the fragmented riparian zone of the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada, has rapidly increased in response to habitat restoration....

Earlier and slower or later and faster: Spring migration pace linked to departure time in a Neotropical migrant songbird

Ana M. González-Prieto, Nicholas J. Bayly & Keith A. Hobson
1. Migratory birds travel vast distances and the timing of migratory flights can affect survival and the ability to reproduce. For Neotropical migrant songbirds, early spring departure from wintering sites, early arrival to the breeding grounds and higher reproductive success have been related to the use of suitable habitats and environmental conditions during the non-breeding season. However, how migratory strategies are shaped by winter habitat choice is largely unknown due to the general inability to...

Data from: Climate impacts on the ocean are making the Sustainable Development Goals a moving target traveling away from us

Gerald G. Singh, Nathalie Hilmi, Joey R. Bernhardt, Andres M. Cisneros Montemayor, Madeline Cashion, Yoshitaka Ota, Sevil Acar, Jason M. Brown, Richard Cottrell, Salpie Djoundourian, Pedro C. Gonzalez-Espinosa, Vicky Lam, Nadine Marshall, Barbara Neumann, Nicolas Pascal, Gabriel Reygondeau, Joacim Rocklov, Alain Safa, Laura R. Virto & William Cheung
1. Climate change is impacting marine ecosystems and their goods and services in diverse ways, which can directly hinder our ability to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, set out under the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. 2. Through expert elicitation and a literature review, we find that most climate change effects have a wide variety of negative consequences across marine ecosystem services, though most studies have highlighted impacts from warming and consequences to marine species....

Evaluating the effects of large marine predators on mobile prey behavior across subtropical reef ecosystems

Lindsay Phenix, Dana Tricarico, Mark Bond, Simon Brandl & Austin Gallagher
The indirect effect of predators on prey behavior, recruitment, and spatial relationships continues to attract considerable attention. However, top predators like sharks or large, mobile teleosts, which can have substantial top-down effects in ecosystems, are often difficult to study due to their large size and mobility. This has created a knowledge gap in understanding how they affect their prey through non-consumptive effects. Here we investigated how different functional groups of predators affected potential prey fish...

Life history and environment predict variation in testosterone across vertebrates

Jerry Husak, Matthew Fuxjager, Michele A. Johnson, Maren Vitousek, Jeremy Donald, Clinton David Francis, Wolfgang Goymann, Michaela Hau, Bonnie Kircher, Rosemary Knapp, Lynn B. Martin, Eliot Miller, Laura Schoenle & Tony Williams
Endocrine systems act as key intermediaries between organisms and their environments. This interaction leads to high variability in hormone levels, but we know little about the ecological factors that influence this variation within and across major vertebrate groups. We study this topic by assessing how various social and environmental dynamics influence testosterone levels across the entire vertebrate tree of life. Our analyses show that breeding season length and mating system are the strongest predictors of...

The role of adaptive behaviour in migratory counts of shorebirds

David Hope
Supplementary Data for Chapter 6 of thesis.

Data from: Indigenous knowledge of key ecological processes confers resilience to a small-scale kelp fishery

Hannah Kobluk, Keith Gladstone, Mike Reid, Kelly Brown, Kira Krumhansl & Anne Salomon
1. Feedbacks between social and ecological processes can lead to sustainable stewardship practices that support ecological resilience among harvested populations. This is evident along the world’s coast lines, where Indigenous knowledge systems have facilitated millennia of human nature coexistence. However, social-ecological conditions globally are quickly shifting, posing challenges for coastal Indigenous communities where customary harvest of ocean resources, such as kelps, need to adapt to growing markets, novel climates and changing governance regimes. Consequently, a...

Data from: Convergent evolution of niche structure in Northeast Pacific kelp forests

Samuel Starko, Kyle Demes, Christopher Neufeld & Patrick Martone
Much of the morphological and ecological diversity present on earth is believed to have arisen through the process of adaptive radiation. Yet, this is seemingly at odds with substantial evidence that niches tend to be similar among closely related species (i.e., niche conservatism). Identifying the relative importance of these opposing processes in driving niche evolution under different circumstances is therefore essential to our understanding of the interaction between ecological and evolutionary phenomena. In this study,...

Portfolio simplification arising from a century of change in population diversity and artificial production

Michael Price
1. Population and life-history diversity can buffer species from environmental variability and contribute to long-term stability through differing responses to varying conditions akin to the stabilizing effect of asset diversity on financial portfolios. While it is well known that many salmon populations have declined in abundance over the last century, we understand less about how different dimensions of diversity may have shifted. Specifically, how has diminished wild abundance and increased artificial production (i.e., enhancement) changed...

Circum-Arctic distribution of chemical anti-herbivore compounds arctic shrubs

Elin Lindén, Mariska Te Beest, Ilka Abreu, Thomas Moritz, Maja Sundqvist, Isabel C Barrio, Julia Boike, John Bryant, Kari Anne Bråthen, Agata Buchwal, Guillermo Bueno, Alain Cuerrier, Dagmar Egelkraut, Bruce Forbes, Martin Hallinger, Monique Heijmans, Luise Hermanutz, David S Hik, Annika Hofgaard, Milena Holmgren, Diane C Huebner, Toke Hoye, Ingibjörg Jónsdóttir, Elina Kaarlejärvi, Emilie Kissler … & Johan Olofsson
Spatial variation in plant chemical defence towards herbivores can help us understand variation in herbivore top-down control of shrubs in the Arctic and possibly also shrub responses to global warming. Less defended, non-resinous shrubs could be more influenced by herbivores than more defended, resinous shrubs. However, sparse field measurements limit our current understanding of how much of the circum-Arctic variation in defence compounds is explained by taxa or defence functional groups (resinous/non-resinous). We measured circum-Arctic...

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