142 Works

Data from: A range-wide domino effect and resetting of the annual cycle in a migratory songbird

Elizabeth A. Gow, Lauren Burke, David W. Winkler, Samantha M. Knight, Robert G. Clark, Marc Bélisle, Lisha L. Berzins, Tricia Blake, Eli S. Bridge, Russell D. Dawson, Peter O. Dunn, Dany Garant, Geoff Holroyd, Andrew G. Horn, David J.T. Hussell, Olga Lansdorp, Andrew J. Laughlin, Marty L. Leonard, Fanie Pelletier, Dave Shutler, Lynn Siefferman, Caz M. Taylor, Helen Trefry, Carol M. Vleck, David Vleck … & D. Ryan Norris
Latitudinal differences in timing of breeding are well documented but how such differences carry over to influence timing of events in the annual cycle of migratory birds is not well understood. We examined geographic variation in timing of events throughout the year using light-level geolocator tracking data from 133 migratory tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) originating from 12 North American breeding populations. A swallow’s breeding latitude influenced timing of breeding, which then carried over to affect...

Data from: Testosterone reduces the threat premium in competitive resource division

Shawn N. Geniole, Valentina Proietti, Brian M. Bird, Triana L. Ortiz, Pierre L. Bonin, Bernard Goldfarb, Neil V. Watson & Justin M. Carré
Like other animals, humans are sensitive to facial cues of threat. Recent evidence suggests that we use this information to dynamically calibrate competitive decision-making over resources, ceding more to high threat individuals (who appear more willing/able to retaliate) and keeping more from low threat individuals. Little is known, however, about the biological factors that support such threat assessment and decision-making systems. In a pre-registered, placebo-controlled, cross-over testosterone administration study (n = 118 men), we show...

Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) fledglings use crop habitat more frequently in relation to its availability than pasture and other habitat types

Chloe Boynton
Populations of birds that forage on aerial insects have been declining across North America for several decades, but the main causes of and reasons for geographical variation in these declines remains unclear. We examined the habitat use and survival of post-fledging Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica), near Vancouver, BC, Canada using VHF radio telemetry. We predicted that fledgling Barn Swallows hatched in higher quality natal habitat (pasture) would fledge at higher quality, stay closest to the...

Supplementary data for: Mosquito phytophagy – sources exploited, ecological function, and evolutionary transition to haematophagy

Daniel Peach & Gerhard Gries
This dataset consists of two files: Floral visitation records of mosquitoes Plant sugar, primarily in the form of floral nectar, is the ubiquitous basic food of adult mosquitoes. However, records of mosquito floral visitation are not usually the focus of research publications and, as such, are often reported as secondary parts of larger studies and are scattered throughout more than a century of scientific literature. Here we provide a summary of more than 500 recorded...

Custom MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometric Database for identification of environmental Burkholderia and related genera

Roger Linington
Success of microbial natural products discovery programs is dependent on quick and concise discrimination between isolates from diverse environments. However, laboratory isolation and identification of priority genera using current 16S rRNA PCR-based methods is both challenging and time-consuming. In clinical settings, MALDI-TOF MS is used to rapidly identify unknown bacterial pathogens, yet this has not been widely adapted for isolation of environmental bacteria. To expedite isolation of Gram-negative proteobacterial order Burkholderiales, we have created a...

Predicting the effects of reservoir water level management on the reproductive output of a riparian songbird

David Green
Yellow warblers were monitored in Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada for 12 breeding seasons spanning 2005 to 2017. Data on the breeding biology of individually marked warblers was used to construct an individual-based model describing the effects of reservoir operations on the reproductive output of yellow warblers. This model was parameterised using data on the breeding biology of approximately 30 breeding pairs per year that a provided data on nest sites (ground elevation and nest height),...

Data from: Watershed classification predicts streamflow regime and organic carbon dynamics in the Northeast Pacific Coastal Temperate Rainforest

Ian Giesbrecht, Suzanne Tank, Gordon Frazer, Eran Hood, Santiago Gonzalez Arriola, David Butman, Dave D'Amore, David Hutchinson, Allison Bidlack & Ken Lertzman
Watershed classification has long been a key tool in the hydrological sciences, but few studies have been extended to biogeochemistry. We developed a combined hydro-biogeochemical classification for watersheds draining to the coastal margin of the Northeast Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (1,443,062 km2), including 2,695 small coastal rivers (SCR) and 10 large continental watersheds. We used cluster analysis to group SCR watersheds into 12 types, based on watershed properties. The most important variables for distinguishing SCR...

Climate and conspecific density inform phenotypic forecasting of juvenile Pacific salmon body size

Marta Ulaski, Heather Finkle, Anne Beaudreau & Peter Westley
1. Predicting effects of climate on fitness-linked phenotypic traits, such as body size, is important for the management and conservation of species in the face of global change. During sensitive life stages, small changes in mean trait values can have large effects on survival and population productivity. 2. The transition from freshwater to saltwater by migrating anadromous fishes such as Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) is a critical life history transition, where survival is mediated by...

A deglacial hazard cascade exemplified by the landslide, tsunami and outburst flood at Elliot Creek, Southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada

Marten Geertsema, Brian Menounos, Gemma Bullard, Jonathan Carrivick, John Clague, Chunli Dai, Davide Donati, Goran Ekstrom, Jennifer Jackson, Patrick Lynett, Manuele Pichierri, Andy Pon, Dan Shugar, Doug Stead, Justin Del Bel Belluz, Pierre Friele, Ian Giesbrecht, Derek Heathfield, Tom Millard, Sasha Nasonova, Andrew Schaeffer, Brent Ward, Darren Blaney, Erik Blaney, Camille Brillon … & Meghan Sharp
We describe and model the evolution of a recent landslide and outburst flood in the southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. About 18 Mm3 of rock descended 1000 m from a steep valley wall and traveled across the toe of a glacier before entering a 0.6 km2 glacier lake and producing a >100-m high wave. Water overtopped the lake outlet and scoured a 10-km long channel before depositing debris on a 2 km2 fan below...

Marbled Murrelets prefer stratified waters close to freshwater inputs in Haida Gwaii, BC, Canada

Sonya Pastran, Mark Drever & David Lank
The Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a small seabird that is currently listed as threatened in Canada. Understanding this species’ marine habitat preferences plays a vital role in our ability to focus conservation planning. We used the longest-running at-sea survey dataset available in British Columbia to examine hotspot persistence and habitat use at Laskeek Bay, Haida Gwaii, BC. The Laskeek Bay Conservation Society has been conducting spring and summer surveys along fixed transect routes in...

λ/4 Retarder Film Measurement from: Polarization of foliar reflectance – novel host plant cue for insect herbivores

Adam Blake, Matthew Go, Gina Hahn, Hayley Grey, Samuel Couture & Gerhard Gries
Insect herbivores exploit plant cues to discern host and non-host plants. Studies of visual plant cues have focused on color despite the inherent polarization sensitivity of insect photoreceptors and the information carried by polarization of foliar reflectance, most notably the degree of linear polarization (DoLP; 0-100%). The DoLP of foliar reflection was hypothesized to be a host plant cue for insects but was never experimentally tested. Here we show that cabbage white butterflies, Pieris rapae...

Hakai Institute Juvenile Salmon Program

Brett Johnson, Julian Gan, Sean Godwin, Krystal Bachen, Tim van der Stap & Brian Hunt
Fall 2017 Version 1.0 Background: The Hakai Institute Juvenile Salmon Program was launched in the spring of 2015 in a collaborative partnership with UBC, SFU, Salmon Coast, Pacific Salmon Foundation, and DFO. The program operates in the Discovery Islands and Johnstone Strait (Figure 1) and thus provides information on the health of juvenile Fraser River salmon after passage through: 1) Strait of Georgia – stratified high plankton biomass zone; and 2) Discovery Islands & Johnstone...

Data from: Analysis of inbreeding depression in mixed-mating plants provides evidence for selective interference and stable mixed mating

Alice A Winn, Elizabeth Elle, Susan Kalisz, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou, Christopher G Eckert, Carol Goodwillie, Mark O. Johnston, David A Moeller, Richard H Ree, Risa D Sargent & Mario Vallejo-Marín
Hermaphroditic individuals can produce both selfed and outcrossed progeny, termed mixed mating. General theory predicts that mixed-mating populations should evolve quickly toward high rates of selfing, driven by rapid purging of genetic load and loss of inbreeding depression (ID), but the substantial number of mixed-mating species observed in nature calls this prediction into question. Greater average ID reported for selfing than for outcrossing populations is consistent with purging and suggests that mixed-mating taxa in evolutionary...

Data from: Phylogenetic tree shape and the structure of mutualistic networks

Scott Chamberlain, Diego P. Vázquez, Luisa Carvalheiro, Elizabeth Elle & Jana C. Vamosi
Species community composition is known to alter the network of interactions between two trophic levels, potentially affecting its functioning (e.g. plant pollination success) and the stability of communities. Phylogenies vary in shape with regard to the rate of evolutionary change across a tree (influencing tree balance) and variation in the timing of branching events (affecting the distribution of node ages in trees), both of which may influence the structure of species interaction networks. Because related...

Data from: Targeting global conservation funding to limit immediate biodiversity declines

Anthony Waldron, Arne O. Mooers, Daniel C. Miller, Nate Nibbelink, David Redding, Tyler S. Kuhn, J. Timmons Roberts & John L. Gittleman
Inadequate funding levels are a major impediment to effective global biodiversity conservation and are likely associated with recent failures to meet United Nations biodiversity targets. Some countries are more severely underfunded than others and therefore represent urgent financial priorities. However, attempts to identify these highly underfunded countries have been hampered for decades by poor and incomplete data on actual spending, coupled with uncertainty and lack of consensus over the relative size of spending gaps. Here,...

Data from: Genes underlying altruism

Graham J. Thompson, Peter L. Hurd & Bernard J. Crespi
William D. Hamilton postulated the existence of 'genes underlying altruism', under the rubric of inclusive fitness theory, a half-century ago. Such genes are now poised for discovery. In this article we develop a set of intuitive criteria for the recognition and analysis of genes for altruism, and describe the first candidates for altruism genes from social insects and humans. We also provide evidence from a human population for genetically-based tradeoffs, underlain by oxytocin-system polymorphisms, between...

Data from: Color vision varies more among populations than among species of live-bearing fish from South America

Benjamin A. Sandkam, C. Megan Young, Frances Margaret Walker Breden, Godfrey R. Bourne & Felix Breden
Background: Sensory Bias models for the evolution of mate preference place a great emphasis on the role of sensory system variation in mate preferences. However, the extent to which sensory systems vary across- versus within-species remains largely unknown. Here we assessed whether color vision varies in natural locations where guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and their two closest relatives, Poecilia parae and Poecilia picta, occur in extreme sympatry and school together. All three species base mate preferences...

Data from: Costs of reproduction explain the correlated evolution of semelparity and egg size: theory and a test with salmon

Douglas C. Braun, Holly K. Kindsvater, Sarah P. Otto & John D. Reynolds
Species’ life history traits, including maturation age, number of reproductive bouts, offspring size and number, reflect adaptations to diverse biotic and abiotic selection pressures. A striking example of divergent life histories is the evolution of either iteroparity (breeding multiple times) or semelparity (breed once and die). We analysed published data on salmonid fishes and found that semelparous species produce larger eggs, that egg size and number increase with salmonid body size among populations and species...

Data from: Exploring visual plasticity: dietary carotenoids can change color vision in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

Benjamin A. Sandkam, Kerry A. Deere-Machemer, Ashley M. Johnson, Gregory F. Grether, F. Helen Rodd & Rebecca C. Fuller
Differences in color vision can play a key role in an organism’s ability to perceive and interact with the environment across a broad range of taxa. Recently, species have been shown to vary in color vision across populations as a result of differences in regulatory sequence and/or plasticity of opsin gene expression. For decades, biologists have been intrigued by among-population variation in color-based mate preferences of female Trinidadian guppies. We proposed that some of this...

Data from: Individual variation in parental workload and breeding productivity in female European starlings: is the effort worth it?

Melinda A. Fowler & Tony D. Williams
We analyzed individual variation in work load (nest visit rate) during chick-rearing, and the consequences of this variation in terms of breeding productivity, in a highly synchronous breeder, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) focusing on female birds. There was marked (10- to 16-fold) variation in total, female and male nest visit rates, among individuals, but individual variation in female nest visit rate was independent of environment (rainfall, temperature) and metrics of individual quality (laying date,...

Data from: Injuries, death, and disability associated with 11 years of conflict in Baghdad, Iraq: a randomized household cluster survey

Riyadh Lafta, Sahar Al-Shatari, Megan Cherewick, Lindsay Galway, Charles Mock, Amy Hagopian, Abraham Flaxman, Tim Takaro, Anna Greer, Adam Kusner & Gilbert Burnham
Background: The objective of this study was to characterize injuries, deaths, and disabilities arising during 11 years of conflict in Baghdad. Methods: Using satellite imagery and administrative population estimated size for Baghdad, 30 clusters were selected, proportionate to population size estimates. Interviews were conducted during April and May 2014 in 900 households containing 5148 persons. Details about injuries and disabilities occurring from 2003 through May 2014 and resultant disabilities were recorded. Findings: There were 553...

Data from: Mandated data archiving greatly improves access to research data

Timothy H. Vines, Rose L. Andrew, Dan G. Bock, Michelle T. Franklin, Kimberly J. Gilbert, Nolan C. Kane, Jean-Sébastien Moore, Brook T. Moyers, Sébastien Renaut, Diana J. Rennison, Thor Veen & Sam Yeaman
The data underlying scientific papers should be accessible to researchers both now and in the future, but how best can we ensure that these data are available? Here we examine the effectiveness of four approaches to data archiving: no stated archiving policy, recommending (but not requiring) archiving, and two versions of mandating data deposition at acceptance. We control for differences between data types by trying to obtain data from papers that use a single, widespread...

Data from: Beauty in the eyes of the beholders: color vision is tuned to mate preference in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

Benjamin A. Sandkam, C. Megan Young, Felix Breden & Benjamin Sandkam
A broad range of animals use visual signals to assess potential mates, and the theory of sensory exploitation suggests variation in visual systems drives mate preference variation due to sensory bias. Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a classic system for studies of the evolution of female mate choice, provide a unique opportunity to test this theory by looking for co-variation in visual tuning, light environment, and mate preferences. Female preference co-evolves with male coloration, such that...

Data from: Success despite the stress: violet-green swallows increase glucocorticoids and maintain reproductive output despite experimental increases in flight costs

James W. Rivers, Gretchen N. Newberry, Carl J. Schwarz & Daniel R. Ardia
Glucocorticoid steroid hormones play a central role in regulating the metabolic state of animals, especially when they cope with unanticipated stressors in their environment. The cort-adaptation hypothesis predicts that baseline concentrations of glucocorticoids are adjusted upward to match energetic needs and promote fitness when individuals are faced with physiological challenges, including those associated with reproduction. We tested the cort-adaptation hypothesis in the violet-green swallow (Tachycineta thalassina) by experimentally increasing flight costs during the offspring rearing...

Data from: Natural selection and the predictability of evolution in Timema stick insects

Patrik Nosil, Romain Villoutreix, Clarissa F. De Carvalho, Tim E. Farkas, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Jeff L. Feder, Bernard J. Crespi & Zachariah Gompert
Predicting evolution remains difficult. We studied the evolution of cryptic body coloration and pattern in a stick insect using 25 years of field data, experiments, and genomics. We found that evolution is more difficult to predict when it involves a balance between multiple selective factors and uncertainty in environmental conditions than when it involves feedback loops that cause consistent back-and-forth fluctuations. Specifically, changes in color-morph frequencies are modestly predictable through time (r2 = 0.14) and...

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