14 Works

Data from: Divergent rates of change between tree cover types in a tropical pastoral region

Bryan C. Tarbox, Carlita Fiestas & T. Trevor Caughlin
Context: Forest cover change analyses have revealed net forest gain in many tropical regions. While most analyses have focused solely on forest cover, trees outside forests are vital components of landscape integrity. Quantifying regional-scale patterns of tree cover change, including non-forest trees, could benefit forest and landscape restoration (FLR) efforts. Objectives: We analyzed tree cover change in Southwestern Panama to quantify: 1) patterns of change from 1998-2014, 2) differences in rates of change between forest...

Temporal isolation between sympatric host plants cascades across multiple trophic levels of host-associated insects

Linyi Zhang, Glen Hood, James Ott & Scott Egan
Phenological differences between host plants can promote temporal isolation among host-associated populations of insects with life cycles tightly coupled to plant phenology. Divergence in the timing of spring budbreak between two sympatric sister oak species has been shown to promote temporal isolation between host plants and their host-associated populations of a cynipid gall wasp. Here we examined the generality of this mechanism by testing the hypothesis of cascading temporal isolation for five additional gall-formers and...

Context-dependent reproductive isolation: host plant variability drives fitness of hybrid herbivores

Linyi Zhang, Glen Hood, Isaac Carroo, James Ott & Scott Egan
The role of divergent selection between alternative environments is well-recognized to promote reproductive isolation (RI) between lineages. However, most studies view each divergent environment as homogenous, thereby overlooking the potential role of within environment variation on RI between differentiating lineages. Here we test the importance of microenvironmental variation on RI using individual trees of two host plants each harboring locally adapted populations of the cynipid wasp, Belonocnema treatae. We compared the fitness surrogate (survival) of...

Asymmetric, but opposing reductions in immigrant viability and fecundity promote reproductive isolation among host-associated populations of an insect herbivore

Linyi Zhang, Glen Hood, Amy Roush, Shihan Shzu, Mattheau Comerford, James Ott & Scott Egan
Immigrant inviability can contribute to reproductive isolation (RI) during ecological speciation by reducing the survival of immigrants in non-native environments. However, studies that assess the fitness consequence of immigrants moving from native to non-native environments typically fail to explore the potential role of concomitant reductions in immigrant fecundity despite recent evidence suggesting its prominent role during local adaptation. Here, we evaluate the directionality and magnitude of both immigrant viability and fecundity to RI in a...

Genotype and individual data for genetic structure in Louisiana Iris species reveals patterns of recent and historical admixture

Alexander Zalmat, Alex Sotola, Chris Nice & Noland Martin
Premise: When divergent lineages come into secondary contact reproductive isolation may be incomplete, thus providing an opportunity to investigate how speciation is manifested in the genome. The Louisiana Irises (Iris, series Hexagonae) comprise a group of three or more ecologically and reproductively divergent lineages that can produce hybrids where they come into contact. In this study we sought to estimate standing genetic variation to understand the current distribution of population structure in the Louisiana Irises....

Repeated genetic and adaptive phenotypic divergence across tidal elevation in a foundation plant species

Robyn Zerebecki, Erik E Sotka, Torrance C Hanley, Katherine L. Bell, Catherine Gehring, Chris C. Nice, Christina L. Richards & A Randall Hughes
Microgeographic genetic divergence can create fine-scale trait variation. When such divergence occurs within foundation species, then it might impact community structure and ecosystem function, and cause other cascading ecological effects. We tested for parallel microgeographic trait and genetic divergence in Spartina alterniflora , a foundation species that dominates salt marshes of the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Spartina is characterized by tall-form (1-2m) plants at lower tidal elevations and short-form (<0.5m) plants at higher tidal...

Data from: Comparative host-pathogen associations of Snake Fungal Disease in sympatric species of water snakes (Nerodia)

David Rodriguez, Stephen Harding, C. Guilherme Becker, Jessica Yates, Paul Crump, Michael Forstner & Stephen Mullin
The ascomycete fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo) is the causative agent of ophidiomycosis (Snake Fungal Disease), which has been detected globally. However, surveillance efforts in the central U.S., specifically Texas, have been minimal. The threatened and rare Brazos water snake (Nerodia harteri harteri) is one of the most range restricted snakes in the U.S. and is sympatric with two wide-ranging congeners, N. erythrogaster transversa and N. rhombifer, in north central Texas; thus, providing an opportunity to...

Data from: Condition-dependent foraging strategies in a coastal seabird: evidence that the rich get richer

Brock Geary, Scott T. Walter, Paul L. Leberg & Jordan Karubian
The degree to which foraging individuals are able to appropriately modify their behaviors in response to dynamic environmental conditions and associated resource availability can have important fitness consequences. Despite an increasingly refined understanding of differences in foraging behavior between individuals, we still lack detailed characterizations of within-individual variation over space and time, and what factors may drive this variability. From 2014-2017, we used GPS transmitters and accelerometers to document foraging movements by breeding adult Brown...

Recent hybrids recapitulate ancient hybrid outcomes

Zachariah Gompert, Samridhi Chaturvedi, Lauren Lucas, C. Alex Buerkle, James Fordyce, Matthew Forister & Chris Nice
Genomic outcomes of hybridization depend on selection and recombination in hybrids. Whether these processes have similar effects on hybrid genome composition in contemporary hybrid zones versus ancient hybrid lineages is unknown. Here we show that patterns of introgression in a contemporary hybrid zone in Lycaeides butterflies predict patterns of ancestry in geographically adjacent, older hybrid populations. We find a particularly striking lack of ancestry from one of the hybridizing taxa, Lycaeides melissa, on the Z...

A re-evaluation of management units based on gene flow of a rare waterbird in the Americas

Golya Shahrokhi, David Rodriguez, Samantha Collins, Gina Kent, Ken Meyer, Eduardo Palacios & M. Clay Green
The maintenance of gene flow in species that have experienced population contractions and are geographically fragmented is important to the maintenance of genetic variation and evolutionary potential; thus, gene flow is also important to conservation and management of these species. For example, the Reddish Egret (Egretta rufescens) has recovered after severe population reductions during the 19th and 20th centuries, but population numbers remain below historic levels. In this study, we characterized gene flow among management...

Data from: Precipitation, soils, NPP, and biodiversity: resurrection of Albrecht's Curve

Michael A. Huston
Climate and soils are widely recognized as major drivers of virtually all properties of ecosystems and communities. However, despite major advances in the understanding of soil formation and ecosystem dynamics, the effects of climate on soil properties are not widely appreciated. Understanding the effects of water availability on the rates of chemical and biological processes that affect soil formation can help clarify the global patterns of soil fertility, which affect agricultural and forest productivity, as...

Geographic patterns of genomic variation in the threatened Salado salamander, Eurycea chisholmensis

Chris Nice, James Fordyce, V. Alex Sotola, Justin Crow & Peter Diaz
Aquatic, karst and spring endemic organisms have become a focus of conservation efforts as human population densities and demand for groundwater increase. This is especially true of Texas salamanders in the genus Eurycea that have been the subject of investigations of patterns of genetic differentiation in order to understand their systematics and to inform conservation planning. Here we quantify patterns of population differentiation in the northern most species, Eurycea chisholmensis, the Salado salamander, which is...

Data from: Admixture and the organization of genetic diversity in a butterfly species complex revealed through common and rare genetic variants

Zachariah Gompert, Lauren K. Lucas, C. Alex Buerkle, Matthew L. Forister, James A. Fordyce & Chris C. Nice
Detailed information about the geographic distribution of genetic and genomic variation is necessary to better understand the organization and structure of biological diversity. In particular, spatial isolation within species and hybridization between them can blur species boundaries and create evolutionary relationships that are inconsistent with a strictly bifurcating tree model. Here we analyze genome-wide DNA sequence and genetic ancestry variation in Lycaeides butterflies to quantify the effects of admixture and spatial isolation on how biological...

Data from: The evolution of novel host use is unlikely to be constrained by tradeoffs or a lack of genetic variation

Zachariah Gompert, Joshua P. Jahner, Cynthia F. Scholl, Joseph S. Wilson, Lauren K. Lucas, Victor Soria-Carrasco, James A. Fordyce, Chris C. Nice, C. Alex Buerkle & Matthew L. Forister
The genetic and ecological factors that shape the evolution of animal diets remain poorly understood. For herbivorous insects, the expectation has been that trade-offs exist, such that adaptation to one host plant reduces performance on other potential hosts. We investigated the genetic architecture of alternative host use by rearing individual Lycaeides melissa butterflies from two wild populations in a crossed design on two hosts (one native and one introduced) and analysing the genetic basis of...

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