75 Works

Datasets for neuronal imaging, extracellular recordings and behavioral rig code

Michael Telias & Kevin Sit
Rod and cone photoreceptors degenerate in retinitis pigmentosa (RP). While downstream neurons survive, they undergo physiological changes, including accelerated spontaneous firing in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Retinoic acid (RA) is the molecular trigger of RGC hyperactivity, but whether this interferes with visual perception is unknown. Here we show that inhibiting RA synthesis with disulfiram, a deterrent of human alcohol abuse, improves behavioral image detection in vision-impaired mice. In vivo Ca2+ imaging shows that disulfiram sharpens...

Habitat-linked genetic variation supports microgeographic adaptive divergence in an island-endemic bird species

Rebecca Cheek, Brenna Forrester, Daryl Trumbo, Patricia Salerno, Nancy Chen, T. Scott Sillett, Scott Morrison, Cameron Ghalambor & W. Chris Funk
We present evidence for and investigate potential mechanisms driving habitat-linked genetic divergence within a bird species endemic to a single 250 km2 island. The island scrub-jay (Aphelocoma insularis) exhibits microgeographic divergence in bill morphology across pine-oak ecotones on Santa Cruz Island, California (USA) similar to adaptive differences described in mainland congeners over much larger geographic scales. To test whether individuals exhibit genetic differentiation related to habitat type and divergence in bill length, we genotyped over...

Data from: Phylogenomic analysis of Wolbachia strains reveals patterns of genome evolution and recombination

Xu Wang, Xiaozhu Wang, Xiao Xiong, Wenqi Cao, Chao Zhang & John Werren
Wolbachia are widespread intracellular bacteria that mediate many important biological processes in arthropod species. In this study, we identified 210 conserved single-copy genes in 33 genome-sequenced Wolbachia strains in the A, B, C, D, E and F supergroups. Phylogenomic analysis with these core genes indicate that all 33 Wolbachia strains maintain the supergroup relationship classified previously based on the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) genes. Using an interclade recombination screening method, 14 inter-supergroup recombination events were...

Data from: Rapid evolution of asymmetric reproductive incompatibilities in stalk-eyed flies

Emily G. Rose, Cara L. Brand & Gerald S. Wilkinson
The steps by which isolated populations acquire reproductive incompatibilities remain poorly understood. One potentially important process is postcopulatory sexual selection because it can generate divergence between populations in traits that influence fertilization success after copulation. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of this form of reproductive isolation by conducting reciprocal crosses between variably diverged populations of stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni). First, we measure seven types of reproductive incompatibility between copulation and fertilization. We then compare...

Data from: Wolbachia do not live by reproductive manipulation alone: infection polymorphism in Drosophila suzukii and D. subpulchrella

Christopher A. Hamm, David J. Begun, Alexandre Vo, Chris C. R. Smith, Perot Saelao, Amanda O. Shaver, John Jaenike & Michael Turelli
Drosophila suzukii recently invaded North America and Europe. Populations in Hawaii, California, New York and Nova Scotia are polymorphic for Wolbachia, typically with <20% infection frequency. The Wolbachia in D. suzukii, denoted wSuz, is closely related to wRi, the variant prevalent in continental populations of D. simulans. wSuz is also nearly identical to Wolbachia found in D. subpulchrella, plausibly D. suzukii's sister species. This suggests vertical Wolbachia transmission through cladogenesis (“cladogenic transmission”). The widespread occurrence...

Data from: Cuticular hydrocarbon divergence in the jewel wasp Nasonia: evolutionary shifts in chemical communication channels?

Jan Buellesbach, Juergen Gadau, Leo W. Beukeboom, Felix Echinger, Rhitoban Raychoudhury, Jack H. Werren & Thomas Schmitt
The evolution and maintenance of intraspecific communication channels constitutes a key feature of chemical signaling and sexual communication. However, how divergent chemical communication channels evolve while maintaining their integrity for both sender and receiver is poorly understood. In the present study, we compare male and female cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles in the jewel wasp genus Nasonia, analyze their chemical divergence, and investigate their role as species-specific sexual signaling cues. Males and females of all four...

Data from: The genetic basis of behavioral isolation between Drosophila mauritiana and D. sechellia

Daniel R. McNabney
Understanding how species form is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Identifying the genetic bases of barriers that prevent gene flow between species provides insight into how speciation occurs. Here I analyze a poorly understood reproductive isolating barrier, prezygotic reproductive isolation. I perform a genetic analysis of prezygotic isolation between two closely related species of Drosophila, D. mauritiana and D. sechellia. I first confirm the existence of strong behavioral isolation between D. mauritiana females and...

Data from: Rhythmic motor behavior influences perception of visual time

Alice Tomassini, Tiziana Vercillo, Francesco Torricelli & Maria Concetta Morrone
Temporal processing is fundamental for an accurate synchronization between motor behavior and sensory processing. Here we investigate how motor timing during rhythmic tapping influences perception of visual time. Participants listen to a sequence of four auditory tones played at 1 Hz and continue the sequence (without auditory stimulation) by tapping four times with their finger. During finger tapping, they are presented with an empty visual interval and are asked to judge its length compared to...

Data from: All-optical recording and stimulation of retinal neurons in vivo in retinal degeneration mice

Soon Keen Cheong, Jennifer M. Strazzeri, David R. Williams & William H. Merigan
Here we demonstrate the application of a method that could accelerate the development of novel therapies by allowing direct and repeatable visualization of cellular function in the living eye, to study loss of vision in animal models of retinal disease, as well as evaluate the time course of retinal function following therapeutic intervention. We use high-resolution adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy to image fluorescence from the calcium sensor GCaMP6s. In mice with photoreceptor degeneration (rd10),...

Data from: Single molecule sequencing resolves the detailed structure of complex satellite DNA loci in Drosophila melanogaster

Daniel Emerson Khost, Danna G. Eickbush & Amanda M. Larracuente
Highly-repetitive satellite DNA (satDNA) repeats are found in most eukaryotic genomes. SatDNAs are rapidly evolving and have roles in genome stability and chromosome segregation. Their repetitive nature poses a challenge for genome assembly and makes progress on the detailed study of satDNA structure difficult. Here we use single-molecule sequencing long reads from Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) to determine the detailed structure of all major autosomal complex satDNA loci in Drosophila melanogaster, with a particular focus on...

Data from: Life-history strategy and behavioral type: risk-tolerance reflects growth rate and energy allocation in ant colonies

Sarah E. Bengston, Min Shin & Anna Dornhaus
Despite the recent interest in animal personality and behavioral syndromes, there is a paucity of explanations for why distinct behavioral traits should evolve to correlate. We investigate whether such correlations across apparently distinct behavioral traits may be explained by variation in life history strategy among individual ant colonies. Life history theory predicts that the way in which individuals allocate energy towards somatic maintenance or reproduction drives several distinct traits in physiology, morphology, and energy use;...

Data from: Hosts do not simply outsource pathogen resistance to protective symbionts

Jan Hrcek, Benjamin J. Parker, Ailsa H.C. McLean, Jean-Christophe Simon, Ciara M. Mann & H. Charles J. Godfray
Microbial symbionts commonly protect their hosts from natural enemies, but it is unclear how protective symbionts influence the evolution of host immunity to pathogens. One possibility is that ‘extrinsic’ protection provided by symbionts allows hosts to reduce investment in ‘intrinsic’ immunological resistance mechanisms. We tested this idea using pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and their facultative bacterial symbionts that increase host resistance to the fungal pathogen Pandora neoaphidis. The pea aphid taxon is composed of multiple...

Data from: Correlates of decisional dynamics in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex

Habiba Azab & Benjamin Y. Hayden
We hypothesized that during binary economic choice, decision makers use the first option they attend as a default to which they compare the second. To test this idea, we recorded activity of neurons in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of macaques choosing between gambles presented asynchronously. We find that ensemble encoding of the value of the first offer includes both choice-dependent and choice-independent aspects, as if reflecting a partial decision. That is, its responses...

Exposing distinct subcortical components of the auditory brainstem response evoked by continuous naturalistic speech

Melissa J Polonenko & Ross K Maddox
Speech processing is built upon encoding by the auditory nerve and brainstem, yet we know very little about how these processes unfold in specific subcortical structures. These structures are deep and respond quickly, making them difficult to study during ongoing speech. Recent techniques begin to address this problem, but yield temporally broad responses with consequently ambiguous neural origins. Here we describe a method that pairs re-synthesized 'peaky' speech with deconvolution analysis of EEG recordings. We...

Data from: Adult MTM1-related myopathy carriers: classification based on deep phenotyping

Benjamin T. Cocanougher, Lauren Flynn, Pomi Yun, Minal Jain, Ruhi Vasavada, Jason Wittenbach, Sabine De Chastonay, Sameer Chhibber, A. Micheil Innes, Linda MacLaren, Tahseen Mozaffar, Andrew E. Arai, Sandra Donkervoort, Carsten G. Bönnemann & A. Reghan Foley
Objective To better characterize adult MTM1-related myopathy carriers and recommend a phenotypic classification. Methods This cohort study was performed at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Participants were required to carry a confirmed MTM1 mutation and were recruited via the Congenital Muscle Disease International Registry (n=8), a traveling local clinic of the Neuromuscular and Neurogenetic Disorders of Childhood Section, NINDS, NIH and Cure CMD (n=1) and direct physician referral (n=1). Neuromuscular examinations, muscle MRI,...

Heterochromatin-dependent transcription of satellite DNAs in the Drosophila melanogaster female germline

Xiaolu Wei, Danna G. Eickbush, Iain Speece & Amanda M. Larracuente
Large blocks of tandemly repeated DNAs—satellite DNAs (satDNAs)—play important roles in heterochromatin formation and chromosome segregation. We know little about how satDNAs are regulated, however their misregulation is associated with genomic instability and human diseases. We use the Drosophila melanogaster germline as a model to study the regulation of satDNA transcription and chromatin. Here we show that complex satDNAs (>100-bp repeat units) are transcribed into long noncoding RNAs and processed into piRNAs (PIWI interacting RNAs)....

Comparison of adult census size and effective population size support the need for continued protection of two Solomon Island endemics

Sarah A. Cowles, Brian C. Weeks, Lindsey Perrin, Nancy Chen & J. Albert C. Uy
Because a population’s ability to respond to rapid change is dictated by standing genetic variation, we can better predict a population’s long-term viability by estimating and then comparing adult census size (N) and effective population size (Ne). However, most studies only measure N or Ne, which can be misleading. Using a combination of field and genomic sequence data, we here estimate and compare N and Ne in two range-restricted endemics of the Solomon Islands. Two...

Data from: Maintenance of a male-killing Wolbachia in Drosophila innubila by male-killing dependent and male-killing independent mechanisms

Robert L. Unckless & John Jaenike
Many maternally inherited endosymbionts manipulate their host’s reproduction in various ways to enhance their own fitness. One such mechanism is male-killing, in which sons of infected mothers are killed by the endosymbiont during development. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the advantages of male-killing, including resource reallocation from sons to daughters of infected females, avoidance of inbreeding by infected females, and, if transmission is not purely maternal, the facilitation of horizontal transmission to uninfected...

Data from: Gene flow mediates the role of sex chromosome meiotic drive during complex speciation

Colin D. Meiklejohn, Emily L. Landeen, Kathleen E. Gordon, Thomas Rzatkiewicz, Sarah B. Kingan, Anthony J. Geneva, Jeffrey P. Vedanayagam, Christina A. Muirhead, Daniel Garrigan, David L. Stern & Daven C. Presgraves
During speciation, sex chromosomes often accumulate interspecific genetic incompatibilities faster than the rest of the genome. The drive theory posits that sex chromosomes are susceptible to recurrent bouts of meiotic drive and suppression, causing the evolutionary build-up of divergent cryptic sex-linked drive systems and, incidentally, genetic incompatibilities. To assess the role of drive during speciation, we combine high-resolution genetic mapping of X-linked hybrid male sterility with population genomics analyses of divergence and recent gene flow...

Data from: Cis- and trans-acting genetic factors contribute to heterogeneity in the rate of crossing over between the Drosophila simulans clade species

M. Victoria Cattani, Sarah B. Kingan & Daven C. Presgraves
In the genus Drosophila, variation in recombination rates has been found within and between species. Genetic variation for both cis- and trans-acting factors has been shown to affect recombination rates within species, but little is known about the genetic factors that affect differences between species. Here we estimate rates of crossing over for seven segments that tile across the euchromatic length of the X chromosome in the genetic backgrounds of three closely related Drosophila species....

Data from: Multilocus phylogenetic analyses of Hispaniolan and Bahamian trunk anoles (distichus species group)

Anthony J. Geneva, Jared Hilton, Sabina Noll & Richard E. Glor
The distichus species group includes six species and 21 subspecies of trunk ecomorph anoles distributed across Hispaniola and its satellite islands as well as the northern Bahamas. Although this group has long served as a model system for studies of reproductive character displacement, adaptation, behavior and speciation, it has never been the subject of a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. Our goal here is to generate a multilocus phylogenetic dataset (one mitochondrial and seven nuclear loci) and...

Data from: The organization and evolution of the Responder satellite in species of the Drosophila melanogaster group: dynamic evolution of a target of meiotic drive

Amanda M. Larracuente
Background: Satellite DNA can make up a substantial fraction of eukaryotic genomes and has roles in genome structure and chromosome segregation. The rapid evolution of satellite DNA can contribute to genomic instability and genetic incompatibilities between species. Despite its ubiquity and its contribution to genome evolution, we currently know little about the dynamics of satellite DNA evolution. The Responder (Rsp) satellite DNA family is found in the pericentric heterochromatin of chromosome 2 of Drosophila melanogaster....

Data from: A new method to scan genomes for introgression in a secondary contact model

Anthony J. Geneva, Christina A. Muirhead, Sarah B. Kingan & Daniel Garrigan
Secondary contact between divergent populations or incipient species may result in the exchange and introgression of genomic material. We develop a simple DNA sequence measure, called Gmin, which is designed to identify genomic regions experiencing introgression in a secondary contact model. Gmin is defined as the ratio of the minimum between-population number of nucleotide differences in a genomic window to the average number of between-population differences. Although it is conceptually simple, one advantage of Gmin...

Data from: Electrophysiological correlates of semantic dissimilarity reflect the comprehension of natural, narrative speech

Michael P. Broderick, Andrew J. Anderson, Giovanni M. Di Liberto, Michael J. Crosse & Edmund C. Lalor
People routinely hear and understand speech at rates of 120–200 words per minute [1, 2]. Thus, speech comprehension must involve rapid, online neural mechanisms that process words’ meanings in an approximately time-locked fashion. However, in the context of continuous speech, electrophysiological evidence for such time-locked processing has been lacking. Whilst valuable insights into the semantic processing of speech have been provided by the “N400 component” of the event-related potential [3-6], this literature has been dominated...

Data from: Age and sex differences in burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being in US neurologists

Kathrin LaFaver, Janis M. Miyasaki, Christopher M. Keran, Carol Rheaume, Lisa Gulya, Kerry H. Levin, Elaine C. Jones, Heidi B. Schwarz, Jennifer R. Molano, Amy Hessler, Divya Singhal, Tait D. Shanafelt, Jeff A. Sloan, Paul J. Novotny, Terrence L. Cascino & Neil A. Busis
Objective: To examine age and sex differences in burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being in US neurologists. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative analyses of men’s (n = 1,091) and women’s (n = 580) responses to a 2016 survey of US neurologists. Results: Emotional exhaustion in neurologists initially increased with age, then started to decrease as neurologists got older. Depersonalization decreased as neurologists got older. Fatigue and overall quality of life in neurologists initially worsened with age, then...

Registration Year

  • 2022
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  • 2013

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Rochester
  • University of Rochester Medical Center
  • University of Arizona
  • University of Kansas
  • University of Maryland, College Park
  • University of Oxford
  • Cornell University
  • Vrije Universiteit Brussel
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • University of Minnesota