93 Works

Data from: Stable isotope signatures of underground seedlings reveal the organic matter gained by adult orchids from mycorrhizal fungi

Julienne Marie-Isabelle Schweiger, Martin I. Bidartondo, Gerhard Gebauer & Julienne M.-I. Schweiger
1.Orchids produce dust seeds dependent on the provision of organic carbon by mycorrhizal fungi for their early development stages. Hence, all chlorophyllous orchids experience a dramatic switch in trophic strategies from initial mycoheterotrophy to either autotrophy or partial mycoheterotrophy during ontogeny. Yet, the degree to which partially mycoheterotrophic orchids gain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi is unclear based on existing approaches. 2.Here, we propose a novel approach to quantify the fungal-derived organic matter gain of...

Data from: Temporal migration pattern and mating tactics influence size-assortative mating in Rana temporaria

Carolin Dittrich, Ariel Rodríguez, Ori Segev, Sanja Drakulić, Heike Feldhaar, Miguel Vences & Mark-Oliver Rödel
Assortative mating is a common pattern in sexually reproducing species, but the mechanisms leading to assortment remain poorly understood. By using the European common frog (Rana temporaria) as a model, we aim to understand the mechanisms leading to size-assortative mating in amphibians. With data from natural populations collected over several years, we first show a consistent pattern of size-assortative mating across our two study populations. We subsequently ask if assortative mating may be explained by...

Influence of mixing and sludge volume on stability, reproducibility, and productivity of laboratory-scale anaerobic digestion

Stanislava Mlinar, Weig Alfons R. & Ruth Freitag

Data from: Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations

Tomas Roslin, Bess Hardwick, Vojtech Novotny, William K. Petry, Nigel R. Andrew, Ashley Asmus, Isabel C. Barrio, Yves Basset, Andrea Larissa Boesing, Timothy C. Bonebrake, Erin K. Cameron, Wesley Dáttilo, David A. Donoso, Pavel Drozd, Claudia L. Gray, David S. Hik, Sarah J. Hill, Tapani Hopkins, Shuyin Huang, Bonny Koane, Benita Laird-Hopkins, Liisa Laukkanen, Owen T. Lewis, Sol Milne, Isaiah Mwesige … & Eleanor M. Slade
Biotic interactions underlie ecosystem structure and function, but predicting interaction outcomes is difficult. We tested the hypothesis that biotic interaction strength increases toward the equator, using a global experiment with model caterpillars to measure predation risk. Across an 11,660-kilometer latitudinal gradient spanning six continents, we found increasing predation toward the equator, with a parallel pattern of increasing predation toward lower elevations. Patterns across both latitude and elevation were driven by arthropod predators, with no systematic...

Diversification in evolutionary arenas – assessment and synthesis

Nicolai M. Nürk, H. Peter Linder, Renske E. Onstein, Matthew J. Larcombe, Colin E. Hughes, Laura Piñeiro Fernández, Philipp M. Schlüter, Luis Valente, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Vanessa Cutts, Michael J. Donoghue, Erika J. Edwards, Richard Field, Suzette G.A. Flantua, Steven I. Higgins, Anke Jentsch, Sigrid Liede-Schumann & Michael D. Pirie
Understanding how and why rates of evolutionary diversification vary is a central issue in evolutionary biology, ecology and biogeography. The concept of adaptive radiation has attracted much interest, but is metaphorical and verbal in nature, making it difficult to quantitatively compare different evolutionary lineages or geographic regions. In addition, the causes of evolutionary stasis are relatively neglected. Here we review the central concepts in the evolutionary diversification literature and bring these together by proposing a...

Not a melting pot: plant species aggregate in their non-native range

Gisela C. Stotz, James F. Cahill, Jonathan A. Bennett, Cameron N. Carlyle, Edward W. Bork, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Sandra Díaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Batdelger Erdenetsetseg, Alessandra Fidelis, Heath W. Garris, Hugh A.L. Henry, Anke Jentsch, Mohammad Hassan Jouri, Kadri Koorem, Peter Manning … & Lauchlan H. Fraser
Aim: Plant species continue to be moved outside of their native range by human activities. Here, we aim at determining whether, once introduced, plants assimilate into native communities, or whether they aggregate, thus forming mosaics of native- and alien-rich communities. Alien species may aggregate in their non-native range due to shared habitat preferences, such as their tendency to establish in high-biomass, species-poor areas. Location: 22 herbaceous grasslands in 14 countries, mainly in the temperate zone....

Formicine ants swallow their highly acidic poison for gut microbial selection and control

Simon Tragust, Claudia Herrmann, Jane Häfner, Ronja Braasch, Christina Tilgen, Maria Hoock, Margarita Milidakis, Roy Gross & Heike Feldhaar
Animals continuously encounter microorganisms that are essential for health or cause disease. They are thus challenged to control harmful microbes while allowing acquisition of beneficial microbes. This challenge is likely especially important for social insects with respect to microbes in food, as they often store food and exchange food among colony members. Here we show that formicine ants actively swallow their antimicrobial, highly acidic poison gland secretion. The ensuing acidic environment in the stomach, the...

Contribution of males to brood care can compensate for their food consumption from a shared resource

Sandra Steiger, Eva M. Keppner & Manfred Ayasse
The sharing of the same food source among parents and offspring can be a driver of the evolution of family life and parental care. However, if all family members desire the same meal, competitive situations can arise, especially if resource depletion is likely. When food is shared for reproduction and the raising of offspring, parents have to decide whether they should invest in self-maintenance or in their offspring and it is not entirely clear how...

Data from: An operational definition of the biome for global change research

Timo Conradi, Jasper A. Slingsby, Guy F. Midgley, Henning Nottebrock, Andreas H. Schweiger & Steven I. Higgins
Biomes are constructs for organising knowledge on the structure and functioning of the world's ecosystems, and serve as useful units for monitoring how the biosphere responds to anthropogenic drivers, including climate change. The current practice of delimiting biomes relies on expert knowledge. Recent studies have questioned the value of such biome maps for comparative ecology and global-change research, partly due to their subjective origin. Here we propose a flexible method for developing biome maps objectively....

Functional biogeography of Neotropical moist forests: trait-climate relationships and assembly patterns of tree communities

Bruno Pinho, Marcelo Tabarelli, Cajo Ter Braak, S. J. Wright, Victor Arroyo-Rodriguez, Maíra Benchimol, Bettina Engelbrecht, Simon Pierce, Peter Hietz, Bráulio Santos, Carlos Peres, Sandra Müller, Ian Wright, Frans Bongers, Madelon Lohbeck, Ülo Niinemets, Martijn Slot, Steven Jansen, Davi Jamelli, Renato Augusto Ferreira De Lima, Nathan Swenson, Richard Condit, Jos Barlow, Ferry Slik, Manuel Hernández-Ruedas … & Felipe Melo
Aim: Here we examine the functional profile of regional tree species pools across the latitudinal distribution of Neotropical moist forests, and test trait-climate relationships among local communities. We expected opportunistic strategies (acquisitive traits, small seeds) to be overrepresented in species pools further from the equator due to long-term instability, but also in terms of abundance in local communities in currently wetter, warmer and more seasonal climates. Location: Neotropics. Time period: Recent. Major taxa studied: Trees....

Morphological and olfactory tree traits influence the susceptibility and suitability of the apple species Malus domestica and M. sylvestris to Anthonomus pomorum

Benjamin Henneberg, Torsten Meiners, Karsten Mody & Elisabeth Obermaier
The florivorous apple blossom weevil, Anthonomus pomorum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most economically relevant insect pest of European apple orchards in early spring. Neither efficient monitoring nor ecologically sustainable management of this insect pest has yet been implemented. To identify heritable traits of apple trees that might influence host selection of A. pomorum, we compared susceptibility of apple tree species using infestation rates of the domesticated apple, Malus domestica (Rosaceae: Pyreae), and the European crab...

Drought survival is positively associated with high turgor loss points in temperate perennial grassland species

Shanwen Sun, Eun-Young Jung, Julian Gaviria & Bettina Engelbrecht
1. Turgor loss point (πtlp) has been suggested to be a key trait for drought resistance in woody species. In herbaceous grassland species the role of πtlp for species drought survival has not yet been tested, although grasslands are projected to experience more frequent and intense droughts with climate change. 2. To gain insights into the role of πtlp for drought resistance of temperate perennial grassland species, we assessed πtlp of 41 species common in...

Allochthonous resources are less important for faunal communities on highly productive, small tropical islands

Sebastian Steibl, Robert Sigl, Sanja Blaha, Sophia Drescher, Gerhard Gebauer, Elif Gürkal, Frederic Hüftlein, Anna Satzger, Michael Schwarzer, Dimitri Seidenath, Jana Welfenbach, Raphael Zinser & Christian Laforsch
Ecosystems are interconnected by energy fluxes that provide resources for the inhabiting organisms along the transition zone. Especially where in-situ production is low, ecosystems can become highly dependent on external resources. The dependency on external input becomes less pronounced in systems with elevated in-situ production, where only consumer species close to the site of external input remain subsidized, whereas species distant to the input site rely on the in-situ production of the ecosystem. It is...

Data from: Middle Bronze Age land use practices in the north-western Alpine foreland – A multi-proxy study of colluvial deposits, archaeological features and peat bogs

Sascha Scherer, Benjamin Höpfer, Katleen Deckers, Elske Fischer, Markus Fuchs, Ellen Kandeler, Eva Lehndorff, Johanna Lomax, Sven Marhan, Elena Marinova, Julia Meister, Christian Poll, Humay Rahimova, Manfred Rösch, Kristen Wroth, Julia Zastrow, Thomas Knopf, Thomas Scholten & Peter Kühn
This paper aims to reconstruct Middle Bronze Age (MBA) land use practices in the north-western Alpine foreland (SW Germany, Hegau). We used a multi-proxy approach including the biogeochemical proxies from colluvial deposits in the surrounding of the well-documented settlement site of Anselfingen and offsite pollen data from two peat bogs. This approach allowed in-depth insights into the MBA subsistence economy and shows that the MBA in the north-western Alpine foreland was a period of establishing...

Data for: Spontaneous choices for insect-pollinated flower shapes by wild non-eusocial halictid bees

Scarlett Howard, Kit Prendergast, Matthew Symonds, Mani Shrestha & Adrian Dyer
The majority of angiosperms require animal pollination for reproduction and insects are the dominant group of animal pollinators. Bees are considered one of the most important and abundant insect pollinators. Research into bee behaviour and foraging decisions has typically centred on managed eusocial bee species, Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris. Non-eusocial bees are understudied with respect to foraging strategies and decision-making, such as flower preferences. Understanding whether there are fundamental foraging strategies and preferences which...

Data from: Living, dead, and absent trees - How do moth outbreaks shape small-scale patterns of soil organic matter stocks and dynamics at the Subarctic mountain birch treeline?

Nele Meyer, Yi Xu, Katri Karjalainen, Sylwia Adamczyk, Christina Biasi, Lona Van Delden, Angela Martin, Kevin Mganga, Kristiina Myller, Outi-Maaria Sietiö, Otso Suominen & Kristiina Karhu
Mountain birch forests (B. pubescens Ehrh. ssp. czerepanovii) at the subarctic treeline not only benefit from global warming, but are also increasingly affected by caterpillar outbreaks from foliage-feeding geometrid moths. Both of these factors have unknown consequences on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and biogeochemical cycles. We measured SOC stocks down to the bedrock under living trees and under two stages of dead trees (12 and 55 years since moth outbreak) and treeless tundra in...

Primary data used to calculate predator-induced morphological changes in two Daphnia species-associated clones

Patricia Diel, Max Rabus & Christian Laforsch
The expression of inducible defences in reaction to an inconsistent predation pressure is especially well investigated in the freshwater keystone filter-feeder Daphnia. Out of their many inducible defences, which increase their fitness, the highest diversity of induced traits is found within their morphology. In recent time the focus of studies on these has switched, from the previously thoroughly covered large-scale defences, e.g., elongated/enlarged tail-spines, helmets and crests, to rather small-scale predator-induced changes. Inconspicuous spinules that...

French (F) and Swedish (S) Founder (P) and Mutation Accumulation Line (MA) performance in France and Sweden

Charles Fenster, Mao-Lun Weng, Jon Agren, Henning Nottebrock, Eric Imbert & Matthew Rutter
Little is empirically known about the contribution of mutations to fitness in natural environments. However, Fisher's Geometric Model (FGM) provides a conceptual foundation to consider the influence of the environment on mutational effects. To quantify mutational properties in the field, we established eight sets of MA lines (7-10 generations) derived from eight founders collected from natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from French and Swedish sites, representing the range margins of the species in Europe. We...

Originaldaten zur Publikation „Mathematische Begabung in den Jahrgangsstufen 9 und 10“

Moritz Zehnder
Der Datensatz enthält Leistungsdaten zu zehn Indikatoraufgaben von Gymnasiast:innen und Teilnehmer:innen an Mathematikwettbewerben. Darüber hinaus umfasst der Datensatz wenige soziodemographische Daten zu den Schüler:innen.

Data from: Exploiting mycorrhizas in broad daylight: partial mycoheterotrophy is a common nutritional strategy in meadow orchids.

Julienne M.I. Schiebold, Martin I. Bidartondo, Florian Lenhard, Andreas Makiola, Gerhard Gebauer & Julienne M.-I. Schiebold
Partial mycoheterotrophy (PMH) is a nutritional mode in which plants utilize organic matter, i.e. carbon, both from photosynthesis and a fungal source. The latter reverses the direction of plant-to-fungus carbon flow as usually assumed in mycorrhizal mutualisms. Based on significant enrichment in the heavy isotope 13C, a growing number of PMH orchid species have been identified. These PMH orchids are mostly associated with fungi simultaneously forming ectomycorrhizas with forest trees. In contrast, the much more...

Data from: Pest control of aphids depends on landscape complexity and natural enemy interactions

Emily A. Martin, Björn Reineking, Bumsuk Seo & Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Aphids are a major concern in agricultural crops worldwide, and control by natural enemies is an essential component of the ecological intensification of agriculture. Although the complexity of agricultural landscapes is known to influence natural enemies of pests, few studies have measured the degree of pest control by different enemy guilds across gradients in landscape complexity. Here, we use multiple natural-enemy exclosures replicated in 18 fields across a gradient in landscape complexity to investigate (1)...

Data from: Release from prey preservation behavior via prey switch allowed diversification of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in digger wasps

Mareike Wurdack, Carlo Polidori, Alexander Keller, Heike Feldhaar & Thomas Schmitt
The cuticle of insects is covered by a layer of hydrocarbons (CHCs), whose original function is the protection from desiccation and pathogens. However, in most insects CHC profiles are species-specific. While this variability among species was largely linked to communication and recognition functions, additional selective forces may shape insect CHC profiles. Here we show that in Philanthinae digger wasps (Crabronidae) the CHC profile co-evolved with a peculiar brood-care strategy. In particular, we found that the...

Data from: Spatial and ecological population genetic structures within two island-endemic Aeonium species of different niche width

David E. V. Harter, Mike Thiv, Alfons Weig, Anke Jentsch & Carl Beierkuhnlein
The Crassulacean genus Aeonium is a well-known example for plant species radiation on oceanic archipelagos. However, while allopatric speciation among islands is documented for this genus, the role of intra-island speciation due to population divergence by topographical isolation or ecological heterogeneity has not yet been addressed. The aim of this study was to investigate intraspecific genetic structures and to identify spatial and ecological drivers of genetic population differentiation on the island scale. We analyzed inter...

Data from: Seed-dispersal networks respond differently to resource effects in open and forest habitats

Maximilian G. R. Vollstaedt, Stefan W. Ferger, Andreas Hemp, Kim M. Howell, Katrin Böhning-Gaese & Matthias Schleuning
While patterns in species diversity have been well studied across large-scale environmental gradients, little is known about how species' interaction networks change in response to abiotic and biotic factors across such gradients. Here we studied seed-dispersal networks on 50 study plots distributed over ten different habitat types on the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, to disentangle the effects of climate, habitat structure, fruit diversity and fruit availability on different measures of interaction diversity. We...

Do experimental drought stress and species' drought sensitivity influence herbivory in tropical tree seedlings?

Andrew Muehleisen, Eric Manzané-Pinzón, Bettina Engelbrecht, F. Andrew Jones & Liza Comita
In tropical forests, drought and herbivory represent two potent stresses on seedlings. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency of severe droughts in many tropical forests, which may influence seedling vulnerability to herbivores if drought stress affects seedling palatability. Furthermore, contrasting selective pressures in wetter vs drier forests could mean that species well-adapted to herbivores are less drought resistant and vice versa. In this study, we measured seedling performance and herbivory in a common...

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