166 Works

Data from: Fuel for the pace of life: baseline blood glucose concentration coevolves with life history traits in songbirds

Oldrich Tomasek, Lukas Bobek, Tereza Kralova, Marie Adamkova & Tomas Albrecht
1. It has been proposed that life histories have coevolved with a suite of physiological and behavioural adaptations, termed pace-of-life syndromes (POLS). Here, we hypothesise that basal concentration of blood glucose (G0), a major source of energy circulating in vertebrate blood, may constitute a key component of POLS. 2. To test this hypothesis, we measured G0 in 30 passerine species and tested its covariation with body mass and other life history traits. Importantly, body mass...

Data from: Living in two worlds: evolutionary mechanisms act differently in the native and introduced ranges of an invasive plant

Wen-Yong Guo, Carla Lambertini, Petr Pyšek, Laura A. Meyerson & Hans Brix
Identifying the factors that influence spatial genetic structure among populations can provide insights into the evolution of invasive plants. In this study, we used the common reed (Phragmites australis), a grass native in Europe and invading North America, to examine the relative importance of geographic, environmental (represented by climate here) and human effects on population genetic structure and its changes during invasion. We collected samples of P. australis from both the invaded North American and...

Discovery of new Trichophyton members, T. persicum and T. spiraliforme spp. nov., as a cause of highly inflammatory tinea cases in Iran and Czechia

Adéla Čmoková, Ali Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ivana Kuklová, Miroslav Kolařík, Forough Shamsizadeh, Saham Ansari, Maral Gharaghani, Viera Miňovská, Mohammad Javad Najafzadeh, Sadegh Nouripour‐Sisakht, Takashi Yaguchi, Kamiar Zomorodian, Hossein Zarrinfar & Vit Hubka
Pathogens from the Trichophyton benhamiae complex are one of the most important causes of animal mycoses with significant zoonotic potential. In the light of the recently revised taxonomy of this complex, we retrospectively identified 38 Trichophyton isolates that could not be resolved in any of the existing species. These strains were isolated from Iranian and Czech patients during molecular epidemiological surveys on dermatophytosis and were predominantly associated with highly inflammatory tinea corporis cases suggesting possible...

Data from: The genetic regulation of avian migration timing: combining candidate genes and quantitative genetic approaches in a long-distance migrant

Miloš Krist, Pavel Munclinger, Martins Briedis & Peter Adamík
Plant and animal populations can adapt to prolonged environmental changes if they have sufficient genetic variation in important phenological traits. The genetic regulation of annual cycles can be studied either via candidate genes or through the decomposition of phenotypic variance by quantitative genetics. Here we combined both approaches to study the timing of migration in a long-distance migrant, the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis). We found that none of the four studied candidate genes (CLOCK, NPAS2,...

Data from: Demographic correction – a tool for inference from individuals to populations

Adam Klimeš, Jitka Klimešová, Zdeněk Janovský & Tomáš Herben
Estimation of responses of organisms to their environment using experimental manipulations, and comparison of such responses across sets of species, is one of the primary tools in ecology research. The most common approach is to compare response of a single life stage of species to an environmental factor and use this information to draw conclusions about population dynamics of these species. Such approach ignores the fact that interspecific fitness differences measured at a single life...

Interspecific differences in root foraging precision cannot be directly inferred from species' mycorrhizal status or fine root economics

Pavlína Stiblíková, Adam Klimeš, James Cahill, Tomáš Koubek & Martin Weiser
Nutrient acquisition in plants can be represented by a suite of intercorrelated root traits such as root diameter, nitrogen content, root tissue density, and specific root length. However, it is unclear how a plant's ability to precisely forage for nutrients in a heterogeneous soil environment (i.e., the precision of placing roots into nutrient-rich areas) relates to these traits. Mycorrhizal symbiosis also affects the relationship between the fine root traits and root foraging precision because fungal...

Data from: Divergent clades or cryptic species? Mito-nuclear discordance in a Daphnia species complex

Anne Thielsch, Alexis Knell, Ali Mohammadyari, Adam Petrusek & Klaus Schwenk
Background: Genetically divergent cryptic species are frequently detected by molecular methods. These discoveries are often a byproduct of molecular barcoding studies in which fragments of a selected marker are used for species identification. Highly divergent mitochondrial lineages and putative cryptic species are even detected in intensively studied animal taxa, such as the crustacean genus Daphnia. Recently, eleven such lineages, exhibiting genetic distances comparable to levels observed among well-defined species, were recorded in the D. longispina...

Data from: Competition-driven niche segregation on a landscape scale: evidence for escaping from syntopy toward allotopy in two coexisting sibling passerine species

Jiří Reif, Radka Reifova, Anna Skoracka & Lechosław Kuczyński
1. The role of interspecific competition for generating patterns in species’ distribution is hotly debated and studies taking into account processes occurring at both large and small spatial scales are almost missing. Theoretically, competition between species with overlapping niches should result in divergence of their niches in sympatry to reduce the costs of competition. Many species show a mosaic distribution within sympatric zones, with the syntopic sites occupied by both species, and allotopic sites where...

Data from: A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)

John M. Heraty, Roger A. Burks, Astrid Cruaud, Gary A. P. Gibson, Johan Liljeblad, James Munro, Jean-Yves Rasplus, Gerard Delvare, Petr Janšta, Alex Gumovsky, John Huber, James B. Woolley, Lars Krogmann, Steve Heydon, Andrew Polaszek, Stefan Schmidt, D. Chris Darling, Michael W. Gates, Jason Mottern, Elizabeth Murray, Ana Dal Molin, Serguei Triapitsyn, Hannes Baur, John D. Pinto, Simon Van Noort … & Matthew Yoder
Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) is extremely diverse with an estimated 500 000 species. We present the first phylogenetic analysis of the superfamily based on both morphological and molecular data. A web-based, systematics workbench mx was used to score 945 character states illustrated by 648 figures for 233 morphological characters for a total of 66 645 observations for 300 taxa. The matrix covers 22 chalcidoid families recognized herein and includes 268 genera within 78 of 83 subfamilies. Morphological...

Data from: Around the Mediterranean: an extreme example of loop migration in a long-distance migratory passerine

Petr Klvaňa, Jaroslav Cepák, Pavel Munclinger, Romana Michálková, Oldřich Tomášek & Tomas Albrecht
An important issue in migration research is how small-bodied passerines pass over vast geographical barriers; in European-African avian migration, these are represented by the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara Desert. Eastern (passing Eastern Mediterranean), central (passing Apennine Peninsula) and western (via western Mediterranean) major migration flyways are distinguished for European migratory birds. The autumn and spring migration routes may differ (loop migration) and there could be a certain level of individual flexibility in how individuals...

Data from: Squamate hatchling size and the evolutionary causes of negative offspring size allometry

Shai Meiri, Anat Feldman & Lukáš Kratochvil
Although fecundity selection is ubiquitous, in an overwhelming majority of animal lineages, small species produce smaller number of offspring per clutch. In this context, egg, hatchling and neonate sizes are absolutely larger, but smaller relative to adult body size in larger species. The evolutionary causes of this widespread phenomenon are not fully explored. The negative offspring size allometry can result from processes limiting maximal egg/offspring size forcing larger species to produce relatively smaller offspring (‘upper...

Data from: Female collared flycatchers choose neighbouring and older extra-pair partners from the pool of males around their nests

Anais Edme, Pavel Munclingwe, Miloš Krist & Pavel Munclinger
Extra-pair copulation is common among passerine birds. Females might engage in this behavior to obtain direct or indirect benefits. They may choose extra-pair males with larger ornaments, especially if they are costly to produce. Here we studied extra-pair paternity in the collared flycatcher. Genetic analysis allowed us to identify the presence or absence of extra-pair young in the focal nests, and to identify extra-pair fathers. We also identified potential males available as extra-pair sires around...

Data from: Effects of disturbance frequency and severity on plant traits: an assessment across a temperate flora

Tomas Herben, Jitka Klimesova & Milan Chytry
(1) Recent analyses of plant traits across large sets of species have revolutionized our understanding of plant functional differentiation. However, understanding of ecological relevance of this differentiation is contingent upon knowledge of environmental preferences of species, namely along gradients of disturbance and productivity for which no quantitative data were available until recently. (2) We examined the relationships of key functional traits (life-history categories, leaf-height-seed traits, clonal growth and bud bank traits) in the herb-dominated flora...

Data from: Habitat use, but not gene flow, is influenced by human activities in two ecotypes of Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus)

Alejandro Centeno-Cuadros, Pavel Hulva, Dusan Romportl, Simone Santoro, Tereza Stříbná, David Shohami, Ivan Horáček, Asaf Tsoar, Ran Nathan & P. Benda
Understanding the ecological, behavioral and evolutionary response of organisms to changing environments is of primary importance in a human-altered world. It is crucial to elucidate how human activities alter gene flow and what are the consequences for the genetic structure of a species. We studied two lineages of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) throughout the contact zone between mesic and arid ecozones in the Middle East to evaluate the species' response to the growing...

Data from: Flow of CO2 from soil may not correspond with CO2 concentration in soil

Jan Frouz & Luděk Bujalský
The relationship between CO2 flow from soil and soil CO2 concentration was investigated at 72 permanent sampling points at two forested post-mining sites in the northwest of the Czechia. Based on the entire data set (72 points sampled monthly during the growing season), CO2 flow from the soil was positively correlated with soil CO2 concentration. CO2 concentration in deeper soil layers was positively correlated with root biomass and negatively correlated with soil microbial respiration. In...

Data from: Context-dependence of maternal effects: testing assumptions of optimal egg size, differential- and sex-allocation models

Miloš Krist & Pavel Munclinger
If offspring develop in adverse conditions, the maternal component of their phenotypic variation might increase due to the stronger dependence of offspring traits on parental investment. This should result in increased parental investment to individual offspring, as assumed by the model of optimal egg size. The opposite pattern, i.e., stronger dependence of offspring fitness on parental investment and consequently larger parental investment under good conditions is assumed by both the theory of differential allocation if...

Data from: Scrutinizing assortative mating in birds

Daiping Wang, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Mihai Valcu, Niels Dingemanse, Martin Bulla, Christiaan Both, Renée A. Duckworth, Lynna Marie Kiere, Patrik Karell, Tomáš Albrecht & Bart Kempenaers
It is often claimed that pair bonds preferentially form between individuals that resemble one another. Such assortative mating appears to be widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Yet it is unclear whether the apparent ubiquity of assortative mating arises primarily from mate choice (‘like attracts like’) which can be constrained by same-sex competition for mates, from spatial or temporal separation, or from observer, reporting, publication or search bias. Here, based on a conventional literature search, we...

Data from: Earthworms affect growth and competition between ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants

Jan Frouz, Jabbar Moradi, David Püschel & Jana Rydlová
Previous research showed that during intermediate stages of primary succession, when vegetation is dominated by ectomycorrhizal (EcM) shrubs and trees, site colonization by earthworms substantially alters plant communities. Research has also shown that EcM shrubs and trees suppress arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants in the understory. To determine whether earthworm activity reduces this asymmetric competition, we conducted a full factorial laboratory experiment in which we grew EcM Betula pendula and AM Tripleurospermum inodorum, together or apart,...

Data from: Flying between raindrops: strong seasonal turnover of several Lepidoptera groups in lowland rainforests of Mount Cameroon

Vincent Maicher, Szabolcs Sáfián, Mercy Murkwe, Łukasz Przybyłowicz, Štěpán Janeček, Eric B. Fokam, Tomasz Pyrcz & Robert Tropek
1. Although seasonality in the tropics is often less pronounced than in temperate areas, tropical ecosystems show seasonal dynamics as well. Nevertheless, individual tropical insects’ phenological patterns are still poorly understood, especially in the Afrotropics. To fill this gap, we investigated biodiversity patterns of Lepidoptera communities at three rainforest localities in the foothills of Mount Cameroon, West Africa, one of the wettest places in the world. 2. Our multi-taxa approach covered six lepidopteran groups (fruit-feeding...

Data from: Nest as an extended phenotype signal of female quality in the great reed warbler

Václav Jelínek, Milica Požgayová, Marcel Honza & Petr Procházka
Extended phenotypes with signalling function are mostly restricted to animal taxa that use construction behaviour during courtship displays. However, they can be used also as post-mating signals of mate quality, allowing individuals to obtain reliable information about their partners. Nest size may have such a signalling function and a lot of indirect evidence supports this view. However, direct evidence based on an experimental approach is still widely missing. Here we test the role of nest...

Data from: Testing the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis in the presence and absence of inbreeding

Wolfgang Forstmeier, Malika Ihle, Pavlina Opatova, Katrin Martin, Ulrich Knief, Jana Albrechtová, Tomas Albrecht & Bart Kempenaers
The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis suggests that females can judge male fertility by inspecting male phenotypic traits. This is because male sexually selected traits might correlate with sperm quality if both are sensitive to factors that influence male condition. A recent meta-analysis found little support for this hypothesis, suggesting little or no shared condition dependence. However, we recently reported that in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) inbreeding had detrimental effects both on phenotypic traits and on...

Data from: Vertical root distribution of individual species in a mountain grassland community: does it respond to neighbours?

Tomas Herben, Tereza Vozábová, Věra Hadincová, František Krahulec, Hana Mayerová, Sylvie Pecháčková, Hana Skálová & Karol Krak
1.Vertical differentiation in root placement is one of the potential mechanisms of plant niche differentiation. It can be due to the remarkable plasticity of roots in response to nutrients and neighbours, but most data on it come from pot or garden experiments. The roles of vertical differentiation and of plasticity in it in the field are thus not well known. 2.We examined species-specific root vertical distribution in a montane grassland using quantitative Real-Time PCR. We...

Data from: Experimentally induced repeated anhydrobiosis in the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer

Michaela Czernekova & K. Ingemar Jönsson
Tardigrades represent one of the main animal groups with anhydrobiotic capacity at any stage of their life cycle. The ability of tardigrades to survive repeated cycles of anhydrobiosis has rarely been studied but is of interest to understand the factors constraining anhydrobiotic survival. The main objective of this study was to investigate the patterns of survival of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer in tardigrades under repeated cycles of desiccation, and the potential effect of repeated desiccation...

Data from: Moderate heritability and low evolvability of sperm morphology in a species with high risk of sperm competition, the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis

Anais Edme, Petr Zobač, Peter Korsten, Tomáš Albrecht, Tim Schmoll & Miloš Krist
Spermatozoa represent the morphologically most diverse type of animal cells and show remarkable variation in size across and also within species. To understand the evolution of this diversity, it is important to reveal to what degree this variation is genetic or environmental in origin and whether this depends on species’ life‐histories. Here we applied quantitative genetic methods to a pedigreed multigenerational data set of the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis, a passerine bird with high levels...

Genomics of new ciliate lineages provides insight into the evolution of obligate anaerobiosis - single gene datasets for phylogenomic analysis of anaerobic ciliates (SAL, Ciliophora), protein datasets for mitochondrial pathways prediction, and mitochondrial genomes

Johana Rotterova, Eric Salomaki, Tomas Panek, William Bourland, David Zihala, Petr Taborsky, Virginia Edgcomb, Roxanne Beinart, Martin Kolisko & Ivan Cepicka
Oxygen plays a crucial role in energetic metabolism of most eukaryotes. Yet, adaptations to low oxygen concentrations leading to anaerobiosis have independently arisen in many eukaryotic lineages, resulting in a broad spectrum of reduced and modified mitochondrial organelles (MROs). In this study, we present the discovery of two new class-level lineages of free-living marine anaerobic ciliates, Muranotrichea, cl. nov. and Parablepharismea, cl. nov., that, together with the class Armophorea, form a major clade of obligate...

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