167 Works

Data from: Letting the “cat” out of the bag: pouch young development of the extinct Tasmanian tiger revealed by X-ray computed tomography

Axel H. Newton, Frantisek Spoutil, Jan Prochazka, Jay R. Black, Kathryn Medlock, Robert N. Paddle, Marketa Knitlova, Christy A. Hipsley & Andrew J. Pask
The Tasmanian tiger or thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) was an iconic Australian marsupial predator that was hunted to extinction in the early 1900s. Despite sharing striking similarities with canids, they failed to evolve many of the specialized anatomical features that characterize carnivorous placental mammals. These evolutionary limitations are thought to arise from functional constraints associated with the marsupial mode of reproduction, in which otherwise highly altricial young use their well-developed forelimbs to climb to the pouch...

Data from: Repeated intraspecific divergence in life span and aging of African annual fishes along an aridity gradient

Radim Blažek, Matej Polacik, Petr Kacer, Alessandro Cellerino, Radomil Řežucha, Caroline Methling, Oldrich Tomasek, Kaila Syslova, Eva Terzibasi-Tozzini, Tomas Albrecht, Milan Vrtílek & Martin Reichard
Life span and aging are substantially modified by natural selection. Across species, higher extrinsic (environmentally related) mortality (and hence shorter life expectancy) selects for the evolution of more rapid aging. However, among populations within species, high extrinsic mortality can lead to extended life span and slower aging as a consequence of condition-dependent survival. Using within-species contrasts of eight natural populations of Nothobranchius fishes in common garden experiments, we demonstrate that populations originating from dry regions...

Data from: A multivariate study of differentiating characters between three European species of the genus Lasiochernes Beier, 1932 (Pseudoscorpiones, Chernetidae)

Jana Frisová Christophoryová, Katarína Krajčovičová, Hans Henderickx & Stanislav Španiel
Morphological variation in three rarely collected European species of the genus Lasiochernes Beier, 1932 is thoroughly examined in the present study. Detailed descriptions of previously ignored morphological characters of L. cretonatus Henderickx, 1998, L. jonicus (Beier, 1929) and L. pilosus (Ellingsen, 1910) are presented. The female of L. cretonatus and the nymphs of L. pilosus are described for the first time. Multivariate morphometric techniques (principal coordinate analysis and discriminant analyses) were employed to confirm morphological...

Data from: Socio-economic impact classification of alien taxa (SEICAT)

Sven Bacher, Tim M. Blackburn, Franz Essl, Piero Genovesi, Jaakko Heikkilä, Jonathan M. Jeschke, Glyn Jones, Reuben Keller, Marc Kenis, Christoph Kueffer, Angeliki F. Martinou, Wolfgang Nentwig, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Wolfgang Rabitsch, David M. Richardson, Helen E. Roy, Wolf-Christian Saul, Riccardo Scalera, Montserrat Vila, John R. U. Wilson, Sabina Kumschick & Sabrina Kumschick
Many alien taxa are known to cause socio-economic impacts by affecting the different constituents of human well-being (security; material and non-material assets; health; social, spiritual and cultural relations; freedom of choice and action). Attempts to quantify socio-economic impacts in monetary terms are unlikely to provide a useful basis for evaluating and comparing impacts of alien taxa because they are notoriously difficult to measure and important aspects of human well-being are ignored. Here, we propose a...

Data from: Trade-off between carotenoid-based sexual ornamentation and sperm resistance to oxidative challenge

Oldřich Tomášek, Jana Albrechtová, Martina Němcová, Pavlína Opatová & Tomáš Albrecht
It has been hypothesized that carotenoid-based sexual ornamentation signals male fertility and sperm competitive ability as both ornamentation and sperm traits may be co-affected by oxidative stress, resulting in positive covariation (the ‘redox-based phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis’; redox-based PLFH). On the other hand, the ‘sperm competition theory’ (SCT) predicts a trade-off between precopulatory and postcopulatory traits. Here, we manipulate oxidative status (using diquat dibromide) and carotenoid availability in adult zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) males in order...

Data from: Invasion success in polyploids: the role of inbreeding in the contrasting colonization abilities of diploid versus tetraploid populations of Centaurea stoebe s.l

Christoph Rosche, Isabell Hensen, Patrik Mráz, Walter Durka, Matthias Hartmann & Susanne Lachmuth
As a consequence of founder effects, inbreeding can hamper colonization success: First, in species with self-incompatibility controlled by an S-locus, inbreeding may decrease cross-compatibility, mainly due to the sharing of identical S-alleles between closely related mating partners. Secondly, inbreeding can reduce fitness of inbred relative to outbred offspring (i.e. inbreeding depression). Polyploids often show reduced inbreeding depression compared to diploids, which may contribute to the overrepresentation of polyploids among invasive species. This is the first...

Data from: Selection on multiple sexual signals in two Central- and Eastern-European populations of the barn swallow

Peter Laszlo Pap, Attila Fülöp, Marie Adamkova-Kotasova, Jaroslav Cepak, Romana Michalkova, Rebecca J. Safran, Alexandru N. Stermin, Oldrich Tomasek, Csongor I. Vágási, Orsolya Vincze, Matthew R. Wilkins & Tomas Albrecht
Variation in intensity and targets of sexual selection on multiple traits has been suggested to play a major role in promoting phenotypic differentiation between populations, although the divergence in selection may depend on year, local conditions or age. In this study, we quantified sexual selection for two putative sexual signals across two Central and East European barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica) populations from Czech Republic and Romania over multiple years. We then related these differences...

Extraordinary variation in a simple song: No geographical patterns in initial phrase variation of the Yellowhammer, a passerine with pronounced dialects

Sharina Van Boheemen, Lucie Diblíková, Jana Bílková, Adam Petrusek & Tereza Petrusková
Geographical variation of birdsong is used to study various topics from cultural evolution to mechanisms responsible for reproductive barriers or song acquisition. In species with pronounced dialects, however, patterns of variation in nondialect parts of the song are usually overlooked. We focused on the individually variable initial phrase of the song of the Yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella), a common Palearctic passerine which became a model species for dialect research. We used a quantitative method to compare...

Population changes in a whale breeding ground revealed by citizen science noninvasive genetics unique microsatellite profiles of southern right whales

Petra Neveceralova, Emma Carroll, Debbie Steel, Els Vermeulen, Simon Elwen & Pavel Hulva
Historical exploitation, and a combination of current anthropogenic impacts, such as climate change and habitat degradation, impact the population dynamics of marine mammalian megafauna. Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) are large cetaceans recovering from hunting, whose reproductive and population growth rate appear to be impacted by climate change. We apply noninvasive genetic methods to monitor southern right whale (E. australis, SRW) and test the application of noninvasive genetics to minimise the observer effects on the population....

Data from: Diversity of land snail tribe Helicini (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Helicidae): where do we stand after 20 years of sequencing mitochondrial markers?

Ondřej Korábek, Lucie Juřičková & Adam Petrusek
Sequences of mitochondrial genes revolutionized the understanding of animal diversity and continue to be an important tool in biodiversity research. In the tribe Helicini, a prominent group of the western Palaearctic land snail fauna, mitochondrial data accumulating since the 2000s helped to newly delimit genera, inform species-level taxonomy, and reconstruct past range dynamics. We combined the published data with own unpublished sequences and provide a detailed overview of what they revealed about the diversity of...

Input data for estimating dimensionless number (Reynolds, Swimming and Strouhal number) of swimming penguin

Mahadi Masud, Marco La Mantia & Peter Dabnichki
Propulsion performance of swimming and flying animals is often evaluated by using dimensionless numbers, such as the Strouhal and Reynolds numbers. They have been shown to allow better understanding of locomotion efficiency, using relatively simple approaches and avoiding overly complex computational models. Specifically, it has been reported that efficient propulsion is more likely to occur when Strouhal number values – estimated from propulsive frequencies and amplitudes – are within a relatively narrow range, depending on...

Shoot senescence in perennials of seasonal habitats: Comparative analysis of a large set of species

Tomas Herben, Tereza Mašková, Kristyna Hoskova & Tomas Koubek
1. Senescence in plants is a hierarchical process affecting all their body parts from cells to whole organisms. Here we aim to fill the gap between the existing knowledge on leaf senescence and rapidly accumulating evidence on whole-plant senescence by addressing patterns and drivers of shoot senescence of herbaceous plants. This is a key process that determines photosynthetic gain late in the season and economy of soil-borne nutrients in seasonal climate. 2. We present a...

Ecological fitting is a sufficient driver of tight interactions between sunbirds and ornithophilous plants

Stepan Janecek
1. Plant-bird pollination interactions evolved independently on different continents. Specific adaptations can lead to their restriction when potential partners from distant evolutionary trajectories come into contact. Alternatively, these interactions can be enabled by convergent evolution and subsequent ecological fitting. 2. We studied the interactions between New World plants from the genus Heliconia, Asian plants of genus Etlingera and African sunbirds on a local farm in Cameroon. Heliconia evolved together with hummingbirds and Etlingera spp. with...

Primary data on skull and brain morphology for: Geographical patterns in seasonal changes of body mass, skull, and brain size of common shrews

Javier Lázaro, Lucie Nováková, Moritz Hertel, Jan R. E. Taylor, Marion Muturi, Karol Zub & Dina K. N. Dechmann
Some small mammals exhibit Dehnel’s Phenomenon, a drastic decrease in body mass, braincase and brain size from summer to winter, followed by regrowth in spring. This is accompanied by a reorganization of the brain and changes in other organs. The evolutionary link between these changes and seasonality remains unclear, although the intensity of change varies between locations as the phenomenon is thought to lead to energy savings during winter. Here we explored geographic variation of...

Effects of high and low-efficacy therapy in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis

Izanne Roos, Emmanuelle Leray, Romain Casey, Dana Horakova, Eva Havrdova, Guillermo Izquierdo, Sara Eichau, Francesco Patti, Gilles Edan, Marc Debouverie, Jean Pelletier, Serkan Ozakbas, Maria Pia Amato, Pierre Clavelou, Pierre Grammond, Cavit Boz, Katherine Buzzard, Olga Skibina, Jonathan Ciron, Oliver Gerlach, Francois Grand'Maison, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Charles Malpas, Helmut Butzkueven, Sandra Vukusic … & Tomas Kalincik
Objective: To compare the clinical effectiveness of high- and low-efficacy treatments in patients with recently active and inactive secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) after accounting for therapeutic lag. Methods: Patients treated with high- (natalizumab, alemtuzumab, mitoxantrone, ocrelizumab, rituximab, cladribine, fingolimod) or low-efficacy (interferon β, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide) therapies after SPMS onset were selected from MSBase and OFSEP, two large observational cohorts. Therapeutic lag was estimated for each patient based on their demographic and clinical characteristics....

Evaluating the potential effects of capturing and handling on subsequent observations of a migratory passerine through individual acoustic monitoring

Tereza Petrusková, Hana Kahounová, Iveta Pišvejcová, Anna Čermáková, Tomáš Brinke, Niall H. K. Burton & Adam Petrusek
Ringing is the most common technique used for individual marking of passerine birds, informing understanding of many aspects of their behaviour and ecology. Birds caught for ringing may also be substantially handled before release (e.g., to obtain biometric data, blood or feather samples), and all such procedures may affect the subsequent behaviour of a captured individual. Previous field studies that have assessed the potential effects of capturing and handling birds have nevertheless, to date, lacked...

No evidence for a role of trills in male response to territorial intrusion in a complex singer, the Thrush Nightingale

Abel Souriau, Radka Reifová, Adam Petrusek & Tereza Petrusková
Among the broad diversity of songbird vocalisations, song can serve a wide range of different functions depending on the species and context. In many species, aggressive motivation has often been linked with the use of fast repeated series of elements typically referred to as trills. However, only a few studies explored the role of this specific component in species with a large repertoire and high song complexity. Here, we investigate the potential role of trills...

Bird pollination syndrome is the plant’s adaptation to ornithophily, but nectarivorous birds are not so selective

Krystof Chmel, Francis Ewome, Guillermo Gómez, Yannick Klomberg, Jan Mertens, Robert Tropek & Štěpán Janeček
Many tropical plants are pollinated by birds and several bird phylogenetical lineages have specialised to a nectar diet. The long-assumed, intimate ecological and evolutionary relationship between ornithophilous plants and phenotypically specialised nectarivorous birds has nevertheless been questioned in recent decades, where such plant-pollinator interactions have been shown to be highly generalised. In our study, we analysed two extensive interaction datasets: bird-flower and insect-flower interactions, both collected on Mt. Cameroon, West-Central Africa. We tested if 1)...

Weak coordination between leaf drought tolerance and proxy traits in herbaceous plants

Maria Májeková, Tomáš Hájek, Agnes J. Albert, Francesco De Bello, Jiří Doležal, Lars Götzenberger, Stepan Janeček, Jan Lepš, Pierre Liancourt & Ondrej Mudrák
Increased drought is predicted to have a major impact on plant performance under environmental change. Yet leaf hydraulic traits directly related to drought tolerance, such as leaf turgor loss point (πtlp), are underrepresented in trait-based studies and have been largely overlooked within the main frameworks evaluating trait–trait coordination and trade-offs: the leaf economics spectrum and the global spectrum of plant form and function. Using 122 herbaceous species from the Central European temperate grasslands, we investigated...

Sunbirds' tendency to hover: the roles of energetic rewards, inflorescence architecture and rain - data

Zuzana Sejfová, Jiří Mlíkovský, Francis Luma Ewome, Petra Janečková, Yannick Klomberg, Marcus Njie & Štěpán Janeček
Although the Old World sunbirds are generally considered to be an ecological analogue of the New World hummingbirds, it is commonly believed that in contrast to hummingbirds, sunbirds perch while feeding. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that Old World nectarivores hover while feeding more frequently than previously thought, and some Old World plants seem to have adapted to hovering bird pollinators. To reveal the importance of sunbird foraging behavior in nectar acquisition and to test...

Genetics of quantitative traits with dominance under stabilizing and directional selection in partially selfing species

Josselin CLO & Øystein Opedal
Recurrent self-fertilization is thought to lead to reduced adaptive potential by decreasing the genetic diversity of populations, thus leading selfing lineages down an evolutionary ‘blind alley’. Though well supported theoretically, empirical support for reduced adaptability in selfing species is limited. One limitation of classical theoretical models is that they assume pure additivity of the fitness-related traits that are under stabilizing selection, despite ample evidence that quantitative traits are subject to dominance. Here we relax this...

Longitudinal evidence for immunosenescence and inflammaging in free-living great tits

Martin Těšický, Tereza Krajzingrová, Zuzana Świderská, Kamila Syslová, Barbora Bílková, Jiří Eliáš, Hana Velová, Jana Svobodová, Petra Bauerová, Tomáš Albrecht & Vinkler Michal
The first-line effector mechanisms of immune defence, including inflammation and oxidative burst, contribute significantly to host-pathogen resistance. Whether these immune responses undergo age-related changes in birds remains unknown. Here, we tracked selected inflammatory parameters in 54 free-living great tits (Parus major) of known age, captured repeatedly over three consecutive years, with the aims to investigate long-term repeatability and age-dependent changes in cellular oxidative burst responsiveness upon in vitro stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and to...

A monograph of Aspergillus section Candidi

Kateřina Glässnerová, František Sklenář, Željko Jurjević, Jos Houbraken, Takashi Yaguchi, Cobus M. Visagie, Josepa Gené, João P. Z. Siqueira, Alena Kubátová, Miroslav Kolařík & Vit Hubka
Aspergillus section Candidi encompasses white- or yellow-sporulating species mostly isolated from indoor and cave environments, food, feed, clinical material, soil and dung. Their identification is non-trivial due to largely uniform morphology. This study aims to re-evaluate the species boundaries in the section Candidi and present an overview of all existing species along with information on their ecology. For the analyses, we assembled a set of 113 strains with diverse origin. For the molecular analyses, we...

Data from: Competition among native and invasive Phragmites australis populations: an experimental test of the effects of invasion status, genome size, and ploidy level.

Petr Pyšek, Jan Čuda, Petr Šmilauer, Hana Skálová, Zuzana Chumová, Carla Lambertini, Magdalena Lučanová, Hana Ryšavá, Pavel Trávníček, Kristýna Šemberová & Laura Meyerson
Among the traits whose relevance for plant invasions has recently been suggested are genome size (the amount of nuclear DNA) and ploidy level. So far, research on the role of genome size in invasiveness has been mostly based on indirect evidence by comparing species with different genome sizes, but how karyological traits influence competition at the intraspecific level remains unknown. We addressed these questions in a common‐garden experiment evaluating the outcome of direct intraspecific competition...

Data from: Evolution of flexible biting in hyperdiverse parasitoid wasps

Thomas Van De Kamp, István Mikó, Arnold H. Staniczek, Benjamin Eggs, Daria Bajerlein, Tomáš Faragó, Lea Hagelstein, Elias Hamann, Rebecca Spiecker, Tilo Baumbach, Petr Janšta & Lars Krogmann
One key event in insect evolution was the development of mandibles with two joints, which allowed powerful biting, but restricted their movement to a single degree of freedom. These mandibles define the Dicondylia, which constitute over 99 percent of all extant insect species. It was common doctrine that the dicondylic articulation of chewing mandibles remained unaltered for more than 400 million years. We report highly modified mandibles overcoming the restrictions of a single degree of...

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