165 Works

Data from: Maternal-fetal genomic conflict and speciation: no evidence for hybrid placental dysplasia in crosses between two house mouse subspecies

Lucie Kropáčková, Jaroslav Piálek, Václav Gergelits, Jiří Forejt & Radka Reifová
Interspecific hybridization between closely related mammalian species, including various species of the genus Mus, is commonly associated with abnormal growth of the placenta and hybrid fetuses, a phenomenon known as hybrid placental dysplasia (HPD). The role of HPD in speciation is anticipated but still poorly understood. Here we studied placental and fetal growth in F1 crosses between four inbred mouse strains derived from two house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. These...

Data from: DNA methylation as a possible mechanism affecting ability of natural populations to adapt to changing climate

Zuzana Munzbergova, Vit Latzel, Maria Surinova & Vera Hadincova
Environmentally induced epigenetic variation has been recently recognized as a possible mechanism allowing plants to rapidly adapt to novel conditions. Despite increasing evidence on the topic, little is known on how epigenetic variation affects responses of natural populations to changing climate. We studied the effects of experimental demethylation (DNA methylation is an important mediator of heritable control of gene expression) on performance of a clonal grass, Festuca rubra, coming from localities with contrasting temperature and...

Data from: Decoding of baby calls: can adult humans identify the eliciting situation from emotional vocalizations of preverbal infants?

Jitka Lindová, Marek Špinka, Lenka Martinec Nováková & Lenka Nováková
Preverbal infants often vocalize in emotionally loaded situations, yet the communicative potential of these vocalizations is not well understood. The aim of our study was to assess how accurately adult listeners extract information about the eliciting situation from infant preverbal vocalizations. Vocalizations of 19 infants aged 5-10 months were recorded in 3 negative (Pain, Isolation, Demand for Food) and 3 positive (Play, Reunion, After Feeding) situations. The recordings were later rated by 333 adult listeners...

Data from: Sperm divergence in a passerine contact zone: indication of reinforcement at the gametic level

Tomas Albrecht, Kamila Opletalova, Jiří Reif, Vaclav Janousek, Lubomir Pialek, Emily Rebecca Alison Cramer, Arild Johnsen & Radka Reifová
Postcopulatory sexual selection may promote evolutionary diversification in sperm form, but the contribution of between-species divergence in sperm morphology to the origin of reproductive isolation and speciation remains little understood. To assess the possible role of sperm diversification in reproductive isolation, we studied sperm morphology in two closely related species, the common nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) and the thrush nightingale (L. luscinia), that hybridize in a secondary contact zone spanning Central and Eastern Europe. We found:...

Data from: Population structure of a microparasite infecting Daphnia: spatio-temporal dynamics

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Background: Detailed knowledge of spatial and temporal variation in the genetic population structure of hosts and parasites is required for understanding of hostparasite coevolution. As hot-spots of contemporary coevolution in natural systems are difficult to detect and long-term studies are restricted to few systems additional population genetic data from various hostparasite systems may provide important insights into the topic. This is particularly true for parasites as these players have been under-investigated so far due to...

Data from: Earthworms increase plant biomass more in soil with no earthworm legacy than in earthworm mediated soil, and favor late successional species in competition

Ondřej Mudrák & Jan Frouz
As ecosystem engineers, earthworms greatly affect plant communities. They create persistent soil structures enriched by nutrients that improve the conditions for plant growth and modify competition between plant species. We therefore hypothesized that earthworm activity would be more important in early stages of the primary succession, when the soil is not modified by earthworms, than in the late stages of the succession, when the soil is already improved by earthworms. On the other hand, earthworms...

Data from: Does hybridization with a widespread congener threaten the long-term persistence of the Eastern Alpine rare local endemic Knautia carinthiaca?

Martin Čertner, Filip Kolář, Peter Schönswetter & Božo Frajman
Interspecific hybridization, especially when regularly followed by backcrossing (i.e., introgressive hybridization), conveys a substantial risk for many endangered organisms. This is particularly true for narrow endemics occurring within distributional ranges of widespread congeners. An excellent example is provided by the plant genus Knautia (Caprifoliaceae): Locally endemic K. carinthiaca is reported from two isolated populations in southern Austria situated within an area predominantly occupied by widespread K. arvensis. While K. carinthiaca usually inhabits low-competition communities on...

Data from: The roles of interspecific variability in seed mass and soil resource availability in root system development

Tereza Mašková & Martin Weiser
Aims Because plant roots serve mainly as organs for the uptake of water and nutrients, we aimed to test whether the development of seedling roots is influenced by the two principal nutrient sources—the substrate and the pool stored in the seed itself. Methods Using seven Fabaceae species that differ in seed mass, we observed their early root system development under four levels of nutrient availability. Transparent-wall rhizoboxes allowed us to track root development and to...

Data from: Superiority of extra-pair offspring: maternal but not genetic effects as revealed by a mixed cross-fostering design

Miloš Krist & Pavel Munclinger
Extra-pair copulations (EPC) are a rule rather than an exception in socially monogamous birds. Despite widespread occurrences, the benefits of female infidelity remain illusive. Most attention has been paid to the possibility that females gain genetic benefits from EPC. Fitness comparison between maternal half-siblings is considered to be a defining test of this hypothesis. Recently it was shown that these comparisons may be confounded by within-brood maternal effects. One such effect may be the distribution...

Data from: Non-breeding range size predicts the magnitude of population trends in trans-Saharan migratory passerine birds

Jaroslav Koleček, Petr Procházka, Christina Ieronymidou, Ian J. Burfield & Jiří Reif
Understanding why populations of some migratory species show a directional change over time, i.e. increase or decrease, while others do not, remains a challenge for ecological research. One possible explanation is that species with smaller non-breeding ranges may have more pronounced directional population trends, and their populations are thus more sensitive to the variation in environmental conditions in their non-breeding quarters. According to the serial residency hypothesis, this sensitivity should lead to higher magnitudes (i.e....

Data from: Sunbird hovering behavior is determined by both the forager and resource plant

Eliška Padyšáková & Štěpán Janeček
The long-standing paradigm that pollination systems adapted to hovering birds evolved only in the New World was recently challenged by the discovery of hovering pollination by Old World specialized passerine pollinators. This raises the possibility that hovering pollination may evolve more easily than previously believed, given sufficient selective pressure on plant traits, on nectarivory, or both. We observed foraging behavior by the sunbird Cyanomitra oritis at flowers of the native Old World plant Impatiens sakeriana....

Data from: Root:shoot ratio in developing seedlings: how seedlings change their allocation in response to seed mass and ambient nutrient supply

Tereza Mašková & Tomas Herben
1) Root:shoot (R:S) biomass partitioning is one of the keys to the plants' ability to compensate for limiting resources in the environment and thus to survive and succeed in competition. In adult plants, it can vary in response to many factors, such as nutrient availability in the soil or reserves in the roots from the previous season. The question remains whether, at the interspecific level, reserves in seeds can affect seedlings’ R:S ratio in a...

Data from: A single Tim translocase in the mitosomes of Giardia intestinalis illustrates convergence of protein import machines in anaerobic eukaryotes

Eva Pyrihova, Alžběta Motyčková, Luboš Voleman, Natalia Wandyszewska, Radovan Fišer, Gabriela Seydlová, Andrew J. Roger, Martin Kolisko, Pavel Dolezal & Andrew Roger
Mitochondria have evolved diverse forms across eukaryotic diversity in adaptation to anaerobiosis. Mitosomes are the simplest and the least well-studied type of anaerobic mitochondria. Transport of proteins via TIM complexes, composed of three proteins of the Tim17 protein family (Tim17/22/23), is one of the key unifying aspects of mitochondrial and mitochondria-derived organelles. However, multiple experimental and bioinformatic attempts have so far failed to identify the nature of TIM in mitosomes of the anaerobic metamonad protist,...

Data from: Root foraging performance and life-history traits

Martin Weiser, Tomas Koubek & Tomáš Herben
Plants use their roots to forage for nutrients in heterogeneous soil environments, but different plant species vastly differ in the intensity of foraging they perform. This diversity suggests the existence of constraints on foraging at the species level. We therefore examined the relationships between the intensity of root foraging and plant body traits across species in order to estimate the degree of coordination between plant body traits and root foraging as a form of plant...

Data from: Cd36-deficient congenic strains show improved glucose tolerance and distinct shifts in metabolic and transcriptomic profiles

Ondrej Šeda, Lucie Šedová, Frantisek Liška, Drahomira Křenová, Ludmila Kazdová, Johanne Tremblay, Michaela Krupková, Gilles Corbeil, Pavel Hamet & Vladimir Křen
Deficiency of fatty acid translocase Cd36 has been shown to have a major role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). We have tested the hypothesis that the effects of Cd36 mutation on the features of metabolic syndrome are contextually dependent on genomic background. We have derived two new congenic strains by introgression of limited chromosome 4 regions of SHR origin, both including the defective Cd36 gene, into the genetic...

Data from: Hybrid asexuality as a primary postzygotic barrier between nascent species: on the interconnection between asexuality, hybridization and speciation

Karel Janko, Jan Pačes, Hilde Wilkinson-Herbots, Rui J. Costa, Jan Roslein, Pavel Drozd, Nataliia Iakovenko, Jakub Rídl, Miluše Hroudová, Jan Kočí, Radka Reifová, Věra Šlechtová & Lukáš Choleva
Although sexual reproduction is ubiquitous throughout nature, the molecular machinery behind it has been repeatedly disrupted during evolution, leading to the emergence of asexual lineages in all eukaryotic phyla. Despite intensive research, little is known about what causes the switch from sexual reproduction to asexuality. Interspecific hybridization is one of the candidate explanations but the reasons for the apparent association between hybridization and asexuality remain unclear. In this study we combined cross-breeding experiments with population...

Data from: Environmental margin and island evolution in Middle Eastern populations of the Egyptian fruit bat

P. Hulva, Tereza Maresova, Cheliana Dundarova, Rasit Bilgin, Petr Benda, Tomas Bartonicka & Ivan Horacek
Here, we present a study of the population genetic architecture and microevolution of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) at the environmental margins in the Middle East using mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellites. In contrast to the rather homogenous population structure typical of cave-dwelling bats in climax tropical ecosystems, a relatively pronounced isolation by distance and population diversification was observed. The evolution of this pattern could be ascribed to the complicated demographic history at higher...

Data from: Reinforcement selection acting on the European house mouse hybrid zone

Barbora Vošlajerová Bimová, Miloš Macholán, Stuart J E Baird, Pavel Munclinger, Petra Dufková, Christina M Laukaitis, Robert C Karn, Kenneth Luzynski, Priscilla K Tucker & Jaroslav Piálek
Behavioural isolation may lead to complete speciation when partial postzygotic isolation acts in the presence of divergent specific mate recognition systems. These conditions exist where Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus come into contact and hybridize. We studied two mate recognition signal systems, based on urinary and salivary proteins, across a Central European portion of the mouse hybrid zone. Introgression of the genomic regions responsible for these signals: the major urinary proteins (MUPs) and...

Data from: Admixture between released and wild game birds: a changing genetic landscape in European mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

Pär Söderquist, Johan Elmberg, Gunnar Gunnarsson, Carl-Gustaf Thulin, Jocelyn Champagnon, Matthieu Guillemain, Jakub Kreisinger, Herbert H. T. Prins, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans & Robert H. S. Kraus
Disruption of naturally evolved spatial patterns of genetic variation and local adaptations is a growing concern in wildlife management and conservation. During the last decade, releases of native taxa with potentially non-native genotypes have received increased attention. This has mostly concerned conservation programs, but releases are also widely carried out to boost harvest opportunities. The mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, is one of few terrestrial migratory vertebrates subjected to large-scale releases for hunting purposes. It is the...

Data from: Genomic islands of differentiation in two songbird species reveal candidate genes for hybrid female sterility

Libor Mořkovský, Václav Janoušek, Jiří Reif, Jakub Rídl, Jan Pačes, Lukáš Choleva, Karel Janko, Michael W. Nachman & Radka Reifová
Hybrid sterility is a common first step in the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation. According to Haldane’s Rule it affects predominantly the heterogametic sex. While the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in organisms with heterogametic males has been studied for decades, the genetic basis of hybrid female sterility in organisms with heterogametic females has received much less attention. We investigated the genetic basis of reproductive isolation in two closely related avian species, the Common...

Data from: Metabolomic and transcriptomic data on major metabolic/biosynthetic pathways in workers and soldiers of the termite Prorhinotermes simplex (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and chemical synthesis of intermediates of defensive (E)-nitropentadec-1-ene biosynthesis

Anna Jirošová, Andrej Jančařík, Riya C. Menezes, Olga Bazalová, Klára Dolejšová, Heiko Vogel, Pavel Jedlička, Aleš Buček, Jana Brabcová, Pavel Majer, Robert Hanus & Aleš Svatoš
Production of nitro compounds has only seldom been recorded in arthropods. The aliphatic nitroalkene (E)-nitropentadec-1-ene (NPD), identified in soldiers of the termite genus Prorhinotermes, was the first case documented in insects in early seventies. Yet, the biosynthetic origin of NPD has long remained unknown. We previously proposed that NPD arises through the condensation of amino acids glycine and/or l-serine with tetradecanoic acid along a biosynthetic pathway analogous to the formation of sphingolipids. Here, we provide...

Data from: Golden orbweavers ignore biological rules: phylogenomic and comparative analyses unravel a complex evolution of sexual size dimorphism

Matjaz Kuntner, Chris Hamilton, Ren-Chung Cheng, Matjaz Gregoric, Nik Lupse, Tjasa Lokovsek, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Alan R. Lemmon, Ingi Agnarsson, Jonathan A. Coddington, Jason Bond, Chris A Hamilton & Jason E Bond
Instances of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) provide the context for rigorous tests of biological rules of size evolution, such as Cope’s Rule (phyletic size increase), Rensch’s Rule (allometric patterns of male and female size), as well as male and female body size optima. In certain spider groups, such as the golden orbweavers (Nephilidae), extreme female-biased SSD (eSSD, female:male body length ≥ 2) is the norm. Nephilid genera construct webs of exaggerated proportions, which can be...

Data from: Crop-to-wild hybridization in cherries – empirical evidence from Prunus fruticosa

Lenka Macková, Petr Vít & Tomas Urfus
Crop cultivation can lead to genetic swamping of indigenous species and thus pose a serious threat for biodiversity. The rare Eurasian tetraploid shrub Prunus fruticosa (ground cherry) is suspected of hybridizing with cultivated allochthonous tetraploid P. cerasus and autochthonous diploid P. avium. Three Prunus taxa (447 individuals of P. fruticosa, 43 of P. cerasus and 73 of P. avium) and their hybrids (198 individuals) were evaluated using analysis of absolute genome size/ploidy level and multivariate...

Data from: The QRS (Quantification of Representative Sequences) pipeline for amplicon sequencing: case study on within-population ITS1 sequence variation in a microparasite infecting Daphnia

Enrique Gonzalez-Tortuero, Jakub Rusek, Adam Petrusek, Sabine Giessler, Dimitrios Lyras, Sonja Grath, Federico Castro-Monzon & Justyna Wolinska
Next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms are replacing traditional molecular biology protocols like cloning and Sanger sequencing. However, accuracy of NGS platforms has rarely been measured when quantifying relative frequencies of genotypes or taxa within populations. Here we developed a new bioinformatic pipeline (QRS) that pools similar sequence variants and estimates their frequencies in NGS data sets from populations or communities. We tested whether the estimated frequency of representative sequences, generated by 454 amplicon sequencing, differs...

Data from: Changing disturbance-diversity relationships in temperate ecosystems over the past 12000 years

Petr Kuneš, Vojtěch Abraham & Tomáš Herben
1. Disturbances such as fires and grazing have major impacts on biodiversity. While it has been suggested that species richness is highest with intermediate levels of disturbance, currently there is no consensus due to an absence of data covering large temporal and spatial scales. 2. We developed a new method to examine disturbance-diversity relationships (DDR) using sedimentary pollen data linked with species' disturbance ecology. We reconstructed disturbance and diversity dynamics in the region of the...

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