166 Works

Data from: The QRS (Quantification of Representative Sequences) pipeline for amplicon sequencing: case study on within-population ITS1 sequence variation in a microparasite infecting Daphnia

Enrique Gonzalez-Tortuero, Jakub Rusek, Adam Petrusek, Sabine Giessler, Dimitrios Lyras, Sonja Grath, Federico Castro-Monzon & Justyna Wolinska
Next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms are replacing traditional molecular biology protocols like cloning and Sanger sequencing. However, accuracy of NGS platforms has rarely been measured when quantifying relative frequencies of genotypes or taxa within populations. Here we developed a new bioinformatic pipeline (QRS) that pools similar sequence variants and estimates their frequencies in NGS data sets from populations or communities. We tested whether the estimated frequency of representative sequences, generated by 454 amplicon sequencing, differs...

Data from: Changing disturbance-diversity relationships in temperate ecosystems over the past 12000 years

Petr Kuneš, Vojtěch Abraham & Tomáš Herben
1. Disturbances such as fires and grazing have major impacts on biodiversity. While it has been suggested that species richness is highest with intermediate levels of disturbance, currently there is no consensus due to an absence of data covering large temporal and spatial scales. 2. We developed a new method to examine disturbance-diversity relationships (DDR) using sedimentary pollen data linked with species' disturbance ecology. We reconstructed disturbance and diversity dynamics in the region of the...

Data from: Global pattern of nest predation is disrupted by climate change in shorebirds

Vojtěch Kubelka, Miroslav Šálek, Pavel Tomkovich, Zsolt Végvári, Robert P. Freckleton & Tamás Székely
Ongoing climate change is thought to disrupt trophic relationships, with consequences for complex interspecific interactions, yet the effects of climate change on species interactions are poorly understood, and such effects have not been documented at a global scale. Using a single database of 38,191 nests from 237 populations, we found that shorebirds have experienced a worldwide increase in nest predation over the past 70 years. Historically, there existed a latitudinal gradient in nest predation, with...

Data from: Egg morphology fails to identify nests parasitized by conspecifics in common pochard: a test based on protein fingerprinting and including female relatedness

Adéla Petrželková, Hannu Pöysä, Petr Klvaňa, Tomáš Albrecht & David Hořák
Conspecific brood parasites lay eggs in nests of other females of the same species. A variety of methods have been developed and used to detect conspecific brood parasitism (CBP). Traditional methods may be inaccurate in detecting CBP and in revealing its true frequency. On the other hand more accurate molecular methods are expensive and time consuming. Eadie developed a method for revealing CBP based on differences in egg morphology. That method is based on Euclidean...

Data from: Organelles that illuminate the origins of Trichomonas hydrogenosomes and Giardia mitosomes

Michelle M. Leger, Martin Kolisko, Ryoma Kamikawa, Courtney W. Stairs, Keitaro Kume, Ivan Čepička, Jeffrey D. Silberman, Jan O. Andersson, Feifei Xu, Akinori Yabuki, Laura Eme, Qianqian Zhang, Kiyotaka Takishita, Yuji Inagaki, Alastair G. B. Simpson, Tetsuo Hashimoto & Andrew J. Roger
Many anaerobic microbial parasites possess highly modified mitochondria known as mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs). The best-studied of these are the hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis and Spironucleus salmonicida, which produce ATP anaerobically through substrate-level phosphorylation with concomitant hydrogen production; and the mitosomes of Giardia intestinalis, which are functionally reduced and lack any role in ATP production. However, to understand the metabolic specializations that these MROs underwent in adaptation to parasitism, data from their free-living relatives are needed....

Data from: Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium), and its occurrence in indoor environments and food

Amanda Juan Chen, Vit Hubka, Jens C. Frisvad, Cobus M. Visagie, Jos Houbraken, Martin Meijer, Janos Varga, Rasime Demirel, Željko Jurjević, Alena Kubátová, František Sklenář, Y. G. Zhou & Robert A. Samson
Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly the genus Eurotium) includes xerophilic species with uniseriate conidiophores, globose to subglobose vesicles, green conidia and yellow, thin walled eurotium-like ascomata with hyaline, lenticular ascospores. In the present study, a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites, physiological characters and phylogeny was applied to investigate the taxonomy of this section. Over 500 strains from various culture collections and new isolates obtained from indoor environments and a wide range of substrates all over...

Fitness consequences of hybridization in a predominantly selfing species: insights into the role of dominance and epistatic incompatibilities

Josselin Clo, Joëlle Ronfort & Laurène Gay
Studying the consequences of hybridization on plant performance is insightful to understand the adaptive potential of populations, notably at local scales. Due to reduced effective recombination, predominantly selfing species are organized in highly homozygous multi-locus-genotypes (or lines) that accumulate genetic differentiation both among- and within-populations. This high level of homozygosity facilitates the dissection of the genetic basis of hybrid performance in highly selfing species, which gives insights into the mechanisms of reproductive isolation between lines....

A supergene underlies linked variation in color and morphology in a Holarctic songbird

Erik Funk, Nicholas Mason, Snæbjörn Pálsson, Tomáš Albrecht, Jeff Johnson & Scott Taylor
The genetic architecture of a phenotype can have considerable effects on the evolution of a trait or species. Characterizing genetic architecture provides insight into the complexity of a given phenotype and, potentially, the role of the phenotype in evolutionary processes like speciation. We use genome sequences to investigate the genetic basis of phenotypic variation in redpoll finches (Acanthis spp.). We demonstrate that variation in redpoll phenotype is broadly controlled by a ~55-Mb chromosomal inversion. Within...

Data from: Butterfly and moth communities differ in their response to habitat structure in rainforests of Mount Cameroon

Sylvain Delabye, Vincent Maicher, Szabolcs Sáfián, Jiří Doležal, Jan Altman, Štěpán Janeček, Ishmeal Kobe, Mercy Murkwe, Pavel Šebek & Robert Tropek
Mechanisms structuring tropical communities are still under-studied, especially in Afrotropical rainforests. Although insect herbivores are considered to depend on plant diversity, we hypothesized that vegetation structure, together with other microhabitat characteristics, can be more important for some insects. Here, we compared habitat associations of fruit-feeding butterflies and moths, two ecologically different groups of Lepidoptera, in three rainforest localities in foothills of Mount Cameroon, West/Central Africa. Based on a comprehensive dataset of 16,040 specimens of 398...

Inter-annual repeatability and age-dependent changes in plasma testosterone levels in a longitudinally monitored free-living passerine bird

Martin Těšický, Tereza Krajzingrová, Jiří Eliáš, Hana Velová, Jana Svobodová, Petra Bauerová, Tomáš Albrecht & Michal Vinkler
While seasonal trends in testosterone levels are known from cross-cohort studies, data on testosterone inter-annual individual repeatability in wild birds are rare. Also, our understanding of hormonal age-dependent changes in testosterone levels is limited. We assessed plasma testosterone levels in 105 samples originating from 49 repeatedly captured free-living great tits (Parus major) sampled during the nesting to investigate their relative long-term repeatability and within-individual changes. Furthermore, we examined the inter-annual repeatability of condition-related traits (carotenoid-...

Novel immunoassay detecting p-Tau Thr217 distinguishes Alzheimer’s Disease from other dementias

Jozef Hanes, Andrej Kovac, Hlin Kvartsberg, Eva Kontsekova, Lubica Fialova, Stanislav Katina, Branislav Kovacech, Eva Stevens, Jakub Hort, Martin Vyhnalek, Lynn Boonkamp, Michal Novak, Henrik Zetterberg, Oskar Hansson, Philip Scheltens, Kaj Blennow, Charlotte E. Teunissen & Norbert Zilka
Objective To investigate whether p-tau T217 assay in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can distinguishes Alzheimer’s disease from other dementias and healthy controls. Methods We developed and validated a novel Simoa immunoassay to detect p-tau T217 in CSF. There was a total of 190 participants from three cohorts with AD (n = 77) and other neurodegenerative diseases (n = 69) as well as healthy subjects (n = 44). Results The p-tau T217 assay (cut-off 242 pg/ml) identified...

Reconstructing squamate biogeography in Afro-Arabia reveals the influence of a complex and dynamic geologic past

Héctor Tejero-Cicuéndez, Austin H. Patton, Daniel S. Caetano, Jiří Šmíd, Luke J. Harmon & Salvador Carranza
The geographic distribution of biodiversity is central to understanding evolutionary biology. Paleogeographic and paleoclimatic histories often help to explain how biogeographic patterns unfold through time. However, such patterns are also influenced by a variety of other factors, such as lineage diversification, that may affect the probability of certain types of biogeographic events. The complex and well-known geologic and climatic history of Afro-Arabia, together with the extensive research on reptile systematics in the region, makes Afro-Arabian...

Data from: Female solo song and duetting are associated with different territoriality in songbirds

Peter Mikula, Anna Tószögyová, David Hořák, Tereza Petrusková, David Storch & Tomas Albrecht
Recently, there has been an increased effort to unravel selective factors behind female song evolution in songbirds. Female birds which produce songs may sing either solo or in duets; although the two vocal performances likely evolved through different selection forces and mechanisms, the majority of large-scale studies to date have focused only on duetting or female song in general (pooling female solo song and duetting into a single category). Hence, here we estimate the effect...

Sequestration of defenses against predators drives specialized host plant associations in preadapted milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeinae)

Georg Petschenka, Rayko Halitschke, Tobias Züst, Anna Roth, Sabrina Stiehler, Linda Tenbusch, Christoph Hartwig, Juan Francisco Moreno Gámez, Robert Trusch, Jürgen Deckert, Kateřina Chalušová, Andreas Vilcinskas & Alice Exnerová
Host plant specialization across herbivorous insects varies dramatically, but while the molecular mechanisms of host-plant adaptations are increasingly known, we often lack a comprehensive understanding of the selective forces that favor specialization. The milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeinae) are engaged in ancestrally specialized associations with plants of the Apocynaceae from which they commonly sequester cardiac glycosides for defense, facilitated by resistant Na+/K+-ATPases and adaptations for transport, storage and discharge of toxins. Here, we show that three...

Data from: Superiority of extra-pair offspring: maternal but not genetic effects as revealed by a mixed cross-fostering design

Miloš Krist & Pavel Munclinger
Extra-pair copulations (EPC) are a rule rather than an exception in socially monogamous birds. Despite widespread occurrences, the benefits of female infidelity remain illusive. Most attention has been paid to the possibility that females gain genetic benefits from EPC. Fitness comparison between maternal half-siblings is considered to be a defining test of this hypothesis. Recently it was shown that these comparisons may be confounded by within-brood maternal effects. One such effect may be the distribution...

Data from: Reinforcement selection acting on the European house mouse hybrid zone

Barbora Vošlajerová Bimová, Miloš Macholán, Stuart J E Baird, Pavel Munclinger, Petra Dufková, Christina M Laukaitis, Robert C Karn, Kenneth Luzynski, Priscilla K Tucker & Jaroslav Piálek
Behavioural isolation may lead to complete speciation when partial postzygotic isolation acts in the presence of divergent specific mate recognition systems. These conditions exist where Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus come into contact and hybridize. We studied two mate recognition signal systems, based on urinary and salivary proteins, across a Central European portion of the mouse hybrid zone. Introgression of the genomic regions responsible for these signals: the major urinary proteins (MUPs) and...

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