8 Works

Data from: Disruptive camouflage impairs object recognition

Richard G. Webster, Christopher Hassall, Chris M. Herdman, Jean-Guy J. Godin, Thomas N. Sherratt & R. J. Webster
Whether hiding from predators, or avoiding battlefield casualties, camouflage is widely employed to prevent detection. Disruptive coloration is a seemingly well-known camouflage mechanism proposed to function by breaking up an object’s salient features (such as their characteristic outline), rendering objects more difficult to recognise. However, while a wide range of animals are thought to evade detection using disruptive patterns, there is no direct experimental evidence that disruptive coloration impairs recognition. Using humans searching for computer-generated...

Data from: Extremely high frequency sensitivity in a ‘simple’ ear

Hannah M. Moir, Joseph C. Jackson & James F. C. Windmill
An evolutionary war is being played out between the bat, which uses ultrasonic calls to locate insect prey, and the moth, which uses microscale ears to listen for the approaching bat. While the highest known frequency of bat echolocation calls is 212 kHz, the upper limit of moth hearing is considered much lower. Here, we show that the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, is capable of hearing ultrasonic frequencies approaching 300 kHz; the highest frequency...

Data from: Species with a chemical defense, but not chemical offense, live longer

Thomas J. Hossie, Christopher Hassall, Wayne Knee & Thomas N. Sherratt
Evolutionary hypotheses for aging generally predict that delayed senescence should evolve in organisms that experience lower extrinsic mortality. Thus, one might expect species that are highly toxic or venomous (i.e., chemically protected) will have longer lifespans than related species that are not likewise protected. This remarkable relationship has been suggested to occur in amphibians and snakes. First, we show that chemical protection is highly conserved in several lineages of amphibians and snakes. Therefore, accounting for...

Data from: Parallel evolution of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in the face of gene flow

Roger K. Butlin, Maria Saura, Grégory Charrier, Benjamin Jackson, Carl André, Armando Caballero, Jerry A. Coyne, Juan Galindo, John W. Grahame, Johann Hollander, Petri Kemppainen, Mónica Martínez-Fernández, Marina Panova, Humberto Quesada, Kerstin Johannesson, Emilio Rolán-Alvarez & Johan Hollander
Parallel evolution of similar phenotypes provides strong evidence for the operation of natural selection. Where these phenotypes contribute to reproductive isolation, they further support a role for divergent, habitat-associated selection in speciation. However, the observation of pairs of divergent ecotypes currently occupying contrasting habitats in distinct geographical regions is not sufficient to infer parallel origins. Here we show striking parallel phenotypic divergence between populations of the rocky-shore gastropod, Littorina saxatilis, occupying contrasting habitats exposed to...

Data from: Costs and benefits of lifetime exposure to mating rivals in male Drosophila melanogaster

Amanda Bretman, James D. Westmancoat, Matthew J. G. Gage & Tracey Chapman
Theory predicts that males should evolve mechanisms to assess competition and allocate resources accordingly. This requires phenotypic plasticity, to accurately match responses to the environment. Plastic responses in males to sexual competition are diverse and widespread. However, our ability to understand and predict how they evolve is limited because their benefits are rarely measured, and costs are, as yet, entirely unquantified. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, males that anticipate strong competition for matings or...

Data from: Are shy individuals less behaviorally variable? Insights from a captive population of mouse lemurs

Jennifer L. Verdolin & John Harper
Increasingly, individual variation in personality has become a focus of behavioral research in animal systems. Boldness and shyness, often quantified as the tendency to explore novel situations, are seen as personality traits important to the fitness landscape of individuals. Here we tested for individual differences within and across contexts in behavioral responses of captive mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) to novel objects, novel foods, and handling. We report consistent differences in behavioral responses for objects and...

Data from: Contrasting genetic responses to population fragmentation in a coevolving fig and fig wasp across a mainland-island archipelago

Min Liu, Jian Zhang, Yan Chen, Steve G. Compton, Xiao-Yong Chen & Stephen G. Compton
Interacting species of pollinator–host systems, especially the obligate ones, are sensitive to habitat fragmentation, due to the nature of mutual dependence. Comparative studies of genetic structure can provide insights into how habitat fragmentation contributes to patterns of genetic divergence among populations of the interacting species. In this study, we used microsatellites to analyse genetic variation in Chinese populations of a typical mutualistic system – Ficus pumila and its obligate pollinator Wiebesia sp. 1 – in...

Data from: The importance of crown dimensions to improve tropical tree biomass estimates

Rosa C. Goodman, Oliver L. Phillips & Timothy R. Baker
Tropical forests play a vital role in the global carbon cycle, but the amount of carbon they contain and its spatial distribution remain uncertain. Recent studies suggest that once tree height is accounted for in biomass calculations, in addition to diameter and wood density, carbon stock estimates are reduced in many areas. However, it is possible that larger crown sizes might offset the reduction in biomass estimates in some forests where tree heights are lower...

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  • University of Leeds
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  • National Evolutionary Synthesis Center
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  • University of Western Brittany
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